Professional Education

  • Doctor of Medicine, Saarland University (2015)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • A multivariable miRNA signature delineates the systemic hemodynamic impact of arteriovenous shunt placement in a pilot study. Scientific reports Henn, D., Abu-Halima, M., Kahraman, M., Falkner, F., Fischer, K. S., Barrera, J. A., Chen, K., Gurtner, G. C., Keller, A., Kneser, U., Meese, E., Schmidt, V. J. 2020; 10 (1): 21809


    Arteriovenous (AV) fistulas for hemodialysis can lead to cardiac volume loading and increased serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. Whether short-term AV loop placement in patients undergoing microsurgery has an impact on cardiac biomarkers and circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), potentially indicating an increased hemodynamic risk, remains elusive. Fifteen patients underwent AV loop placement with delayed free flap anastomosis for microsurgical reconstructions of lower extremity soft-tissue defects. N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP), copeptin (CT-proAVP), and miRNA expression profiles were determined in the peripheral blood before and after AV loop placement. MiRNA expression in the blood was correlated with miRNA expression from AV loop vascular tissue. Serum NT-proBNP and copeptin levels exceeded the upper reference limit after AV loop placement, with an especially strong NT-proBNP increase in patients with preexistent cardiac diseases. A miRNA signature of 4 up-regulated (miR-3198, miR-3127-5p, miR-1305, miR-1288-3p) and 2 down-regulated miRNAs (miR30a-5p, miR-145-5p) which are related to cardiovascular physiology, showed a significant systemic deregulation in blood and venous tissue after AV loop placement. AV loop placement causes serum elevations of NT-proBNP, copeptin as well as specific circulating miRNAs, indicating a potentially increased hemodynamic risk for patients with cardiovascular comorbidities, if free flap anastomosis is delayed.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-78905-y

    View details for PubMedID 33311598

  • Ectoderm-Derived Wnt and Hedgehog Signaling Drive Digit Tip Regeneration Barrera, J., Maan, Z. N., Foster, D., Henn, D., Chen, K., Bonham, C., Januszyk, M., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I., Gurtner, G. C. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S186
  • Postoperative Complication Rates after Combined Breast and Gynecologic Surgeries Rizk, N., Henn, D., Lee, G., Nazerali, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S39–S40
  • Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Uncovers Antifibrotic Subpopulations of Macrophages in the Cellular Response to Skin Xenografts Henn, D., Chen, K., Maan, Z., Illouz, S., Bonham, C. A., Barrera, J. A., Momeni, A., Wan, D. C., Januszyk, M., Gurtner, G. C. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S232
  • Dysregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Does Not Depend on Hemodynamic Alterations in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Aortopathy. Journal of the American Heart Association Gauer, S., Balint, B., Kollmann, C., Federspiel, J. M., Henn, D., Bandner-Risch, D., Schmied, W., Schafers, H. 2020: e016471


    Background Bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) predispose to ascending aortic aneurysm. Turbulent blood flow and genetic factors have been proposed as underlying mechanisms. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been implicated in BAV aortopathy, and its expression is regulated by wall shear stress. We hypothesized that if turbulent flow induces aneurysm formation in patients with a BAV, regional differences in eNOS expression would be observed in BAVs. Methods and Results Ascending aortic specimens were harvested intraoperatively from 48 patients with tricuspid aortic valve (19 dilated, 29 nondilated) and 38 with BAV (28 dilated, 10 nondilated) undergoing cardiac surgery. eNOS mRNA and protein concentration were analyzed at the convex and concave aortic wall. In nondilated aortas, eNOS mRNA and protein concentration were decreased in BAV compared with tricuspid aortic valve (all P<0.05). eNOS expression was increased in association with dilation in BAV aortas (P=0.03), but not in tricuspid aortic valve aortas (P=0.63). There were no regional differences in eNOS mRNA or protein concentration in BAV aortas (all P>0.05). However, eNOS expression was increased at the concave wall (versus convexity) in tricuspid aortic valve dilated aortas (all P<0.05). Conclusions Dysregulated eNOS occurs independent of dilation in BAV aortas, suggesting a potential role for aberrantly regulated eNOS expression in the development of BAV-associated aneurysms. The absence of regional variations of eNOS expression suggests that eNOS dysregulation in BAV aortas is the result of underlying genetic factors associated with BAV disease, rather than changes stimulated by hemodynamic alterations. These findings provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of aortic dilation in patients with a BAV.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.120.016471

    View details for PubMedID 32873108

  • Characterization of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Foot Ulcers Using Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing. Micromachines Januszyk, M., Chen, K., Henn, D., Foster, D. S., Borrelli, M. R., Bonham, C. A., Sivaraj, D., Wagh, D., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C., Gurtner, G. C. 2020; 11 (9)


    Background: Recent advances in high-throughput single-cell sequencing technologies have led to their increasingly widespread adoption for clinical applications. However, challenges associated with tissue viability, cell yield, and delayed time-to-capture have created unique obstacles for data processing. Chronic wounds, in particular, represent some of the most difficult target specimens, due to the significant amount of fibrinous debris, extracellular matrix components, and non-viable cells inherent in tissue routinely obtained from debridement. Methods: Here, we examined the feasibility of single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis to evaluate human chronic wound samples acquired in the clinic, subjected to prolonged cold ischemia time, and processed without FACS sorting. Wound tissue from human diabetic and non-diabetic plantar foot ulcers were evaluated using an optimized 10X Genomics scRNA-seq platform and analyzed using a modified data pipeline designed for low-yield specimens. Cell subtypes were identified informatically and their distributions and transcriptional programs were compared between diabetic and non-diabetic tissue. Results: 139,000 diabetic and non-diabetic wound cells were delivered for 10X capture after either 90 or 180 min of cold ischemia time. cDNA library concentrations were 858.7 and 364.7 pg/L, respectively, prior to sequencing. Among all barcoded fragments, we found that 83.5% successfully aligned to the human transcriptome and 68% met the minimum cell viability threshold. The average mitochondrial mRNA fraction was 8.5% for diabetic cells and 6.6% for non-diabetic cells, correlating with differences in cold ischemia time. A total of 384 individual cells were of sufficient quality for subsequent analyses; from this cell pool, we identified transcriptionally-distinct cell clusters whose gene expression profiles corresponded to fibroblasts, keratinocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and endothelial cells. Fibroblast subpopulations with differing fibrotic potentials were identified, and their distributions were found to be altered in diabetic vs. non-diabetic cells. Conclusions: scRNA-seq of clinical wound samples can be achieved using minor modifications to standard processing protocols and data analysis methods. This simple approach can capture widespread transcriptional differences between diabetic and non-diabetic tissue obtained from matched wound locations.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/mi11090815

