All Publications

  • Implementation and Evaluation of an Educational Program for Increasing Diversity and Inclusion in Surgery for Preclinical Students. JAMA network open Bryant, T. S., Carroll, A. L., Steinberg, J. R., Marin-Nevarez, P., Anderson, T. N., Merrell, S. B., Lau, J. N. 2020; 3 (9): e2015675

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.15675

    View details for PubMedID 32870310

  • Shared Decision Making in Patients With Suspected Uncomplicated Ureterolithiasis: A Decision Aid Development Study ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE Schoenfeld, E. M., Houghton, C., Patel, P. M., Merwin, L. W., Poronsky, K. P., Caroll, A. L., Sanchez Santana, C., Breslin, M., Scales, C. D., Lindenauer, P. K., Mazor, K. M., Hess, E. P. 2020; 27 (7): 554–65


    The objective was to develop a decision aid (DA) to facilitate shared decision making (SDM) around whether to obtain computed tomography (CT) imaging in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected uncomplicated ureterolithiasis.We used evidence-based DA development methods, including qualitative methods and iterative stakeholder engagement, to develop and refine a DA. Guided by the Ottawa Decision Support Framework, International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS), and a steering committee made up of stakeholders, we conducted interviews and focus groups with a purposive sample of patients, community members, emergency clinicians, and other stakeholders. We used an iterative process to code the transcripts and identify themes. We beta-tested the DA with patient-clinician dyads facing the decision in real time.From August 2018 to August 2019, we engaged 102 participants in the design and iterative refinement of a DA focused on diagnostic options for patients with suspected ureterolithiasis. Forty-six were ED patients, community members, or patients with ureterolithiasis, and the remaining were emergency clinicians (doctors, residents, advanced practitioners), researchers, urologists, nurses, or other physicians. Patients and clinicians identified several key decisional needs including an understanding of accuracy, uncertainty, radiation exposure/cancer risk, and clear return precautions. Patients and community members identified facilitators to SDM, such as a checklist of signs and symptoms. Many stakeholders, including both patients and ED clinicians, expressed a strong pro-CT bias. A six-page DA was developed, iteratively refined, and beta-tested.Using stakeholder engagement and qualitative inquiry, we developed an evidence-based DA to facilitate SDM around the question of CT scan utilization in patients with suspected uncomplicated ureterolithiasis. Future research will test the efficacy of the DA in facilitating SDM.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.13917

    View details for Web of Science ID 000513561300001

    View details for PubMedID 32064724

  • "Making It Work": A Preliminary Mixed Methods Study of Rural Trauma Care Access and Resources in New Mexico. Cureus Carroll, A. L., Garcia, D. n., Cassells, S. J., Bruce, J. S., Bereknyei Merrell, S. n., Schillinger, E. n. 2020; 12 (10): e11143


    Introduction Patients in the rural western United States face challenges accessing trauma and surgical services and are more likely to succumb to their injuries. New Mexico, a rural and medically underresourced state, is a salient space to study these disparities. We examine how travel distance from trauma centers impacts injured patient outcomes and describe care delivery obstacles. Materials and Methods We conducted an explanatory mixed methods study by creating geospatial maps of New Mexico's trauma data, incorporating linear regression analyses on patient outcomes as a function of estimated travel distance from trauma centers. We also conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with trauma providers to illuminate and provide context for the geospatial findings utilizing a systematic, collaborative, iterative transcript analysis process. We constructed a conceptual framework describing rural trauma care delivery obstacles. Results Geospatial analyses revealed that most New Mexicans face long travel times to trauma centers. Comparing regression analyses using different data sources suggests that solely hospital-derived data may undercount rural trauma deaths. Interviews with 10 providers suggest that elements that may contribute to these findings include on-the-ground resource-based challenges and those related to broader healthcare systems-based issues. Our conceptual framework denotes how these elements collectively may impact rural trauma outcomes and proposes potential solutions. Conclusions In addressing rural patients' needs, healthcare policy decision-makers should ensure that their datasets are comprehensive and inclusive. They must also take into account the particular challenges of underserved rural patients and providers who care for them by eliciting their perspectives, as presented in our conceptual framework.

