Academic Appointments


All Publications


  • Applying Theory for Human Betterment PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Bandura, A. 2019; 14 (1): 12–15
  • Applying Theory for Human Betterment. Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science Bandura, A. 2019; 14 (1): 12–15

    View details for PubMedID 30799756

  • A COMMENTARY ON MORAL DISENGAGEMENT: THE RHETORIC AND THE REALITY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A. 2018; 131 (2): 246–51
  • Toward a Psychology of Human Agency: Pathways and Reflections PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Bandura, A. 2018; 13 (2): 130–36

    Abstract

    Social cognitive theory is founded on an agentic perspective. This article reviews the core features of human agency and the individual, proxy, and collective forms in which it is exercised. Agency operates through a triadic codetermination process of causation. Knowledge from this line of theorizing is widely applied to effect individual and social change, including worldwide applications that address some of the most urgent global problems.

    View details for PubMedID 29592657

  • Impact of Family Efficacy Beliefs on Quality of Family Functioning and Satisfaction with Family Life APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW-PSYCHOLOGIE APPLIQUEE-REVUE INTERNATIONALE Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Regalia, C., Scabini, E. 2011; 60 (3): 421-448
  • A Social Cognitive perspective on Positive Psychology REVISTA DE PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL Bandura, A. 2011; 26 (1): 7-20
  • MORAL DISENGAGEMENT IN THE CORPORATE WORLD ACCOUNTABILITY IN RESEARCH-POLICIES AND QUALITY ASSURANCE White, J., Bandura, A., Bero, L. A. 2009; 16 (1): 41-74

    Abstract

    We analyze mechanisms of moral disengagement used to eliminate moral consequences by industries whose products or production practices are harmful to human health. Moral disengagement removes the restraint of self-censure from harmful practices. Moral self-sanctions can be selectively disengaged from harmful activities by investing them with socially worthy purposes, sanitizing and exonerating them, displacing and diffusing responsibility, minimizing or disputing harmful consequences, making advantageous comparisons, and disparaging and blaming critics and victims. Internal industry documents and public statements related to the research activities of these industries were coded for modes of moral disengagement by the tobacco, lead, vinyl chloride (VC), and silicosis-producing industries. All but one of the modes of moral disengagement were used by each of these industries. We present possible safeguards designed to protect the integrity of research.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/08989620802689847

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277932000003

    View details for PubMedID 19247852

  • Longitudinal analysis of the role of perceived self-efficacy for self-regulated learning in academic continuance and achievement JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Caprara, G. V., Fida, R., Vecchione, M., Del Bove, G., Vecchio, G. M., Barbaranelli, C., Bandura, A. 2008; 100 (3): 525-534
  • Much ado over a faulty conception of perceived self-efficacy grounded in faulty experimentation JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A. 2007; 26 (6): 641-658
  • Toward a Psychology of Human Agency PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Bandura, A. 2006; 1 (2): 164-180
  • Mechanisms of moral disengagement in support of military force: The impact of Sept. 11 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY McAlister, A. L., Bandura, A., Owen, S. V. 2006; 25 (2): 141-165
  • Going global with social cognitive theory: From prospect to paydirt 2nd Stauffer Symposium on Applied Psychology Bandura, A. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC PUBL. 2006: 53–79
  • Toward a Psychology of Human Agency. Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science Bandura, A. 2006; 1 (2): 164–80

    Abstract

    This article presents an agentic theory of human development, adaptation, and change. The evolutionary emergence of advanced symbolizing capacity enabled humans to transcend the dictates of their immediate environment and made them unique in their power to shape their life circumstances and the courses their lives take. In this conception, people are contributors to their life circumstances, not just products of them. Social cognitive theory rejects a duality between human agency and social structure. People create social systems, and these systems, in turn, organize and influence people's lives. This article discusses the core properties of human agency, the different forms it takes, its ontological and epistemological status, its development and role in causal structures, its growing primacy in the coevolution process, and its influential exercise at individual and collective levels across diverse spheres of life and cultural systems.

