Time-resolved correspondences between deep neural network layers and EEG measurements in object processing.
2020; 172: 27–45
The ventral visual stream is known to be organized hierarchically, where early visual areas processing simplistic features feed into higher visual areas processing more complex features. Hierarchical convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were largely inspired by this type of brain organization and have been successfully used to model neural responses in different areas of the visual system. In this work, we aim to understand how an instance of these models corresponds to temporal dynamics of human object processing. Using representational similarity analysis (RSA) and various similarity metrics, we compare the model representations with two electroencephalography (EEG) data sets containing responses to a shared set of 72 images. We find that there is a hierarchical relationship between the depth of a layer and the time at which peak correlation with the brain response occurs for certain similarity metrics in both data sets. However, when comparing across layers in the neural network, the correlation onset time did not appear in a strictly hierarchical fashion. We present two additional methods that improve upon the achieved correlations by optimally weighting features from the CNN and show that depending on the similarity metric, deeper layers of the CNN provide a better correspondence than shallow layers to later time points in the EEG responses. However, we do not find that shallow layers provide better correspondences than those of deeper layers to early time points, an observation that violates the hierarchy and is in agreement with the finding from the onset-time analysis. This work makes a first comparison of various response features-including multiple similarity metrics and data sets-with respect to a neural network.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.visres.2020.04.005
View details for PubMedID 32388211