    View details for PubMedID 32872278

  • Inhibiting mechanotransduction signaling changes fibroblast heterogeneity and promotes tissue regeneration in healing wounds Chen, K., Kwon, S., Henn, D., Kuehlmann, B. A., Bonham, C. A., Padmanabhan, J., Noishiki, C., Barrera, J., Longaker, M. T., Januszyk, M., Gurtner, G. C. WILEY. 2020: S12–S13
  • Flexible smart bandage for wireless wound healing Trotsyuk, A. A., Jiang, Y., Niu, S., Larson, M., Beard, E., Saberi, A., Henn, D., Kwon, S., Bonham, C., Chen, K., Januszyk, M., Maan, Z., Barrera, J., Padmanabhan, J., Fischer, K. S., Bao, Z., Gurtner, G. C. WILEY. 2020: S24
  • Digit tip regeneration relies on germ layer restricted Wnt and Hedgehog signaling Barrera, J., Maan, Z., Rinkevich, Y., Henn, D., Chen, K., Bonham, C. A., Padmanabhan, J., Januszyk, M., Weissman, I. L., Gurtner, G. C. WILEY. 2020: S5
  • Human cryopreserved skingrafts recruit M2-macrophages and induce angiogenesis in a murine xenograft model Henn, D., Chen, K., Maan, Z. N., Illouz, S., Bonham, C. A., Fischer, K. S., Padmanabhan, J., Barrera, J. A., Wan, D. C., Januszyk, M., Gurtner, G. C. WILEY. 2020: S62–S63
  • Inhibiting mechanotransduction signaling changes fibroblast heterogeneity and promotes tissue regeneration in healing wounds Chen, K., Kwon, S., Henn, D., Kuehlmann, B. A., Bonham, C. A., Padmanabhan, J., Noishiki, C., Barrera, J., Longaker, M. T., Januszyk, M., Gurtner, G. C. WILEY. 2020: S13–S14
  • Tissue Engineering of Axially Vascularized Soft-Tissue Flaps with a Poly-(e-Caprolactone) Nanofiber-Hydrogel Composite ADVANCES IN WOUND CARE Henn, D., Chen, K., Fischer, K., Rauh, A., Barrera, J. A., Kim, Y., Martin, R., Hannig, M., Niedoba, P., Reddy, S., Mao, H., Kneser, U., Gurtner, G., Sacks, J. M., Schmidt, V. J. 2020
  • Tissue Engineering of Axially Vascularized Soft-Tissue Flaps with a Poly-(ɛ-Caprolactone) Nanofiber-Hydrogel Composite. Advances in wound care Henn, D. n., Chen, K. n., Fischer, K. n., Rauh, A. n., Barrera, J. A., Kim, Y. J., Martin, R. A., Hannig, M. n., Niedoba, P. n., Reddy, S. K., Mao, H. Q., Kneser, U. n., Gurtner, G. C., Sacks, J. M., Schmidt, V. J. 2020; 9 (7): 365–77


    Objective: To develop a novel approach for tissue engineering of soft-tissue flaps suitable for free microsurgical transfer, using an injectable nanofiber hydrogel composite (NHC) vascularized by an arteriovenous (AV) loop. Approach: A rat AV loop model was used for tissue engineering of vascularized soft-tissue flaps. NHC or collagen-elastin (CE) scaffolds were implanted into isolation chambers together with an AV loop and explanted after 15 days. Saphenous veins were implanted into the scaffolds as controls. Neoangiogenesis, ultrastructure, and protein expression of SYNJ2BP, EPHA2, and FOXC1 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and compared between the groups. Rheological properties were compared between the two scaffolds and native human adipose tissue. Results: A functional neovascularization was evident in NHC flaps with its amount being comparable with CE flaps. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a strong mononuclear cell infiltration along the nanofibers in NHC flaps and a trend toward higher fiber alignment compared with CE flaps. SYNJ2BP and EPHA2 expression in endothelial cells (ECs) was lower in NHC flaps compared with CE flaps, whereas FOXC1 expression was increased in NHC flaps. Compared with the stiffer CE flaps, the NHC flaps showed similar rheological properties to native human adipose tissue. Innovation: This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of tissue engineering of soft-tissue flaps with similar rheological properties as human fat, suitable for microsurgical transfer using an injectable nanofiber hydrogel composite. Conclusions: The injectable NHC scaffold is suitable for tissue engineering of axially vascularized soft-tissue flaps with a solid neovascularization, strong cellular infiltration, and biomechanical properties similar to human fat. Our data indicate that SYNJ2BP, EPHA2, and FOXC1 are involved in AV loop-associated angiogenesis and that the scaffold material has an impact on protein expression in ECs.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/wound.2019.0975

    View details for PubMedID 32587789

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7307685

  • Current and Emerging Topical Scar Mitigation Therapies for Craniofacial Burn Wound Healing. Frontiers in physiology Kwon, S. H., Barrera, J. A., Noishiki, C. n., Chen, K. n., Henn, D. n., Sheckter, C. C., Gurtner, G. C. 2020; 11: 916