    View details for PubMedID 26151469

  • The role of moral disengagement in the execution process LAW AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR Osofsky, M. J., Bandura, A., Zimbardo, P. G. 2005; 29 (4): 371-393

    Abstract

    The present study tested the proposition that disengagement of moral self-sanctions enables prison personnel to carry out the death penalty. Three subgroups of personnel in penitentiaries located in three Southern states were assessed in terms of eight mechanisms of moral disengagement. The personnel included the execution teams that carry out the executions; the support teams that provide solace and emotional support to the families of the victims and the condemned inmate; and prison guards who have no involvement in the execution process. The executioners exhibited the highest level of moral, social, and economic justifications, disavowal of personal responsibility, and dehumanization. The support teams that provide the more humane services disavowed moral disengagement, as did the noninvolved guards but to a lesser degree than the support teams.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10979-005-4930-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231311400001

    View details for PubMedID 16133946

  • The primacy of self-regulation in health promotion APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW-PSYCHOLOGIE APPLIQUEE-REVUE INTERNATIONALE Bandura, A. 2005; 54 (2): 245-254
  • Impact of adolescents' filial self-efficacy on quality of family functioning and satisfaction JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE Caprara, G. V., Pastorelli, C., Regalia, C., Scabini, E., Bandura, A. 2005; 15 (1): 71-97
  • Care management for low-risk patients with heart failure - A randomized, controlled trial ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE DeBusk, R. F., Miller, N. H., Parker, K. M., Bandura, A., Kraemer, H. C., Cher, D. J., West, J. A., Fowler, M. B., Greenwald, G. 2004; 141 (8): 606-613

    Abstract

    Nurse care management programs for patients with chronic illness have been shown to be safe and effective.To determine whether a telephone-mediated nurse care management program for heart failure reduced the rate of rehospitalization for heart failure and for all causes over a 1-year period.Randomized, controlled trial of usual care with nurse management versus usual care alone in patients hospitalized for heart failure from May 1998 through October 2001.5 northern California hospitals in a large health maintenance organization.Of 2786 patients screened, 462 met clinical criteria for heart failure and were randomly assigned (228 to intervention and 234 to usual care).Nurse care management provided structured telephone surveillance and treatment for heart failure and coordination of patients' care with primary care physicians.Time to first rehospitalization for heart failure or for any cause and time to a combined end point of first rehospitalization, emergency department visit, or death.At 1 year, half of the patients had been rehospitalized at least once and 11% had died. Only one third of rehospitalizations were for heart failure. The rate of first rehospitalization for heart failure was similar in both groups (proportional hazard, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.46 to 1.57]). The rate of all-cause rehospitalization was similar (proportional hazard, 0.98 [CI, 0.76 to 1.27]).The findings of this study, conducted in a single health care system, may not be generalizable to other health care systems. The overall effect of the intervention was minor.Among patients with heart failure at low risk on the basis of sociodemographic and medical attributes, nurse care management did not statistically significantly reduce rehospitalizations for heart failure or for any cause. Such programs may be less effective for patients at low risk than those at high risk.

    View details for PubMedID 15492340

  • Nurse management for hypertension - A systems approach AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION Rudd, P., Miller, N. H., Kaufman, J., Kraemer, H. C., Bandura, A., Greenwald, G., DeBusk, R. F. 2004; 17 (10): 921-927

    Abstract

    Standard office-based approaches to controlling hypertension show limited success. Such suboptimal hypertension control reflects in part the absence of both an infrastructure for patient education and frequent, regular blood pressure (BP) monitoring. We tested the efficacy of a physician-directed, nurse-managed, home-based system for hypertension management with standardized algorithms to modulate drug therapy, based on patients' reports of home BP.We randomized outpatients requiring drug therapy for hypertension according to the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI) criteria to receive usual medical care only (UC, n = 76) or usual care plus nurse care management intervention (INT, n = 74) over a 6-month period.Patients receiving INT achieved greater reductions in office BP values at 6 months than those receiving UC: 14.2 +/- 18.1 versus 5.7 +/- 18.7 mm Hg systolic (P < .01) and 6.5 +/- 10.0 versus 3.4 +/- 7.9 mm Hg diastolic, respectively (P < .05). At 6 months, we observed one or more changes in drug therapy in 97% of INT patients versus 43% of UC patients, and 70% of INT patients received two or more drugs versus 46% of UC. Average daily adherence to medication, measured by electronic drug event monitors, was superior among INT subjects (mean +/- SD, 80.5% +/- 23.0%) than among UC subjects (69.2 +/- 31.1%; t(113) = 2.199, P = .03). There were no significant adverse drug reactions in either group.Telephone-mediated nurse management can successfully address many of the systems-related and patient-related issues that limit pharmacotherapeutic effectiveness for hypertension.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjhyper.2004.06.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224501900010

