Experimental models to study osteoarthritis pain and develop therapeutics.
Osteoarthritis and cartilage open
2022; 4 (4): 100306
Pain is the predominant symptom of osteoarthritis (OA) that drives patients to seek medical care. Currently, there are no pharmacological treatments that can reverse or halt the progression of OA. Safe and efficacious medications for long-term management of OA pain are also unavailable. Understanding the mechanisms behind OA pain generation at onset and over time is critical for developing effective treatments. In this narrative review, we first summarize our current knowledge on the innervation of the knee joint, and then discuss the molecular mechanism(s) currently thought to underlie OA pain. In particular, we focus on the contribution of each joint component to the generation of pain. Next, the current experimental models for studying OA pain are summarized, and the methods to assess pain in rodents are presented. The potential application of emerging microphysiological systems in OA pain research is especially highlighted. Lastly, we discuss the current challenge in standardizing models and the selection of appropriate systems to address specific questions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ocarto.2022.100306
View details for PubMedID 36474784
Differential dynamics of bone graft transplantation and mesenchymal stem cell therapy during bone defect healing in a murine critical size defect.
Journal of orthopaedic translation
2022; 36: 64-74
Background: A critical size bone defect is a clinical scenario in which bone is lost or excised due to trauma, infection, tumor, or other causes, and cannot completely heal spontaneously. The most common treatment for this condition is autologous bone grafting to the defect site. However, autologous bone graft is often insufficient in quantity or quality for transplantation to these large defects. Recently, tissue engineering methods using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as an alternative treatment. However, the underlying biological principles and optimal techniques for tissue regeneration of bone using stem cell therapy have not been completely elucidated.Methods: In this study, we compare the early cellular dynamics of healing between bone graft transplantation and MSC therapy in a murine chronic femoral critical-size bone defect. We employ high-dimensional mass cytometry to provide a comprehensive view of the differences in cell composition, stem cell functionality, and immunomodulatory activity between these two treatment methods one week after transplantation.Results: We reveal distinct cell compositions among tissues from bone defect sites compared with original bone graft, show active recruitment of MSCs to the bone defect sites, and demonstrate the phenotypic diversity of macrophages and T cells in each group that may affect the clinical outcome.Conclusion: Our results provide critical data and future directions on the use of MSCs for treating critical size defects to regenerate bone.Translational Potential of this article: This study showed systematic comparisons of the cellular and immunomodulatory profiles among different interventions to improve the healing of the critical-size bone defect. The results provided potential strategies for designing robust therapeutic interventions for the unmet clinical need of treating critical-size bone defects.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jot.2022.05.010
View details for PubMedID 35979174
Therapeutic effects of MSCs, genetically modified MSCs, and NFkB-inhibitor on chronic inflammatory osteolysis in aged mice.
Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
The number of total joint replacements is increasing, especially in elderly patients, and so too are implant-related complications such as prosthesis loosening. Wear particles from the prosthesis induce a chronic inflammatory reaction and subsequent osteolysis, leading to the need for revision surgery. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of NF-kB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and genetically-modified NF-kB sensing interleukin-4 over-secreting MSCs (IL4-MSCs) on chronic inflammation in aged mice. The model was generated by continuous infusion of contaminated polyethylene particles into the intramedullary space of the distal femur of aged mice (15-17-month-old) for six weeks. Local delivery of ODN showed increased bone mineral density (BMD), decreased osteoclast-like cells, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive area, and increased M2/M1 macrophage ratio. Local injection of MSCs and IL4-MSCs significantly decreased osteoclast-like cells and increased the M2/M1 ratio, with a greater trend for IL4-MSCs than MSCs. MSCs significantly increased ALP-positive area and BMD values compared to the control. The IL4-MSCs demonstrated higher values for both ALP-positive area and BMD. These findings demonstrated the therapeutic effects of ODN, MSCs, and IL4-MSCs on chronic inflammatory osteolysis in aged mice. The two MSC-based therapies were more effective than ODN in increasing the M2/M1 macrophage ratio, reducing bone resorption, and increasing bone formation. Specifically, MSCs were more effective in increasing bone formation, and IL4-MSCs were more effective in mitigating inflammation. This study suggests potential therapeutic strategies for treating wear particle-associated inflammatory osteolysis after arthroplasty in the elderly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.25434
View details for PubMedID 36031590
Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Miniature Joint System for Disease Modeling and Drug Testing.
Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Diseases of the knee joint such as osteoarthritis (OA) affect all joint elements. An in vitro human cell-derived microphysiologica system capable of simulating intraarticular tissue crosstalk is desirable for studying etiologies/pathogenesis of joint diseases and testing potential therapeutics. Herein, a human mesenchymal stem cell-derived miniature joint system (miniJoint) is generated, in which engineered osteochondral complex, synovial-like fibrous tissue, and adipose tissue are integrated into a microfluidics-enabled bioreactor. This novel design facilitates different tissues communicating while still maintaining their respective phenotypes. The miniJoint exhibits physiologically relevant changes when exposed to interleukin-1beta mediated inflammation, which are similar to observations in joint diseases in humans. The potential of the miniJoint in predicting in vivo efficacy of drug treatment is confirmed by testing the "therapeutic effect" of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, naproxen, as well as four other potential disease-modifying OA drugs. The data demonstrate that the miniJoint recapitulates complex tissue interactions, thus providing a robust organ chip model for the study of joint pathology and the development of novel therapeutic interventions.
View details for DOI 10.1002/advs.202105909
View details for PubMedID 35436042
Novel Techniques and Future Perspective for Investigating Critical-Size Bone Defects.
Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland)
2022; 9 (4)
A critical-size bone defect is a challenging clinical problem in which a gap between bone ends will not heal and will become a nonunion. The current treatment is to harvest and transplant an autologous bone graft to facilitate bone bridging. To develop less invasive but equally effective treatment options, one needs to first have a comprehensive understanding of the bone healing process. Therefore, it is imperative to leverage the most advanced technologies to elucidate the fundamental concepts of the bone healing process and develop innovative therapeutic strategies to bridge the nonunion gap. In this review, we first discuss the current animal models to study critical-size bone defects. Then, we focus on four novel analytic techniques and discuss their strengths and limitations. These four technologies are mass cytometry (CyTOF) for enhanced cellular analysis, imaging mass cytometry (IMC) for enhanced tissue special imaging, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) for detailed transcriptome analysis, and Luminex assays for comprehensive protein secretome analysis. With this new understanding of the healing of critical-size bone defects, novel methods of diagnosis and treatment will emerge.
View details for DOI 10.3390/bioengineering9040171
View details for PubMedID 35447731
Sex differences in the therapeutic effect of unaltered versus NFkappaB sensing IL-4 over-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells in a murine model of chronic inflammatory bone loss.
Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology
2022; 10: 962114
Wear particles from joint arthroplasties induce chronic inflammation associated with prolonged upregulation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) signaling in macrophages and osteoclasts, which leads to osteolysis and implant loosening. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapy showed great potential for immunomodulation and mitigation of osteolysis in vivo, especially in the chronic phase of inflammation. We previously generated genetically modified MSCs that secrete the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 4 (IL-4) in response to NF-kappaB activation (NFkappaB-IL-4 MSCs). However, whether the impact of sexual difference in the internal environment can alter the therapeutic effects of IL-4 over-secreting MSCs that simultaneously mitigate prolonged inflammation and enhance bone formation remains unknown. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of unaltered MSCs versus NFkappaB-IL-4 MSCs in mitigating chronic inflammation and enhancing bone formation in male and female mice. The murine model was established by continuous infusion of polyethylene particles contaminated with lipopolysaccharide (cPE) into the medullary cavity of the distal femur for 6 weeks to induce chronic inflammation. Unaltered MSCs or NFkappaB-IL-4 MSCs were infused into the femoral intramedullary cavity in sex-matched groups beginning 3 weeks after primary surgery. Femurs were harvested at 6 weeks, and bone marrow density was measured with micro-computational tomography. Numbers of osteoclast-like cells, osteoblasts, and macrophages were evaluated with histochemical and immunofluorescence staining. cPE infusion resulted in severe bone loss at the surgery site, increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive osteoclasts and M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages, and decreased alkaline phosphatase expression. MSC-based therapy effectively decreased local bone loss and polarized M1 macrophages into an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. In females, unaltered MSCs demonstrated a larger impact in enhancing the osteogenesis, but they demonstrated similar anti-inflammatory effects compared to NFkappaB-IL-4 MSCs. These results demonstrated that local inflammatory bone loss can be effectively modulated via MSC-based treatments in a sexually dimorphic manner, which could be an efficacious therapeutic strategy for treatment of periprosthetic osteolysis in both genders.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fbioe.2022.962114
View details for PubMedID 36046680
Macrophages Modulate the Function of MSC- and iPSC-Derived Fibroblasts in the Presence of Polyethylene Particles.