    Burn injury in the craniofacial region causes significant health and psychosocial consequences and presents unique reconstructive challenges. Healing of severely burned skin and underlying soft tissue is a dynamic process involving many pathophysiological factors, often leading to devastating outcomes such as the formation of hypertrophic scars and debilitating contractures. There are limited treatment options currently used for post-burn scar mitigation but recent advances in our knowledge of the cellular and molecular wound and scar pathophysiology have allowed for development of new treatment concepts. Clinical effectiveness of these experimental therapies is currently being evaluated. In this review, we discuss current topical therapies for craniofacial burn injuries and emerging new therapeutic concepts that are highly translational.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fphys.2020.00916

    View details for PubMedID 32848859

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7403506

  • A standardized patient education class as a vehicle to improving shared decision-making and increasing access to breast reconstruction. Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS Henn, D. n., Momeni, A. n. 2020


    Shared decision-making is a key component of patient-centered care and has been shown to improve patient satisfaction and quality of life. Herein, we study the impact of a standardized patient education class for prospective breast reconstruction patients on clinic efficiency, access to care, and perception on shared decision-making.The number of new patient consultations per clinic, as well as average duration of the first individual clinic encounter, was compared before and after the introduction of a standardized education class given by the senior author to all new breast reconstruction patients. To evaluate patients' perception of shared decision-making, the 9-item Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q9) and the Satisfaction with Information scale of the BREAST-Q Reconstruction Module were electronically distributed among the patients and compared between the two groups.Introduction of the patient education class was associated with a significant reduction in the duration of new patient encounters compared to historic controls (31.8 min vs. 53.5 min, p < 0.01) along with permitting a 43% increase in new patient visits. No differences in self-perceived patient education and autonomy were seen between class participants and historic controls in the SDM-Q9 scores (p = 0.58) and BREAST-Q scores (p = 0.14).The introducing a standardized patient education class translated into a significant reduction in the duration of individual new patient encounters, thereby increasing patient access to care, while maintaining high-quality standards of self-perceived patient education and shared decision-making.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2020.02.032

    View details for PubMedID 32241738

  • Cryopreserved human skin allografts promote angiogenesis and dermal regeneration in a murine model. International wound journal Henn, D. n., Chen, K. n., Maan, Z. N., Greco, A. H., Moortgat Illouz, S. E., Bonham, C. A., Barrera, J. A., Trotsyuk, A. A., Padmanabhan, J. n., Momeni, A. n., Wan, D. C., Nguyen, D. n., Januszyk, M. n., Gurtner, G. C. 2020


    Cryopreserved human skin allografts (CHSAs) are used for the coverage of major burns when donor sites for autografts are insufficiently available and have clinically shown beneficial effects on chronic non-healing wounds. However, the biologic mechanisms behind the regenerative properties of CHSA remain elusive. Furthermore, the impact of cryopreservation on the immunogenicity of CHSA has not been thoroughly investigated and raised concerns with regard to their clinical application. To investigate the importance and fate of living cells, we compared cryopreserved CHSA with human acellular dermal matrix (ADM) grafts in which living cells had been removed by chemical processing. Both grafts were subcutaneously implanted into C57BL/6 mice and explanted after 1, 3, 7, and 28 days (n = 5 per group). A sham surgery where no graft was implanted served as a control. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and flow cytometry were used to characterise the ultrastructure and cells within CHSA before implantation. Immunofluorescent staining of tissue sections was used to determine the immune reaction against the implanted grafts, the rate of apoptotic cells, and vascularisation as well as collagen content of the overlaying murine dermis. Digital quantification of collagen fibre alignment on tissue sections was used to quantify the degree of fibrosis within the murine dermis. A substantial population of live human cells with intact organelles was identified in CHSA prior to implantation. Subcutaneous pockets with implanted xenografts or ADMs healed without clinically apparent rejection and with a similar cellular immune response. CHSA implantation largely preserved the cellularity of the overlying murine dermis, whereas ADM was associated with a significantly higher rate of cellular apoptosis, identified by cleaved caspase-3 staining, and a stronger dendritic cell infiltration of the murine dermis. CHSA was found to induce a local angiogenic response, leading to significantly more vascularisation of the murine dermis compared with ADM and sham surgery on day 7. By day 28, aggregate collagen-1 content within the murine dermis was greater following CHSA implantation compared with ADM. Collagen fibre alignment of the murine dermis, correlating with the degree of fibrosis, was significantly greater in the ADM group, whereas CHSA maintained the characteristic basket weave pattern of the native murine dermis. Our data indicate that CHSAs promote angiogenesis and collagen-1 production without eliciting a significant fibrotic response in a xenograft model. These findings may provide insight into the beneficial effects clinically observed after treatment of chronic wounds and burns with CHSA.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/iwj.13349

    View details for PubMedID 32227459

  • Up-Regulation of Angiopoetic Signaling and Markers of Cardiopathy after Arteriovenous Loop Placement in Patients with Microsurgical Lower Extremity Reconstructions Henn, D., Abu-Halima, M., Kahraman, M., Falkner, F., Keller, A., Kneser, U., Meese, E., Schmidt, V. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: S232–S233
  • One-Stage vs Two-Stage Arteriovenous Loop Reconstructions: Different Indications, Similar Outcomes Henn, D., Waehmann, M. T., Horsch, M., Gazyakan, E., Hirche, C., Schmidt, V. J., Germann, G., Kneser, U. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: S226
  • Health-Related Quality of Life After Ventral Hernia Repair With Biologic and Synthetic Mesh Nissen, A. T., Henn, D., Moshrefi, S., Gupta, D., Nazerali, R., Lee, G. K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2019: S332–S338


    Quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome measure after ventral hernia repair (VHR). The Hernia-Related QOL Survey (HerQLes) is a specific survey tool for QOL after VHR. Studies comparing QOL in patients with biologic mesh repairs (BMRs) and synthetic mesh repairs (SMRs) are lacking.A survey based on the HerQLes was administered via e-mail to 974 patients who had undergone VHR at Stanford Medical Center. From 175 patients who were included in the study, the mean HerQLes scores and postoperative complications were compared between patients with suture repairs (SR), BMR, SMR, with and without component separation, and different types of SMR.Quality of life was lower in patients with hernias of 50 cm or greater, obesity, history of tobacco use, previous abdominal surgeries, hernia recurrences, and postoperative complications (P < 0.05). Patients with SR and SMR had a comparable QOL (71.58 vs 70.12, P = 0.75). In patients with Modified Ventral Hernia Working Group grade 2 hernias, a significantly lower QOL was found after BMR compared with SMR. Postoperative complications did not significantly differ between the groups. Recurrence rates were comparable between MR (10.4%) and SR (8.3%, P = 0.79), but higher in BMR (21.7%) compared with SMR (6.6%, P < 0.05).Previous abdominal surgeries, previous hernia repairs, tobacco use, and hernia sizes of 50 cm or greater negatively affect QOL after VHR. Our data indicate that QOL is comparable between patients with SMR and SR, however, is lower in patients with Modified Ventral Hernia Working Group grade 2 and BMR compared with SMR, raising the benefit of BMR in light of its higher cost into question.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001768

    View details for Web of Science ID 000473280700012

    View details for PubMedID 30633027

  • MicroRNA-regulated pathways of flow-stimulated angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in vivo. Journal of translational medicine Henn, D. n., Abu-Halima, M. n., Wermke, D. n., Falkner, F. n., Thomas, B. n., Köpple, C. n., Ludwig, N. n., Schulte, M. n., Brockmann, M. A., Kim, Y. J., Sacks, J. M., Kneser, U. n., Keller, A. n., Meese, E. n., Schmidt, V. J. 2019; 17 (1): 22


    Vascular shear stress promotes endothelial cell sprouting in vitro. The impact of hemodynamic forces on microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression within growing vascular networks in vivo, however, remain poorly investigated. Arteriovenous (AV) shunts are an established model for induction of neoangiogenesis in vivo and can serve as a tool for analysis of hemodynamic effects on miRNA and gene expression profiles over time.AV shunts were microsurgically created in rats and explanted on postoperative days 5, 10 and 15. Neoangiogenesis was confirmed by histologic analysis and micro-computed tomography. MiRNA and gene expression profiles were determined in tissue specimens from AV shunts by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and compared with sham-operated veins by bioinformatics analysis. Changes in protein expression within AV shunt endothelial cells were determined by immunohistochemistry.Samples from AV shunts exhibited a strong overexpression of proangiogenic cytokines, oxygenation-associated genes (HIF1A, HMOX1), and angiopoetic growth factors. Significant inverse correlations of the expressions of miR-223-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-19b-3p, miR-449a-5p, and miR-511-3p which were up-regulated in AV shunts, and miR-27b-3p, miR-10b-5p, let-7b-5p, and let-7c-5p, which were down-regulated in AV shunts, with their predicted interacting targets C-X-C chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A), ephrin receptor kinase 2 (EPHA2), synaptojanin-2 binding protein (SYNJ2BP), forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) were present. CXCL2 and IL1A overexpression in AV shunt endothelium was confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemistry.Our data indicate that flow-stimulated angiogenesis is determined by an upregulation of cytokines, oxygenation associated genes and miRNA-dependent regulation of FOXC1, EPHA2 and SYNJ2BP.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12967-019-1767-9

    View details for PubMedID 30635008

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6330440

  • Micro-RNA signatures in monozygotic twins discordant for congenital heart defects. PloS one Abu-Halima, M. n., Weidinger, J. n., Poryo, M. n., Henn, D. n., Keller, A. n., Meese, E. n., Abdul-Khaliq, H. n. 2019; 14 (12): e0226164


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. Recent studies demonstrated that miRNAs are involved in the development of congenital heart defects (CHD). In this study, we aimed at identifying the specific patterns of miRNAs in blood of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for CHD and to assess whether miRNAs might be involved in the development or reflect the consequences of CHD.miRNA microarray analysis and Real-Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were employed to determine the miRNA abundance level from 12 monozygotic twins discordant for CHD and their non-CHD co-twins (n = 12). Enrichment analyses of altered miRNAs were performed using bioinformatics tools.Compared with non-CHD co-twins, profiling analysis indicated 34 miRNAs with a significant difference in abundance level (p<0.05, fold change ≥ 1.3), of which 11 miRNAs were up-regulated and 23 miRNAs were down-regulated. Seven miRNAs were validated with RT-qPCR including miR-511-3p, miR-1306-5p, miR-421, miR-4707-3p, miR-4732-3p, miR-5189-3p, and miR-890, and the results were consistent with microarray analysis. Five miRNAs namely miR-511-3p, miR-1306-5p, miR-4732-3p, miR-5189-3p, and miR-890 were found to be significantly up-regulated in twins < 10 years old. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the 7 validated miRNAs were involved in phosphatidylinositol signaling, gap junction signaling, and adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes.Our data show deregulated miRNA abundance levels in the peripheral blood of monozygotic twins discordant for CHD, and identify new candidates for further analysis, which may contribute to understanding the development of CHD in the future. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the target genes of these miRNAs are likely involved in signaling and communication of cardiomyocytes.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0226164

    View details for PubMedID 31805172

  • Geriatric Patients with Free Flap Reconstruction: A Comparative Clinical Analysis of 256 Cases. Journal of reconstructive microsurgery Wähmann, M. n., Wähmann, M. n., Henn, D. n., Xiong, L. n., Hirche, C. n., Harhaus, L. n., Kneser, U. n., Kremer, T. n. 2019