    View details for PubMedID 15485755

  • Social cognitive theory of posttraumatic recovery: the role of perceived self-efficacy BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY BENIGHT, C. C., Bandura, A. 2004; 42 (10): 1129-1148

    Abstract

    The present article integrates findings from diverse studies on the generalized role of perceived coping self-efficacy in recovery from different types of traumatic experiences. They include natural disasters, technological catastrophes, terrorist attacks, military combat, and sexual and criminal assaults. The various studies apply multiple controls for diverse sets of potential contributors to posttraumatic recovery. In these different multivariate analyses, perceived coping self-efficacy emerges as a focal mediator of posttraumatic recovery. Verification of its independent contribution to posttraumatic recovery across a wide range of traumas lends support to the centrality of the enabling and protective function of belief in one's capability to exercise some measure of control over traumatic adversity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2003.08.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224165700002

    View details for PubMedID 15350854

  • Swimming against the mainstream: the early years from chilly tributary to transformative mainstream 36th Annual Meeting of the Association-for-the-Advancement-of-Behavior-Therapy Bandura, A. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2004: 613–30

    Abstract

    This article traces the transformative paradigm shift in the theory and practice of personal change. Within a decade, new conceptual models, analytic methodologies and modes of treatment were created. Treatments were altered in the content, locus, and agents of change. This enterprising period also witnessed a sweeping shift in the public acceptance of behaviorally oriented treatments. The present article also analyzes the evolving theorizing and applications of social cognitive theory rooted in modeling, self-regulatory, and self-efficacy mechanisms of psychosocial change. This model of change is implemented from an agentic perspective to promote personal, institutional, and society-wide changes that address some of the most urgent global problems.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2004.02.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221900100001

    View details for PubMedID 15081880

  • Health promotion by social cognitive means Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Public-Health-Education Bandura, A. SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC. 2004: 143–64

    Abstract

    This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior, and well-being. Belief in one's efficacy to exercise control is a common pathway through which psychosocial influences affect health functioning. This core belief affects each of the basic processes of personal change--whether people even consider changing their health habits, whether they mobilize the motivation and perseverance needed to succeed should they do so, their ability to recover from setbacks and relapses, and how well they maintain the habit changes they have achieved. Human health is a social matter, not just an individual one. A comprehensive approach to health promotion also requires changing the practices of social systems that have widespread effects on human health.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1090198104263660

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220296900002

    View details for PubMedID 15090118

  • On broadening the cognitive, motivational, and sociostructural scope of theorizing about gender development and functioning: comment on Martin, Ruble, and Szkrybalo (2002). Psychological bulletin Bandura, A., Bussey, K. 2004; 130 (5): 691–701

    Abstract

    In their article on gender development, C. L. Martin, D. N. Ruble, and J. Szkrybalo (see record 2002-18663-003) contrasted their conception of gender development with that of social cognitive theory. The authors of this commentary correct misrepresentations of social cognitive theory and analyze the conceptual and empirical status of Martin et al.'s (2002) theory that gender stereotype matching is the main motivating force of gender development. Martin et al. (2002) based their claim for the causal primacy of gender self-categorization on construal of gender discrimination as rudimentary self-identity, equivocal empirical evidence, and dismissal of discordant evidence because of methodological deficiencies. The repeated finding that gendered preferences and behavior precede emergence of a sense of self is discordant with their theory. Different lines of evidence confirm that gender development and functioning are socially situated, richly contextualized, and conditionally manifested rather than governed mainly by an intrinsic drive to match stereotypic gender self-conception.

