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  • Effect of porosity of a functionally-graded scaffold for the treatment of corticosteroid-associated osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits. Journal of orthopaedic translation Maruyama, M., Pan, C., Moeinzadeh, S., Storaci, H. W., Guzman, R. A., Lui, E., Ueno, M., Utsunomiya, T., Zhang, N., Rhee, C., Yao, Z., Takagi, M., Goodman, S. B., Yang, Y. P. 2021; 28: 90–99

    Abstract

    Background/Objective: Core decompression (CD) with scaffold and cell-based therapies is a promising strategy for providing both mechanical support and regeneration of the osteonecrotic area for early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). We designed a new 3D printed porous functionally-graded scaffold (FGS) with a central channel to facilitate delivery of transplanted cells in a hydrogel to the osteonecrotic area. However, the optimal porous structural design for the FGS for the engineering of bone in ONFH has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to fabricate and evaluate two different porous structures (30% or 60% porosity) of the FGSs in corticosteroid-associated ONFH in rabbits.Methods: Two different FGSs with 30% or 60% porosity containing a 1-mm central channel were 3D printed using polycaprolactone and beta-tricalcium phosphate. The FGS was 3-mm diameter and 32-mm length and was composed of three segments: 1-mm in length for the non-porous proximal segment, 22-mm in length for the porous (30% versus 60%) middle segment, and 9-mm in length for the 15% porous distal segment. Eighteen male New Zealand White rabbits were given a single dose of 20​mg/kg methylprednisolone acetate intramuscularly. Four weeks later, rabbits were divided into three groups: the CD group, the 30% porosity FGS group, and the 60% porosity FGS group. In the CD group, a 3-mm diameter drill hole was created into the left femoral head. In the FGS groups, a 30% or 60% porosity implant was inserted into the bone tunnel. Eight weeks postoperatively, femurs were harvested and microCT, mechanical, and histological analyses were performed.Results: The actual porosity and pore size of the middle segments were 26.4%​±​2.3% and 699​±​56​mum in the 30% porosity FGS, and 56.0%​±​4.5% and 999​±​71​mum in the 60% porosity FGS, respectively using microCT analysis. Bone ingrowth ratio in the 30% porosity FGS group was 73.9%​±​15.8%, which was significantly higher than 39.5%​±​13.0% in the CD group on microCT (p​<​0.05). Bone ingrowth ratio in the 60% porosity FGS group (61.3%​±​30.1%) showed no significant differences compared to the other two groups. The stiffness at the bone tunnel site in the 30% porosity FGS group was 582.4​±​192.3​N/mm3, which was significantly higher than 338.7​±​164.6​N/mm3 in the 60% porosity FGS group during push-out testing (p​<​0.05). Hematoxylin and eosin staining exhibited thick and mature trabecular bone around the porous FGS in the 30% porosity FGS group, whereas thinner, more immature trabecular bone was seen around the porous FGS in the 60% porosity FGS group.Conclusion: These findings indicate that the 30% porosity FGS may enhance bone regeneration and have superior biomechanical properties in the bone tunnel after CD in ONFH, compared to the 60% porosity FGS.Translation potential statement: The translational potential of this article: This FGS implant holds promise for improving outcomes of CD for early stage ONFH.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jot.2021.01.002

    View details for PubMedID 33816112

  • Local anesthetic with sedation is a viable alternative to general anesthesia for lumbar spinal decompressions: A retrospective cohort feasibility study and short-term analysis of outcomes CURRENT ORTHOPAEDIC PRACTICE Ziino, C., Guzman, R. A., Koltsov, J., Montgomery, B. K., McMains, C., Alamin, T. 2020; 31 (3): 252–57
  • Outcomes of Arthroscopic All-Inside Repair Versus Observation in Older Patients With Meniscus Root Tears. The American journal of sports medicine Dragoo, J. L., Konopka, J. A., Guzman, R. A., Segovia, N., Kandil, A., Pappas, G. P. 2020: 363546520909828