International journal of molecular sciences
2021; 22 (23)
Fibroblasts in the synovial membrane secrete molecules essential to forming the extracellular matrix (ECM) and supporting joint homeostasis. While evidence suggests that fibroblasts contribute to the response to joint injury, the outcomes appear to be patient-specific and dependent on interactions between resident immune cells, particularly macrophages (Mphis). On the other hand, the response of Mphis to injury depends on their functional phenotype. The goal of these studies was to further explore these issues in an in vitro 3D microtissue model that simulates a pathophysiological disease-specific microenvironment. Two sources of fibroblasts were used to assess patient-specific influences: mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)- and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts. These were co-cultured with either M1 or M2 Mphis, and the cultures were challenged with polyethylene particles coated with lipopolysaccharide (cPE) to model wear debris generated from total joint arthroplasties. Our results indicated that the fibroblast response to cPE was dependent on the source of the fibroblasts and the presence of M1 or M2 Mphis: the fibroblast response as measured by gene expression changes was amplified by the presence of M2 Mphis. These results demonstrate that the immune system modulates the function of fibroblasts; furthermore, different sources of differentiated fibroblasts may lead to divergent results. Overall, our research suggests that M2 Mphis may be a critical target for the clinical treatment of cPE induced fibrosis.
View details for DOI 10.3390/ijms222312837
View details for PubMedID 34884641
Effect on Osteogenic Differentiation of Genetically Modified IL4 or PDGF-BB Over-Expressing and IL4-PDGF-BB Co-Over-Expressing Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In Vitro.
Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland)
2021; 8 (11)
The use of genetically modified (GM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and preconditioned MSCs (pMSCs) may provide further opportunities to improve the outcome of core decompression (CD) for the treatment of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). GM interleukin-4 (IL4) over-expressing MSCs (IL4-MSCs), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB over-expressing MSCs (PDGF-BB-MSCs), and IL4-PDGF-BB co-over-expressing MSCs (IL4-PDGF-BB-MSCs) and their respective pMSCs were used in this in vitro study and compared with respect to cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. IL4-MSCs, PDGF-BB-MSCs, IL4-PDGF-BB-MSCs, and each pMSC treatment significantly increased cell proliferation compared to the MSC group alone. The percentage of Alizarin red-stained area in the IL4-MSC and IL4-pMSC groups was significantly lower than in the MSC group. However, the percentage of Alizarin red-stained area in the PDGF-BB-MSC group was significantly higher than in the MSC and PDGF-BB-pMSC groups. The percentage of Alizarin red-stained area in the IL4-PDGF-BB-pMSC was significantly higher than in the IL4-PDGF-BB-MSC group. There were no significant differences in the percentage of Alizarin red-stained area between the MSC and IL4-PDGF-BB-pMSC groups. The use of PDGF-BB-MSCs or IL4-PDGF-BB-pMSCs increased cell proliferation. Furthermore, PDGF-BB-MSCs promoted osteogenic differentiation. The addition of GM MSCs may provide a useful supplementary cell-based therapy to CD for treatment of ONFH.
View details for DOI 10.3390/bioengineering8110165
View details for PubMedID 34821731
The effect of genetically modified platelet-derived growth factor-BB over-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells during core decompression for steroid-associated osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits.
Stem cell research & therapy
2021; 12 (1): 503
BACKGROUND: Approximately one third of patients undergoing core decompression (CD) for early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) experience progression of the disease, and subsequently require total hip arthroplasty (THA). Thus, identifying adjunctive treatments to optimize bone regeneration during CD is an unmet clinical need. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB plays a central role in cell growth and differentiation. The aim of this study was to characterize mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that were genetically modified to overexpress PDGF-BB (PDGF-BB-MSCs) in vitro and evaluate their therapeutic effect when injected into the bone tunnel at the time of CD in an in vivo rabbit model of steroid-associated ONFH.METHODS: In vitro studies: Rabbit MSCs were transduced with a lentivirus vector carrying the human PDGF-BB gene under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or phosphoglycerate (PGK) promoter. The proliferative rate, PDGF-BB expression level, and osteogenic differentiation capacity of unmodified MSCs, CMV-PDGF-BB-MSCs, and PGK-PDGF-BB-MSCs were assessed. In vivo studies: Twenty-four male New Zealand white rabbits received an intramuscular (IM) injection of methylprednisolone 20mg/kg. Four weeks later, the rabbits were divided into four groups: the CD group, the hydrogel [HG, (a collagen-alginate mixture)] group, the MSC group, and the PGK-PDGF-BB-MSC group. Eight weeks later, the rabbits were sacrificed, their femurs were harvested, and microCT, mechanical testing, and histological analyses were performed.RESULTS: In vitro studies: PGK-PDGF-BB-MSCs proliferated more rapidly than unmodified MSCs (P<0.001) and CMV-PDGF-BB-MSCs (P<0.05) at days 3 and 7. CMV-PDGF-BB-MSCs demonstrated greater PDGF-BB expression than PGK-PDGF-BB-MSCs (P<0.01). However, PGK-PDGF-BB-MSCs exhibited greater alkaline phosphatase staining at 14days (P<0.01), and osteogenic differentiation at 28days (P=0.07) than CMV-PDGF-BB-MSCs. In vivo: The PGK-PDGF-BB-MSC group had a trend towards greater bone mineral density (BMD) than the CD group (P=0.074). The PGK-PDGF-BB-MSC group demonstrated significantly lower numbers of empty lacunae (P<0.001), greater osteoclast density (P<0.01), and greater angiogenesis (P<0.01) than the other treatment groups.CONCLUSION: The use of PGK-PDGF-BB-MSCs as an adjunctive treatment with CD may reduce progression of osteonecrosis and enhance bone regeneration and angiogenesis in the treatment of early-stage ONFH.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s13287-021-02572-7
View details for PubMedID 34526115
The efficacy of lapine preconditioned or genetically modified IL4 over-expressing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in corticosteroid-associated osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits.