    View details for PubMedID 15367076

  • Assessment of filial, parental, marital, and collective family efficacy beliefs EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT Caprara, G. V., Regalia, C., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C., Bandura, A. 2004; 20 (4): 247-261
  • Role of affective self-regulatory efficacy in diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning CHILD DEVELOPMENT Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Gerbino, M., Pastorelli, C. 2003; 74 (3): 769-782

    Abstract

    This prospective study with 464 older adolescents (14 to 19 years at Time 1; 16 to 21 years at Time 2) tested the structural paths of influence through which perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation operates in concert with perceived behavioral efficacy in governing diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning. Self-efficacy to regulate positive and negative affect is accompanied by high efficacy to manage one's academic development, to resist social pressures for antisocial activities, and to engage oneself with empathy in others' emotional experiences. Perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation essentially operated mediationally through the latter behavioral forms of self-efficacy rather than directly on prosocial behavior, delinquent conduct, and depression. Perceived empathic self-efficacy functioned as a generalized contributor to psychosocial functioning. It was accompanied by prosocial behavior and low involvement in delinquency but increased vulnerability to depression in adolescent females.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183082900008

    View details for PubMedID 12795389

  • Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., LOCKE, E. A. 2003; 88 (1): 87-99

    Abstract

    The authors address the verification of the functional properties of self-efficacy beliefs and document how self-efficacy beliefs operate in concert with goal systems within a sociocognitive theory of self-regulation in contrast to the focus of control theory on discrepancy reduction. Social cognitive theory posits proactive discrepancy production by adoption of goal challenges working in concert with reactive discrepancy reduction in realizing them. Converging evidence from diverse methodological and analytic strategies verifies that perceived self-efficacy and personal goals enhance motivation and performance attainments. The large body of evidence, as evaluated by 9 meta-analyses for the effect sizes of self-efficacy beliefs and by the vast body of research on goal setting, contradicts findings (J. B. Vancouver, C. M. Thompson, & A. A. Williams, 2001; J. B. Vancouver, C. M. Thompson, E. C. Tischner, & D. J. Putka 2002) that belief in one's capabilities and personal goals is self-debilitating.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.87

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181465100009

    View details for PubMedID 12675397

  • Selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency 27th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Moral-Education Bandura, A. ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. 2002: 101–19
  • Social cognitive theory in cultural context APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW-PSYCHOLOGIE APPLIQUEE-REVUE INTERNATIONALE Bandura, A. 2002; 51 (2): 269-290
  • Growing primacy of human agency in adaptation and change in the electronic era EUROPEAN PSYCHOLOGIST Bandura, A. 2002; 7 (1): 2-16
  • Longitudinal impact of perceived self-regulatory efficacy on violent conduct EUROPEAN PSYCHOLOGIST Caprara, G. V., Regalia, C., Bandura, A. 2002; 7 (1): 63-69
  • The revised scale for caregiving self-efficacy: Reliability and validity studies JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Steffen, A. M., McKibbin, C., Zeiss, A. M., Gallagher-Thompson, D., Bandura, A. 2002; 57 (1): P74-P86

    Abstract

    Two samples of family caregivers (Study 1: N = 169; Study 2: N = 145) of cognitively impaired older adults were used to revise, extend, and evaluate a measure of perceived self-efficacy for caregiving tasks. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy measures 3 domains of caregiving self-efficacy: Obtaining Respite, Responding to Disruptive Patient Behaviors, and Controlling Upsetting Thoughts. The 3 subscales show strong internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Construct validity is supported by relationships between these 3 facets of perceived caregiving efficacy and depression, anxiety, anger, perceived social support, and criticism expressed in speech samples. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy has potential uses for both research and clinical purposes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173164100009

    View details for PubMedID 11773226

  • Determinants and structural relation of personal efficacy to collective efficacy APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW-PSYCHOLOGIE APPLIQUEE-REVUE INTERNATIONALE Fernandez-Ballesteros, R., Diez-Nicolas, J., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Bandura, A. 2002; 51 (1): 107-125
  • Impact of guided exploration and enactive exploration on self-regulatory mechanisms and information acquisition through electronic search JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY Debowski, S., Wood, R. E., Bandura, A. 2001; 86 (6): 1129-1141

