Professional Education

  • Ph.D, University of Toronto, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (2020)
  • B.A.Sc, University of Toronto, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (2016)

Stanford Advisors


  • Yi Xu. "United States Patent US10001435B1 Methods and apparatuses for measuring material phase properties", Interface Fluidics Ltd, Jul 4, 2017

All Publications

  • Electroosmotic flow steers neutral products and enables concentrated ethanol electroproduction from CO2 JOULE Miao, R., Xu, Y., Ozden, A., Robb, A., O'Brien, C. P., Gabardo, C. M., Lee, G., Edwards, J. P., Huang, J., Fan, M., Wang, X., Liu, S., Yan, Y., Sargent, E. H., Sinton, D. 2021; 5 (10): 2742-2753
  • Low coordination number copper catalysts for electrochemical CO2 methanation in a membrane electrode assembly NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Xu, Y., Li, F., Xu, A., Edwards, J. P., Hung, S., Gabardo, C. M., O'Brien, C. P., Liu, S., Wang, X., Li, Y., Wicks, J., Miao, R., Liu, Y., Li, J., Huang, J., Abed, J., Wang, Y., Sargent, E. H., Sinton, D. 2021; 12 (1): 2932


    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 to methane provides a means to store intermittent renewable electricity in the form of a carbon-neutral hydrocarbon fuel that benefits from an established global distribution network. The stability and selectivity of reported approaches reside below technoeconomic-related requirements. Membrane electrode assembly-based reactors offer a known path to stability; however, highly alkaline conditions on the cathode favour C-C coupling and multi-carbon products. In computational studies herein, we find that copper in a low coordination number favours methane even under highly alkaline conditions. Experimentally, we develop a carbon nanoparticle moderator strategy that confines a copper-complex catalyst when employed in a membrane electrode assembly. In-situ XAS measurements confirm that increased carbon nanoparticle loadings can reduce the metallic copper coordination number. At a copper coordination number of 4.2 we demonstrate a CO2-to-methane selectivity of 62%, a methane partial current density of 136 mA cm-2, and > 110 hours of stable operation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-23065-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000655488900003

    View details for PubMedID 34006871

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8131708

  • Self-Cleaning CO2 Reduction Systems: Unsteady Electrochemical Forcing Enables Stability ACS ENERGY LETTERS Xu, Y., Edwards, J. P., Liu, S., Miao, R., Huang, J., Gabardo, C. M., O'Brien, C. P., Li, J., Sargent, E. H., Sinton, D. 2021; 6 (2): 809-815
  • Efficient electrocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide in a low-resistance pressurized alkaline electrolyzer APPLIED ENERGY Edwards, J. P., Xu, Y., Gabardo, C. M., Cao-Thang Dinh, Li, J., Qi, Z., Ozden, A., Sargent, E. H., Sinton, D. 2020; 261
  • Oxygen-tolerant electroproduction of C-2 products from simulated flue gas ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Xu, Y., Edwards, J. P., Zhong, J., O'Brien, C. P., Gabardo, C. M., McCallum, C., Li, J., Dinh, C., Sargent, E. H., Sinton, D. 2020; 13 (2): 554-561

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c9ee03077h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000517122800010

  • The Full Pressure-Temperature Phase Envelope of a Mixture in 1000 Microfluidic Chambers ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION Xu, Y., Riordon, J., Cheng, X., Bao, B., Sinton, D. 2017; 56 (45): 13962-+


    Knowing the thermodynamic state of complex mixtures-liquid, gas, supercritical or two-phase-is essential to industrial chemical processes. Traditionally, phase diagrams are compiled piecemeal from individual measurements in a pressure-volume-temperature cell performed in series, where each point is subject to a long fluid equilibrium time. Herein, 1000 microfluidic chambers, each isolated by a liquid piston and set to a different pressure and temperature combination, provide the complete pressure-temperature phase diagram of a hydrocarbon mixture at once, including the thermodynamic phase envelope. Measurements closely match modeled values, with a standard deviation of 0.13 MPa between measurement and model for the dew and bubble point lines, and a difference of 0.04 MPa and 0.25 °C between measurement and model for the critical point.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/anie.201708238

    View details for Web of Science ID 000413896400001

    View details for PubMedID 28940613