2021; 275: 120972
Cell-based therapy for augmentation of core decompression (CD) using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is a promising treatment for early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Recently, the therapeutic potential for immunomodulation of osteogenesis using preconditioned (with pro-inflammatory cytokines) MSCs (pMSCs), or by the timely resolution of inflammation using MSCs that over-express anti-inflammatory cytokines has been described. Here, pMSCs exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lipopolysaccharide for 3 days accelerated osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Furthermore, injection of pMSCs encapsulated with injectable hydrogels into the bone tunnel facilitated angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the femoral head in vivo, using rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs and a model of corticosteroid-associated ONFH in rabbits. In contrast, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that genetically-modified MSCs that over-express IL4 (IL4-MSCs), established by using a lentiviral vector carrying the rabbit IL4 gene under the cytomegalovirus promoter, accelerated proliferation of MSCs and decreased the percentage of empty lacunae in the femoral head. Therefore, adjunctive cell-based therapy of CD using pMSCs and IL4-MSCs may hold promise to heal osteonecrotic lesions in the early stage ONFH. These interventions must be applied in a temporally sensitive fashion, without interfering with the mandatory acute inflammatory phase of bone healing.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120972
View details for PubMedID 34186237
- The Effects of Macrophage Phenotype on Osteogenic Differentiation of MSCs in the Presence of Polyethylene Particles BIOMEDICINES 2021; 9 (5)
Current Models for Development of Disease-Modifying Osteoarthritis Drugs.
Tissue engineering. Part C, Methods
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful and disabling disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Symptom-alleviating treatments exist, although none with long-term efficacy. Furthermore, there are currently no disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) with demonstrated efficacy in OA patients, which is, in part, attributed to a lack of full understanding of the pathogenesis of OA. The inability to translate findings from basic research to clinical applications also highlights the deficiencies in the available OA models at simulating the clinically relevant pathologies and responses to treatments in humans. In this review, the current status in the development of DMOADs will be first presented, with special attention to those in Phase II-IV clinical trials. Next, current in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo OA models are summarized and the respective advantages and disadvantages of each are highlighted. Notably, the development and application of microphysiological or tissue-on-a-chip systems for modeling OA in humans are presented and the issues that need to be addressed in the future are discussed. Microphysiological systems should be given serious consideration for their inclusion in the DMOAD development pipeline, both for their ability to predict drug safety and efficacy in human clinical trials at present, as well as for their potential to serve as a test platform for personalized medicine.
View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.TEC.2020.0309
View details for PubMedID 33403944
PDGF-BB and IL-4 co-overexpression is a potential strategy to enhance mesenchymal stem cell-based bone regeneration.
Stem cell research & therapy
2021; 12 (1): 40
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy has the potential for immunomodulation and enhancement of tissue regeneration. Genetically modified MSCs that over-express specific cytokines, growth factors, or chemokines have shown great promise in pre-clinical studies. In this regard, the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 converts pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages into an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype; M2 macrophages mitigate chronic inflammation and enhance osteogenesis by MSC lineage cells. However, exposure to IL-4 prematurely inhibits osteogenesis of MSCs in vitro; furthermore, IL-4 overexpressing MSCs inhibit osteogenesis in vivo during the acute inflammatory period. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB has been shown to enhance osteogenesis of MSCs with a dose-dependent effect.In this study, we generated a lentiviral vector that produces PDGF-BB under a weak promoter (phosphoglycerate kinase, PGK) and lentiviral vector producing IL-4 under a strong promoter (cytomegalovirus, CMV). We infected MSCs with PDGF-BB and IL-4-producing lentiviral vectors separately or in combination to investigate cell proliferation and viability, protein expression, and the capability for osteogenesis.PDGF-BB and IL-4 co-overexpression was observed in the co-infected MSCs and shown to enhance cell proliferation and viability, and osteogenesis compared to IL-4 overexpressing MSCs alone.Overexpression of PDGF-BB together with IL-4 mitigates the inhibitory effect of IL-4 on osteogenesis by IL-4 overexpressing MSCS. PDGF-BB and IL-4 overexpressing MSCs may be a potential strategy to facilitate osteogenesis in scenarios of both acute and chronic inflammation.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s13287-020-02086-8
View details for PubMedID 33413614