    Abstract

    Following instruction in basic skills for electronic search, participants who practiced in a guided exploration mode developed stronger self-efficacy and greater satisfaction than those who practiced in a self-guided exploratory mode. Intrinsic motivation was not affected by exploration mode. On 2 post-training tasks, guided exploration participants produced more effective search strategies. expended less effort, made fewer errors, rejected fewer lines of search, and achieved higher performance. Relative lack of support for self-regulatory factors as mediators of exploration mode impacts was attributed to the uninformative feedback from electronic search, which causes most people to remain at a novice level and to require external guidance for development of self-efficacy and skills. Self-guided learning will be more effective on structured tasks with more informative feedback and for individuals with greater expertise on dynamic tasks.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172624400007

    View details for PubMedID 11768056

  • Chronic disease self-management program - 2-year health status and health care utilization outcomes MEDICAL CARE Lorig, K. R., Ritter, P., Stewart, A. L., Sobel, D. S., Brown, B. W., Bandura, A., Gonzalez, V. M., Laurent, D. D., Holman, H. R. 2001; 39 (11): 1217-1223

    Abstract

    To assess the 1- and 2-year health status, health care utilization and self-efficacy outcomes for the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). The major hypothesis is that during the 2-year period CDSMP participants will experience improvements or less deterioration than expected in health status and reductions in health care utilization.Longitudinal design as follow-up to a randomized trial.Community.Eight hundred thirty-one participants 40 years and older with heart disease, lung disease, stroke, or arthritis participated in the CDSMP. At 1- and 2-year intervals respectively 82% and 76% of eligible participants completed data.Health status (self-rated health, disability, social/role activities limitations, energy/fatigue, and health distress), health care utilization (ER/outpatient visits, times hospitalized, and days in hospital), and perceived self-efficacy were measured.Compared with baseline for each of the 2 years, ER/outpatient visits and health distress were reduced (P <0.05). Self-efficacy improved (P <0.05). The rate of increase is that which is expected in 1 year. There were no other significant changes.A low-cost program for promoting health self-management can improve elements of health status while reducing health care costs in populations with diverse chronic diseases.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171821000008

    View details for PubMedID 11606875

  • Swimming against the mainstream: The early years in chilly waters Conference on History of the Behavioral Therapies Bandura, A. CONTEXT PRESS. 2001: 163–182
  • Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A. 2001; 52: 1-26

    Abstract

    The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life is the essence of humanness. Human agency is characterized by a number of core features that operate through phenomenal and functional consciousness. These include the temporal extension of agency through intentionality and forethought, self-regulation by self-reactive influence, and self-reflectiveness about one's capabilities, quality of functioning, and the meaning and purpose of one's life pursuits. Personal agency operates within a broad network of sociostructural influences. In these agentic transactions, people are producers as well as products of social systems. Social cognitive theory distinguishes among three modes of agency: direct personal agency, proxy agency that relies on others to act on one's behest to secure desired outcomes, and collective agency exercised through socially coordinative and interdependent effort. Growing transnational embeddedness and interdependence are placing a premium on collective efficacy to exercise control over personal destinies and national life.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167463100003

    View details for PubMedID 11148297

  • Social cognitive theory of mass communication MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A. 2001; 3 (3): 265-299
  • Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories CHILD DEVELOPMENT Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., Pastorelli, C. 2001; 72 (1): 187-206

    Abstract

    This prospective study tested with 272 children a structural model of the network of sociocognitive influences that shape children's career aspirations and trajectories. Familial socioeconomic status is linked to children's career trajectories only indirectly through its effects on parents' perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. The impact of parental self-efficacy and aspirations on their children's perceived career efficacy and choice is, in turn, entirely mediated through the children's perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. Children's perceived academic, social, and self-regulatory efficacy influence the types of occupational activities for which they judge themselves to be efficacious both directly and through their impact on academic aspirations. Perceived occupational self-efficacy gives direction to the kinds of career pursuits children seriously consider for their life's work and those they disfavor. Children's perceived efficacy rather than their actual academic achievement is the key determinant of their perceived occupational self-efficacy and preferred choice of worklife. Analyses of gender differences reveal that perceived occupational self-efficacy predicts traditionality of career choice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167143800012

    View details for PubMedID 11280478

  • The structure of children's perceived self-efficacy: A cross-national study EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT Pastorelli, C., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Rola, J., Rozsa, S., Bandura, A. 2001; 17 (2): 87-97
  • Sociocognitive self-regulatory mechanisms governing transgressive behavior JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Regalia, C. 2001; 80 (1): 125-135