     In elderly patients, complex soft tissue defects are increasingly observed due to the prolonged life expectancy and accompanying comorbidities. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether free tissue transfer is safe in very old patients without additional risk and complications. All patients older than 65 years undergoing free tissue transfer between November 2007 and September 2016 were reviewed in a retrospective study. Two cohorts were compared regarding perioperative morbidity and postoperative outcome (cohort 1 [old patients, ages 65-79]; cohort 2 [very old patients, ages ≥ 80]). In total, 256 patients were included in the study (cohort 1 [n = 217]; cohort 2 [n = 39]). Overall, 262 free flaps were performed due to a second microsurgical reconstruction in six cases. No statistically significant differences between cohorts were observed regarding surgical complications, total flap losses, and mortality. Detailed evaluation of cohort 2 revealed a significant learning curve during the observation period regarding the perioperative management and procedure of soft tissue reconstruction: operation length as well as postoperative intensive care unit stay decreased significantly over time (p < 0.05) and also surgical complications showed a positive trend (p = 0.07). We ascertained a shift toward a "more reliable" flap selection from predominantly anterolateral thigh flap) to axial flaps such as rectus abdominis and latissimus dorsi flaps. Our study showed that age is not associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications. Reliable muscle free flaps, two-stage procedures, and safe vascular supply are important strategic aspects to achieve microvascular tissue transfer with high success rates in geriatric patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0039-1697646

    View details for PubMedID 31546263

  • Continuous Video-Rate Laser Speckle Imaging for Intra- and Postoperative Cutaneous Perfusion Imaging of Free Flaps. Journal of reconstructive microsurgery Rauh, A. n., Henn, D. n., Nagel, S. S., Bigdeli, A. K., Kneser, U. n., Hirche, C. n. 2019; 35 (7): 489–98


     Success of free tissue transfer depends on standardized intraoperative flap design, microsurgical technique, and postoperative monitoring. We sought to investigate whether laser speckle imaging (LSI) is suitable for optimization of intraoperative flap design and postoperative monitoring of free flaps with skin paddles. Skin perfusion was assessed with LSI in 27 free flaps after dissection at the donor site, after anastomosis at the recipient site, after inset and on postoperative days (POD) 1, 5, and 10. Skin perfusion of the whole flap (ROI [region of interest]-1) and the area over the pedicle (ROI-2) were compared between patients with and without postoperative complications (POC+ and POC - , respectively). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff for perfusion during LSI-guided microsurgery. In flaps without or only minor POC, intraoperatively measured perfusion over ROI-2 was significantly higher compared with ROI-1, whereas no significant differences were found for flaps with major POC. Perfusion of ROI-1 and 2 intraoperatively and on POD 1 was significantly lower in the POC+ compared with the POC- group (p < 0.05). ROC analysis yielded a threshold of 107 perfusion units (PU) at ROI-2 with an area under the curve (AUC) of > 0.8 for identification of flaps with major POC. LSI is an easy to use, noninvasive technique for identification of malperfused areas in free flaps, thus allowing for intraoperative decision-making on flap dimensions and postoperative monitoring. LSI therefore is a valuable tool for perfusion assessment with a high potential to become an established part of microsurgical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0039-1681076

    View details for PubMedID 30836411

  • A 3D Morphometrical Evaluation of Brow Position After Standardized Botulinum Toxin A Treatment of the Forehead and Glabella. Aesthetic surgery journal Schlager, S. n., Kostunov, J. n., Henn, D. n., Stark, B. G., Iblher, N. n. 2019; 39 (5): 553–64


    Botulinum toxin treatment for forehead wrinkles has been extensively studied and found to be a safe and reproducible procedure. However, the effect on the position of the eyebrows, which relies on the dynamic positioning of the treated muscles, has received less attention and has not been studied with 3-dimensional (3D) technology.The authors sought to evaluate the changes of eyebrow position after standardized botulinum toxin treatment of glabella or glabella and frontalis muscles with 3D imaging.In a prospective study, 2 groups of adult females were treated with botulinum toxin A at the glabella only (G) or at the glabella and the frontalis muscle (F/G). The brow position was measured at 5 positions with 3D photography before injection and 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after injection. Results were statistically analyzed and related to patient age.In the F/G group, the brow descended significantly almost across the whole brow length after 2 weeks. The descent lessened after 3 months and moved medially. No clear trend was evident in the G group. There was no significant change attributed to patient age in both groups.Botulinum toxin treatment of the glabella and frontalis muscle impacts the position and configuration of the eyebrow. The degree of change is affected by the amount of frontalis weakening rather than by treatment of the glabella. While age in general is not a reliable predictor, individual factors play the major role in how pronounced a change of the brow can be expected.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/asj/sjy205

    View details for PubMedID 30124769

  • One-Stage versus Two-Stage Arteriovenous Loop Reconstructions: An Experience on 103 Cases from a Single Center. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Henn, D. n., Wähmann, M. S., Horsch, M. n., Hetjens, S. n., Kremer, T. n., Gazyakan, E. n., Hirche, C. n., Schmidt, V. J., Germann, G. n., Kneser, U. n. 2019; 143 (3): 912–24


    The optimal time for flap anastomosis to an arteriovenous loop remains controversial. Whether perforator flaps and axially vascularized muscle or fasciocutaneous flaps lead to comparable outcomes in conjunction with arteriovenous loops has not been investigated.Medical records from 103 patients undergoing arteriovenous loop reconstruction (76 one-stage and 27 two-stage) between 2007 and 2017 were reviewed. Postoperative outcomes were compared between one- and two-stage arteriovenous loop reconstructions and different types of free flaps.Rates of flap thrombosis, major wound complications, and flap failure did not differ significantly between one- and two-stage arteriovenous loop reconstructions (14.47 percent versus 11.11 percent, p = 1.00; 30.26 percent versus 25.93 percent, p = 0.67; and 10.53 percent versus 7.41 percent, p = 1.00). For two-stage arteriovenous loop reconstructions, the time interval between arteriovenous loop placement and flap anastomosis was a predictor for thrombotic events (OR, 1.31; p < 0.05). Anterolateral thigh flaps in conjunction with arteriovenous loops showed higher failure rates (33.33 percent) compared with all other flaps (6.59 percent) (p < 0.05) and combined latissimus dorsi and parascapular flaps (0 percent) (p < 0.05). Thrombosis rates were higher in anterolateral thigh flaps (33.33 percent) compared with all other flaps (10.99 percent; p = 0.056), and combined latissimus dorsi and parascapular flaps (0 percent; p < 0.05).Two-stage arteriovenous loop reconstructions do not lead to increased postoperative complications compared to one-stage arteriovenous loop reconstructions and may be favorable in complicated cases because of shorter operative times. To avoid an increased thrombosis risk, flap anastomosis should not be delayed beyond 10 days in two-stage arteriovenous loop reconstructions. Anterolateral thigh flaps are less suitable for arteriovenous loop reconstructions because of higher complication rates.Therapeutic, III.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000005386