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Meniscus root tears lead to de-tensioning of the meniscus, increased contact forces, and cartilage damage. Management of older patients with root tears is controversial and the efficacy of different treatment options is unclear.PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes of patients with moderate knee osteoarthritis who underwent an all-inside meniscus root repair technique versus nonoperative management for either medial or lateral meniscus root tears.STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.METHODS: Patients with a diagnosed posterior meniscus root tear who underwent arthroscopic repair (AR: 30 knees) or nonoperative treatment with observation (O: 18 knees) were followed for a minimum of 2 years (mean follow-up, 4.4 years). The arthroscopic repair included all-inside sutures to reduce the root back to its remnant (reduction sutures), thereby re-tensioning the meniscus, and 1 mattress suture to strengthen the repair by reapproximating the construct to the posterior capsule. The data collected included the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm, Tegner, and Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA).RESULTS: Medial meniscus root tears comprised 80.0% of the AR group and 77.8% of the O group. The average Kellgren-Lawrence grade was 2 in both groups. The baseline scores for the KOOS Symptoms subscale were lower for AR (50.2 ± 19.3) than for O (66.5 ± 16.1) (P = .003), as were the KOOS Knee-Related Quality of Life scores (AR, 26.7 ± 16.1; O, 39.6 ± 22.1) (P = .046). No differences were found between groups for the absolute values at follow-up except that follow-up Tegner scores were lower in the O group than in the AR group (P = .004). Significant improvements were seen in the AR group from baseline to ultimate follow-up in average KOOS subscale scores (P < .001), Lysholm scores (P < .001), Tegner scores (P = .0002), and VR-12 PCS scores (P < .001), whereas the O group had a significant improvement only in average KOOS Pain (P = .003), KOOS Function in Daily Living (P = .006), and VR-12 PCS (P = .038) scores. Compared with the O group, the AR group had a significantly larger improvement from baseline to follow-up in average KOOS Pain (P = .009), KOOS Symptoms (P = .029), and Lysholm scores (P = .016). During follow-up, 3.3% of the AR group underwent a TKA compared with 33.3% of the O group (P = .008). The hazard ratio of TKA conversion was 93.2% lower for the AR group compared with the O group (P = .013).CONCLUSION: All-inside medial or lateral meniscus root repair showed improved functional outcomes and decreased TKA conversion rates compared with nonoperative treatment and may be considered as a treatment option for the management of meniscus root tears in older patients with moderate osteoarthritis.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0363546520909828

    View details for PubMedID 32182103

  • Evaluation of the Consistency and Composition of Commercially Available Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate Systems. Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine Dragoo, J. L., Guzman, R. A. 2020; 8 (1): 2325967119893634

    Abstract

    Bone marrow aspirate (BMA) concentrate (BMAC) has gained popularity as a treatment modality for various orthopaedic conditions; however, there are still inconsistencies in its reported therapeutic efficacy. This may be because of the many different commercial BMAC preparation systems used clinically, which generate dissimilar concentrate products.To compare 3 commercially available BMAC preparation systems: Harvest SmartPrep 3, Biomet BioCUE, and Arthrex Angel. We evaluated the consistency of each of these systems and compared the composition of their concentrate products.Controlled laboratory study.A total of 10 patients donated whole blood and BMA, which were combined and processed with the 3 different BMAC preparation systems. Samples were taken before and after processing for the measurement of white blood cells (WBC), platelets (PLT), CD34+ cells, and colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F). To evaluate consistency, the variances of cell yield and concentration increase from baseline for each cell type were compared between systems. To compare concentrate product composition, differences between the systems' mean cell yield and concentration increase from baseline for each cell type were evaluated.The Harvest system (variance, 0.25) concentrated WBC more consistently than the Arthrex system (variance, 3.25) (P = .024), but no other differences in consistency were noted between the 3 systems. The Harvest system recovered the greatest percentage of CFU-F (82.4% ± 18.2%), CD34+ cells (81.1% ± 28.5%), and WBC (77.3% ± 8.6%), whereas the Biomet system recovered the greatest percentage of PLTs (92.9% ± 27.3%). The Arthrex system concentrated PLT to the greatest degree (11.10 ± 2.05 times baseline), while the Biomet system concentrated WBC to the greatest degree (5.99 ± 1.04 times baseline).The consistency of the 3 systems was similar for all but 1 of the evaluated cell types. However, the composition of the concentrate products differed across systems. This may grant each system unique advantages without having to sacrifice reproducibility.Understanding the consistency of different BMAC preparation systems and their product makeup may aid in determining optimal therapeutic doses of different cell types.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2325967119893634

    View details for PubMedID 32010732

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6970477

  • Evaluation of the Consistency and Composition of Commercially Available Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate Systems ORTHOPAEDIC JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE Dragoo, J. L., Guzman, R. A. 2020; 8 (1)