    Abstract

    This longitudinal research examined a structural model of the self-regulatory mechanisms governing transgressive conduct. Perceived academic and self-regulatory efficacy concurrently and longitudinally deterred transgressiveness both directly and by fostering prosocialness and adherence to moral self-sanctions for harmful conduct. The impact of perceived social self-efficacy was mediated through prosocialness. Moral disengagement and prosocialness affected transgressiveness through the mediating influence of irascible affectivity and hostile rumination. Ruminative affectivity, in turn, both concurrently and longitudinally affected transgressiveness. Moral disengagement also contributed independently to variance in transgressiveness over time. This pattern of relations was obtained after controlling for prior transgressiveness. The structural model was replicated across gender and provided a better fit to the data than did several alternative models.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0022-3514.80.1.125

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166362300010

    View details for PubMedID 11195885

  • Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Bandura, A., Zimbardo, P. G. 2000; 11 (4): 302-306

    Abstract

    The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088503700007

    View details for PubMedID 11273389

  • Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Bandura, A. 2000; 9 (3): 75-78
  • Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW Bussey, K., Bandura, A. 1999; 106 (4): 676-713

    Abstract

    Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct throughout the life course. The theory integrates psychological and sociostructural determinants within a unified conceptual structure. In this theoretical perspective, gender conceptions and roles are the product of a broad network of social influences operating interdependently in a variety of societal subsystems. Human evolution provides bodily structures and biological potentialities that permit a range of possibilities rather than dictate a fixed type of gender differentiation. People contribute to their self-development and bring about social changes that define and structure gender relationships through their agentic actions within the interrelated systems of influence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083338800002

    View details for PubMedID 10560326

  • A sociocognitive analysis of substance abuse: An agentic perspective Conference on Cognitive Sciences Research - More Than Thinking About Drug Abuse Bandura, A. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC. 1999: 214–17
  • Escaping homelessness: The influences of self-efficacy and time perspective on coping with homelessness JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Elissa, E. S., Bandura, A., Zimbardo, P. G. 1999; 29 (3): 575-596
  • Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V. 1999; 76 (2): 258-269

    Abstract

    This prospective research analyzed how different facets of perceived self-efficacy operate in concert within a network of sociocognitive influences in childhood depression. Perceived social and academic inefficacy contributed to concurrent and subsequent depression both directly and through their impact on academic achievement, prosocialness, and problem behaviors. In the shorter run, children were depressed over beliefs in their academic inefficacy rather than over their actual academic performances. In the longer run, the impact of a low sense of academic efficacy on depression was mediated through academic achievement, problem behavior, and prior depression. Perceived social inefficacy had a heavier impact on depression in girls than in boys in the longer term. Depression was also more strongly linked over time for girls than for boys.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078808800007

    View details for PubMedID 10074708

  • Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and social psychology review Bandura, A. 1999; 3 (3): 193-209

    Abstract

    Moral agency is manifested in both the power to refrain from behaving inhumanely and the proactive power to behave humanely. Moral agency is embedded in a broader sociocognitive self theory encompassing self-organizing, proactive, self-reflective, and self-regulatory mechanisms rooted in personal standards linked to self-sanctions. The self-regulatory mechanisms governing moral conduct do not come into play unless they are activated, and there are many psychosocial maneuvers by which moral self-sanctions are selectively disengaged from inhumane conduct. The moral disengagement may center on the cognitive restructuring of inhumane conduct into a benign or worthy one by moral justification, sanitizing language, and advantageous comparison; disavowal of a sense of personal agency by diffusion or displacement of responsibility; disregarding or minimizing the injurious effects of one's actions; and attribution of blame to, and dehumanization of, those who are victimized. Many inhumanities operate through a supportive network of legitimate enterprises run by otherwise considerate people who contribute to destructive activities by disconnected subdivision of functions and diffusion of responsibility. Given the many mechanisms for disengaging moral control, civilized life requires, in addition to humane personal standards, safeguards built into social systems that uphold compassionate behavior and renounce cruelty.

