Program Affiliations

  • SPARK at Stanford

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Overall Survival in Patients with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Following Lung or Heart-Lung Transplantation at a Single High-Volume Academic Transplant Center: A Comparative Cohort Study Melehani, J., Li, S., Mooney, J., Chung, L. WILEY. 2021: 2898-2900
  • Toxoplasma Co-opts Host Cells It Does Not Invade PLOS PATHOGENS Koshy, A. A., Dietrich, H. K., Christian, D. A., Melehani, J. H., Shastri, A. J., Hunter, C. A., Boothroyd, J. C. 2012; 8 (7)


    Like many intracellular microbes, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii injects effector proteins into cells it invades. One group of these effector proteins is injected from specialized organelles called the rhoptries, which have previously been described to discharge their contents only during successful invasion of a host cell. In this report, using several reporter systems, we show that in vitro the parasite injects rhoptry proteins into cells it does not productively invade and that the rhoptry effector proteins can manipulate the uninfected cell in a similar manner to infected cells. In addition, as one of the reporter systems uses a rhoptry:Cre recombinase fusion protein, we show that in Cre-reporter mice infected with an encysting Toxoplasma-Cre strain, uninfected-injected cells, which could be derived from aborted invasion or cell-intrinsic killing after invasion, are actually more common than infected-injected cells, especially in the mouse brain, where Toxoplasma encysts and persists. This phenomenon has important implications for how Toxoplasma globally affects its host and opens a new avenue for how other intracellular microbes may similarly manipulate the host environment at large.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002825

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306837700043

    View details for PubMedID 22910631

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3406079