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.11143

    View details for PubMedID 33251053

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7685818

  • Medical Student Values Inform Career Plans in Service & Surgery-A Qualitative Focus Group Analysis. The Journal of surgical research Carroll, A. L., Chan, A. n., Steinberg, J. R., Bryant, T. S., Marin-Nevarez, P. n., Anderson, T. N., Bereknyei Merrell, S. n., Lau, J. N. 2020; 256: 636–44


    Diversifying the surgical workforce is a critical component of improving care for underserved patients. To recruit surgeons from diverse backgrounds, we must understand how medical students choose their specialty. We investigate how preclinical students contemplate entering a surgical field.We conducted semistructured focus groups during two iterations of a seminar class called Service Through Surgery. Discussion goals included identifying student values and assessing how they inform early career decisions. We used a systematic, collaborative, and iterative process for transcript analysis, including developing a codebook, assessing inter-rater reliability, and analyzing themes.Twenty-four preclinical medical students from diverse backgrounds participated in seven focus groups; most were women (16; 67%), in their first year of medical school (19; 79%), and interested in surgery (17; 71%). Participants ranked professional fulfillment, spending time with family, and serving their communities and/or underserved populations among their most important values and agreed that conducting groundbreaking research, working long hours, and finding time for leisure activities were the least important. We constructed a framework to describe student responses surrounding their diverse visions for service in future surgical careers through individual doctoring interactions, roles in academia, and broader public service.Our framework provides a basis for greater understanding and study of the ways in which preclinical medical students think about their personal values and visions for service in potential future surgical careers. This research can guide early interventions in medical education to promote diversity and care for the underserved in surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2020.07.030

    View details for PubMedID 32810664

  • Extending the working life of toluene diisocyanate-based polyurethanes JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE Reardon, S., Carroll, A. L., Dumont, J. H., Park, C., Lee, K., Labouriau, A. 2019; 136 (33)

    View details for DOI 10.1002/app.47865

    View details for Web of Science ID 000468820800017

  • Service through surgery: A quasi-experimental comparison study on the impact of a preclinical seminar course on diverse mentorship and attitudes towards the underserved. American journal of surgery Steinberg, J. R., Bryant, T. S., Carroll, A. L., Marin-Nevarez, P. n., Lee, E. W., Anderson, T. N., Merrell, S. B., Lau, J. N. 2019


    Increased surgical workforce diversity diminishes health disparities.Researchers recruited and nonrandomly enrolled participants into intervention and comparison groups for a quasi-experimental study of the impact of a seminar course on student exposure to diverse mentorship and service through surgery. All metrics were analyzed with chi-squared and paired t-tests.109 students participated (34 intervention, 75 comparison). There were significant differences in the percentage of participants that newly met a surgeon of their race (intervention, comparison: 100%, 25%), their race and gender (80%, 21%), their religion (23%, 9%), and who completed health disparities research (90%, 45%, p-value for all <0.05). There was a nonsignificant change in participants' attitudes towards underserved populations in intervention and comparison groups.This preclinical surgery seminar course increased exposure of underrepresented students to surgeons from diverse backgrounds and may impact student attitudes towards the underserved. This class represents a replicable model for increasing mentorship.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.07.031

    View details for PubMedID 31376950

  • Fabrication, chemical modification, and topographical patterning of reactive gels assembled from azlactone-functionalized polymers and a diamine JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE PART A-POLYMER CHEMISTRY Wancura, M. M., Anex-Ries, Q., Carroll, A. L., Garcia, A., Hindocha, P., Buck, M. E. 2017; 55 (19): 3185–94

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pola.28664

    View details for Web of Science ID 000407851200004