Hierarchy of Relaxation Timescales in Local Random Liouvillians.
Physical review letters
2020; 124 (10): 100604
To characterize the generic behavior of open quantum systems, we consider random, purely dissipative Liouvillians with a notion of locality. We find that the positivity of the map implies a sharp separation of the relaxation timescales according to the locality of observables. Specifically, we analyze a spin-1/2 system of size ℓ with up to n-body Lindblad operators, which are n local in the complexity-theory sense. Without locality (n=ℓ), the complex Liouvillian spectrum densely covers a "lemon"-shaped support, in agreement with recent findings [S. Denisov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 140403 (2019)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.123.140403]. However, for local Liouvillians (n<ℓ), we find that the spectrum is composed of several dense clusters with random matrix spacing statistics, each featuring a lemon-shaped support wherein all eigenvectors correspond to n-body decay modes. This implies a hierarchy of relaxation timescales of n-body observables, which we verify to be robust in the thermodynamic limit. Our findings for n locality generalize immediately to the case of spatial locality, introducing further splitting of timescales due to the additional structure.
View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.100604
View details for PubMedID 32216400