    View details for PubMedID 30624338

  • Venous bypass grafts versus arteriovenous loops as recipient vessels for microvascular anastomosis in lower extremity reconstructions: A matched-pair analysis. Microsurgery Henn, D. n., Bigdeli, A. K., Horsch, M. n., Weiß, C. n., Kühner, C. n., Hirche, C. n., Schmidt, V. J., Kneser, U. n. 2019


    Limb salvage in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and soft tissue defects often requires both a restoration of blood flow to the lower extremity and soft tissue coverage. Outcomes of free tissue transfer may be affected by vein grafts, which can be used for the placement of an autologous venous bypass or an arteriovenous (AV) loop leading to different hemodynamic situations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether free flap anastomosis to a bypass or an AV loop can be performed with comparable results.We performed a matched-pair analysis of 22 patients with PVD undergoing free flap reconstructions of the lower extremity with end-to-side anastomosis to an autologous venous bypass (n = 11, 1 female and 10 male patients) or an AV loop (n = 11, 2 female and 9 male patients). Defects caused by trauma, infection, ulcer, or fasciotomy were reconstructed in each group with 5 muscle-based flaps, 3 parascapular flaps, 2 anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps, and 1 conjoined latissimus dorsi and parascapular flap. Postoperative complications including thromboses, flap failures, wound complications, and hematomas were compared.Postoperative complication rates including 1 venous pedicle thrombosis (9%vs. 0%, P = 1.0), minor (18% vs. 9%, P = 1.0) and major wound complications (45% vs. 27%, P = .69) as well as hematomas (27% vs. 36%, P = 1.0) did not show relevant differences between the groups. Flap failures were absent in both groups.In patients with PVD, autologous venous bypass grafts may be used for end-to-side anastomoses of free flaps, with postoperative outcomes being comparable to AV loop reconstructions.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.30428

    View details for PubMedID 30677162

  • Therapeutic options and postoperative wound complications after extremity soft tissue sarcoma resection and postoperative external beam radiotherapy. International wound journal Abouarab, M. H., Salem, I. L., Degheidy, M. M., Henn, D. n., Hirche, C. n., Eweida, A. n., Uhl, M. n., Kneser, U. n., Kremer, T. n. 2018; 15 (1): 148–58


    Soft tissue sarcomas occur most commonly in the lower and upper extremities. The standard treatment is limb salvage surgery combined with radiotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy is associated with wound complications. This systematic review aims to summarise the available evidence and review the literature of the last 10 years regarding postoperative wound complications in patients who had limb salvage surgical excision followed by direct closure vs flap coverage together with postoperative radiotherapy and to define the optimal timeframe for adjuvant radiotherapy after soft tissue sarcomas resection and flap reconstruction. A literature search was performed using PubMed. The following keywords were searched: limb salvage, limb-sparing, flaps, radiation therapy, radiation, irradiation, adjuvant radiotherapy, postoperative radiotherapy, radiation effects, wound healing, surgical wound infection, surgical wound dehiscence, wound healing, soft tissue sarcoma and neoplasms. In total, 1045 papers were retrieved. Thirty-seven articles were finally selected after screening of abstracts and applying dates and language filters and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Plastic surgery provides a vast number of reconstructive flap procedures that are directly linked to decreasing wound complications, especially with the expectant postoperative radiotherapy. This adjuvant radiotherapy is better administered in the first 3-6 weeks after reconstruction to allow timely wound healing and avoid local recurrence.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/iwj.12851

    View details for PubMedID 29205902

  • Micro-RNA-Regulated Proangiogenic Signaling in Arteriovenous Loops in Patients with Combined Vascular and Soft-Tissue Reconstructions: Revisiting the Nutrient Flap Concept. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Henn, D. n., Abu-Halima, M. n., Falkner, F. n., Wermke, D. n., Meme, L. G., Kühner, C. n., Keller, A. n., Kneser, U. n., Meese, E. n., Schmidt, V. J. 2018; 142 (4): 489e–502e


    The placement of arteriovenous loops can enable microvascular anastomoses of free flaps when recipient vessels are scarce. In animal models, elevated fluid shear stress in arteriovenous loops promotes neoangiogenesis. Anecdotal reports in patients indicate that vein grafts used in free flap reconstructions of ischemic lower extremities are able to induce capillary formation. However, flow-stimulated angiogenesis has never been systematically investigated in humans, and it is unclear whether shear stress alters proangiogenic signaling pathways within the vascular wall of human arteriovenous loops.Eight patients with lower extremity soft-tissue defects underwent two-stage reconstruction with arteriovenous loop placement, and free flap anastomoses to the loops 10 to 14 days later. Micro-RNA (miRNA) and gene expression profiles were determined in tissue samples harvested from vein grafts of arteriovenous loops by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Samples from untreated veins served as controls.A strong deregulation of miRNA and gene expression was detected in arteriovenous loops, showing an overexpression of angiopoietic cytokines, oxygenation-associated genes, vascular growth factors, and connexin-43. The authors discovered inverse correlations along with validated and bioinformatically predicted interactions between angiogenesis-regulating genes and miRNAs in arteriovenous loops.The authors' findings demonstrate that elevated shear stress triggers proangiogenic signaling pathways in human venous tissue, indicating that arteriovenous loops may have the ability to induce neoangiogenesis in humans. The authors' data corroborate the nutrient flap hypothesis and provide a molecular background for arteriovenous loop-based tissue engineering with potential clinical applications for soft-tissue defect reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000004750

    View details for PubMedID 29979372

  • Deregulated microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the peripheral blood of patients with Marfan syndrome. Journal of translational medicine Abu-Halima, M. n., Kahraman, M. n., Henn, D. n., Rädle-Hurst, T. n., Keller, A. n., Abdul-Khaliq, H. n., Meese, E. n. 2018; 16 (1): 60


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. While acquired changes of miRNA and mRNA profiles in cancer have been extensively studied, little is known about expression changes of circulating miRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNA) in monogenic constitutional anomalies affecting several organ systems, like Marfan syndrome (MFS). We performed integrated miRNA and mRNA expression profiling in blood samples of Marfan patients in order to investigate deregulated miRNA and mRNA networks in these patients which could serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for MFS therapy.MiRNA and mRNA expression profiles were determined in blood samples from MFS patients (n = 7) and from healthy volunteer controls (n = 7) by microarray analysis. Enrichment analyses of altered mRNA expression were identified using bioinformatic tools.A total of 28 miRNAs and 32 mRNAs were found to be significantly altered in MFS patients compared to controls (> 2.0-fold change, adjusted P < 0.05). The expression of 11 miRNA and 6 mRNA candidates was validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort of 26 MFS patients and 26 matched HV controls. Significant inverse correlations were evident between 8 miRNAs and 5 mRNAs involved in vascular pathology, inflammation and telomerase regulation. Significant positive correlations were present for 7 miRNAs with age, for 2 miRNAs with the MFS aortic root status (Z-score) and for 7 miRNAs with left ventricular end-diastolic diameter in MFS patients. In addition, miR-331-3p was significantly up-regulated in MFS patients without mitral valve prolapse (MVP) as compared with patients with MVP.Our data show deregulated gene and miRNA expression profiles in the peripheral blood of MFS patients, demonstrating several candidates for prognostic biomarkers for cardiovascular manifestations in MFS as well as targets for novel therapeutic approaches. A deregulation of miRNA expression seems to play an important role in MFS, highlighting the plethora of effects on post-transcriptional regulation of miRNAs and mRNAs initiated by constitutional mutations in single genes. Trial registration Nr: EA2/131/10 . Registered 28 December, 2010.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12967-018-1429-3

    View details for PubMedID 29530068

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5848586

  • Haemodynamically stimulated and in vivo generated axially vascularized soft-tissue free flaps for closure of complex defects: Evaluation in a small animal model. Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine Schmidt, V. J., Wietbrock, J. O., Leibig, N. n., Hernekamp, J. F., Henn, D. n., Radu, C. A., Kneser, U. n. 2018; 12 (3): 622–32


    The arteriovenous (AV) loop model permits the creation of significant volumes of axially vascularized tissue that represents an alternative to conventional free flaps, circumventing their common limitations. However, such AV loop-based flaps have never before been examined in standardized animal models with respect to their suitability for reconstruction of critical bone-exposing defects. In the course of our preliminary studies, we implemented a novel defect model in rats that provides standardized and critical wound conditions and evaluated whether AV loop-generated flaps are suitable for free microsurgical transfer and closure of composite defects. We compared three groups of rodents with similar scapular defects: one received the AV flap, whereas controls were left to heal by secondary intention or with supplementary acellular matrix alone. To create the flaps, AV loops were placed into subcutaneous Teflon chambers filled with acellular matrix and transferred to the thigh region. Flap maturation was evaluated by histological analysis of angiogenesis and cell migration at days 14 and 28 after loop creation. Flap transfer to the scapular region and microsurgical anastomoses were performed after 14 days. Postoperative defect closure and perfusion were continually compared between groups. Within the AV flap chamber, the mean vessel number, cell count and the proportion of proliferating cells increased significantly over time. The novel defect model revealed that stable wound coverage with homogeneous vascular integration was achieved by AV loop-vascularized soft-tissue free flaps compared with controls. In summary, our study indicates for the first time that complex composite defects in rats can successfully be treated with AV loop-based free flaps.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/term.2477

    View details for PubMedID 28509443

  • Collagen-Elastin and Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan Scaffolds Promote Distinct Patterns of Matrix Maturation and Axial Vascularization in Arteriovenous Loop-Based Soft Tissue Flaps. Annals of plastic surgery Schmidt, V. J., Wietbrock, J. O., Leibig, N. n., Gloe, T. n., Henn, D. n., Hernekamp, J. F., Harhaus, L. n., Kneser, U. n. 2017; 79 (1): 92–100


    Autologous free flaps are the criterion standard for reconstructions of complex soft tissue defects; however, they are limited by donor-site morbidities. The arteriovenous (AV) loop model enables the generation of soft tissue constructs based on acellular dermal matrices with a functional microvasculature and minimal donor site morbidity. The ideal scaffold for AV loop-based tissue engineering has not been determined.AV loops were placed into subcutaneous isolation chambers filled with either a collagen-elastin scaffold or a collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold in the thighs of rats. Matrix elasticity, neoangiogenesis, cell migration, and proliferation were compared after 14 and 28 days.Mean vessel count and area had increased in both matrices at 28 compared with 14 days. Collagen-elastin matrices showed a higher mean vessel count and area compared with collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrices at 14 days. At 28 days, a more homogeneous vascular network and higher cell counts were observed in collagen-elastin matrices. Collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrices, however, exhibited less volume loss at day 28.Collagen-based scaffolds are suitable for soft tissue engineering in conjunction with the AV loop technique. These scaffolds exhibit distinct patterns of angiogenesis, cell migration, and proliferation and may in the future serve as the basis of tissue-engineered free flaps as an individualized treatment concept for critical wounds.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001096

    View details for PubMedID 28542070

  • Sequential chimeric medial femoral condyle and anterolateral thigh flow-through flaps for one-stage reconstructions of composite bone and soft tissue defects: Report of three cases. Microsurgery Henn, D. n., Abouarab, M. H., Hirche, C. n., Hernekamp, J. F., Schmidt, V. J., Kneser, U. n., Kremer, T. n. 2017; 37 (7): 824–30


    Small recalcitrant non-unions with poor perfusion require reconstruction with vascularized bone flaps. Cases with concomitant large soft tissue defects are especially challenging, since vascularized soft tissue transfer is often indicated and distant microvascular anastomoses may be required. We introduce a sequential chimeric free flap composed of a medial femoral condyle corticoperiosteal flap anastomosed to an anterolateral thigh flow-through flap (MFC-ALT flap) and report its use for reconstruction of small non-unions with concomitant large soft tissue defects in three exemplary patients. Two female and one male patients ages 39-58 years suffered from composite bone and soft tissue defects of the lower extremity and clavicle caused by tumor resection and postoperative radiation resp. infected tibial pilon fracture. The sizes of the soft tissue defects ranged from 15-23 × 4.5-6 cm and the sizes of the bone defects ranged from 1.5-4 × 2-4 cm. Defect reconstructions were performed in all cases with sequential chimeric MFC-ALT flaps with sizes ranging from 2-4 × 1.6-4 cm for the MFC and 21-23 × 7-8 cm for the ALT skin paddles. Functional reconstructions were achieved in all cases resulting in stable unions and soft tissue coverage enabling the patients to bear full weight without assistance on 5-months follow-up. Postoperative course was uneventful and complications were restricted to a small skin necrosis at the suture line in one case. MFC-ALT flaps may be a safe, and effective procedure for one-stage reconstructions of small, irregularly shaped bone defects with concomitant large soft tissue loss or surrounding instable scarring, particularly in cases of recalcitrant non-unions after radiation exposure.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.30209

    View details for PubMedID 28767176

  • Restoration of oral competence in double free flap reconstructions of massive lower facial defects with fascia lata slings - Case series and review of the literature CASE REPORTS IN PLASTIC SURGERY AND HAND SURGERY Henn, D., Nissen, A., Menon, N., Lee, G. K. 2015; 2 (3-4): 67–72


    Restoration of adequate oral competence is especially challenging in double free flap reconstructions of massive head and neck defects resulting from composite resections. Our report illustrates that oral competence in double free flap reconstructions of extensive oromandibular defects can be successfully restored with tensor fascia lata suspension slings.

    View details for PubMedID 27252975

  • GATA5 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the ascending aorta is related to aortic size and valve morphology. The Annals of thoracic surgery Henn, D. n., Perttunen, H. n., Gauer, S. n., Schmied, W. n., Porras, C. n., Such, M. n., Schäfers, H. J. 2014; 97 (6): 2019–25


    The pathogenesis of aortic dilatation in patients with congenital aortic valve anomalies is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that alterations of gene expression may be related to ascending aortic aneurysm formation in these patients. Knockout of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and GATA5 is associated with bicuspid aortic valves in mice. To study the role of eNOS and GATA5 in human congenital aortic valve disease and aortic dilatation, we investigated their gene expression in aortic tissue from patients with unicuspid, bicuspid, and tricuspid aortic valves.Samples from 84 patients (33 tricuspid, 32 bicuspid, and 19 unicuspid) were harvested intraoperatively from the ascending aorta. GATA5 and eNOS expression was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.GATA5 and eNOS expression in the aortic wall from patients with unicuspid aortic valves (GATA5: mean [M], 2.14; standard deviation [SD], 1.72; eNOS: M, 3.40; SD, 3.83) was significantly higher than in tricuspid aortic valves (GATA5: M, 1.12; SD, 0.80; eNOS: M, 1.00; SD, 0.74; each p < 0.05). Patients with bicuspid aortic valves (GATA5: M, 1.29, SD, 1.33; eNOS: M, 1.66; SD, 1.31) had a significantly higher eNOS expression than patients with tricuspid aortic valves (p < 0.05). The expression levels of eNOS and GATA5 correlated positively with each other and negatively with the ascending aortic diameter.Our data suggest that GATA5, possibly through upregulation of eNOS, plays a role in the development of aortic dilatation in patients with unicuspid and bicuspid aortic valves. The differential gene expression in patients with unicuspid compared with bicuspid aortic valves suggests that the pathogenesis of both aortic valve anomalies may be different.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.02.050

    View details for PubMedID 24766859

  • Identification of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR in ascending aortic aneurysms. PloS one Henn, D. n., Bandner-Risch, D. n., Perttunen, H. n., Schmied, W. n., Porras, C. n., Ceballos, F. n., Rodriguez-Losada, N. n., Schäfers, H. J. 2013; 8 (1): e54132


    Hypertension and congenital aortic valve malformations are frequent causes of ascending aortic aneurysms. The molecular mechanisms of aneurysm formation under these circumstances are not well understood. Reference genes for gene activity studies in aortic tissue that are not influenced by aortic valve morphology and its hemodynamic consequences, aortic dilatation, hypertension, or antihypertensive medication are not available so far. This study determines genes in ascending aortic tissue that are independent of these parameters. Tissue specimens from dilated and undilated ascending aortas were obtained from 60 patients (age ≤70 years) with different morphologies of the aortic valve (tricuspid undilated n = 24, dilated n = 11; bicuspid undilated n = 6, dilated n = 15; unicuspid dilated n = 4). Of the studied individuals, 36 had hypertension, and 31 received ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. The specimens were obtained intraoperatively from the wall of the ascending aorta. We analyzed the expression levels of 32 candidate reference genes by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Differential expression levels were assessed by parametric statistics. The expression analysis of these 32 genes by RT-qPCR showed that EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA remained constant in their expression levels in the different specimen groups, thus being insensitive to aortic valve morphology, aortic dilatation, hypertension, and medication with ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. Unlike many other commonly used reference genes, the genes EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA are neither confounded by aortic comorbidities nor by antihypertensive medication and therefore are most suitable for gene expression analysis of ascending aortic tissue.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0054132

    View details for PubMedID 23326585

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3543309