    View details for PubMedID 15661671

  • Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing hospitalization - A randomized trial MEDICAL CARE Lorig, K. R., Sobel, D. S., Stewart, A. L., Brown, B. W., Bandura, A., Ritter, P., Gonzalez, V. M., Laurent, D. D., Holman, H. R. 1999; 37 (1): 5-14

    Abstract

    This study evaluated the effectiveness (changes in health behaviors, health status, and health service utilization) of a self-management program for chronic disease designed for use with a heterogeneous group of chronic disease patients. It also explored the differential effectiveness of the intervention for subjects with specific diseases and comorbidities.The study was a six-month randomized, controlled trial at community-based sites comparing treatment subjects with wait-list control subjects. Participants were 952 patients 40 years of age or older with a physician-confirmed diagnosis of heart disease, lung disease, stroke, or arthritis. Health behaviors, health status, and health service utilization, as determined by mailed, self-administered questionnaires, were measured.Treatment subjects, when compared with control subjects, demonstrated improvements at 6 months in weekly minutes of exercise, frequency of cognitive symptom management, communication with physicians, self-reported health, health distress, fatigue, disability, and social/role activities limitations. They also had fewer hospitalizations and days in the hospital. No differences were found in pain/physical discomfort, shortness of breath, or psychological well-being.An intervention designed specifically to meet the needs of a heterogeneous group of chronic disease patients, including those with comorbid conditions, was feasible and beneficial beyond usual care in terms of improved health behaviors and health status. It also resulted in fewer hospitalizations and days of hospitalization.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077870400002

    View details for PubMedID 10413387

  • Impact of Adolescents' Perceived Self-Regulatory Efficacy on Familial Communication and Antisocial Conduct EUROPEAN PSYCHOLOGIST Caprara, G. V., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Regalia, C., Bandura, A. 1998; 3 (2): 125-132
  • Exercise of agency in personal and social change 27th Congress of the European-Association-for-Behavioral-and-Cognitive-Therapies Bandura, A. PERGAMON PRESS LTD. 1998: 1–29
  • Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory 16th Annual Meeting of the Society-of-Behavioral-Medicine Bandura, A. TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. 1998: 623–49
  • Personal and collective efficacy in human adaptation and change 26th International Congress of Psychology Bandura, A. PSYCHOLOGY PRESS. 1998: 51–71
  • Development and evaluation of a computer-based system for dietary management of hyperlipidemia JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION Clark, M., Ghandour, G., Miller, N. H., Taylor, C. B., Bandura, A., DeBusk, R. F. 1997; 97 (2): 146-150

    Abstract

    To describe the development of a computer-based system for dietary management of hyperlipidemia and to evaluate its efficacy for lowering plasma cholesterol level.Using a stepwise approach, we developed and tested a three-part self-management system in five consecutive clinical studies. Each study assessed plasma cholesterol levels before and after dietary intervention using the system. These studies enabled progressive refinement of (a) a food frequency questionnaire used to assess food intake in the preceding month; (b) computer-generated progress reports, based on questionnaire responses, offering dietary change subgoals and strategies for change; and (c) a dietary workbook providing detailed information on how to achieve goals.Persons with hyperlipidemia (n=814) were enrolled from worksite and clinical settings in the San Francisco Bay area of California. The attrition rate after randomization was 5%.Elements of the dietary intervention evolved in response to the results of five clinical studies. In each study, patients underwent a form of baseline assessment of dietary intake followed by counseling/instruction by various means. Follow-up dietary assessments were provided at specific intervals to facilitate subjects' progress toward their dietary goals. A dietary workbook provided the detailed instruction required to implement the recommendations contained in the periodic progress reports.Changes in plasma cholesterol level were measured by paired and unpaired t tests. The relationship between the reported reduction in dietary fat and cholesterol level assessed by food frequency questionnaires and the directly measured change in plasma cholesterol level was measured by multiple linear regression.The three major elements of the final computerized system (food frequency questionnaires, computer-generated progress reports, and dietary workbook) were developed and refined in the course of the five clinical studies. Reductions in total plasma cholesterol level of 5.0% to 6.5% achieved by participants in all five studies were consistent with self-reported reductions in intake of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol. Therefore, the computerized self-management system appears to be an effective tool for reducing plasma cholesterol levels.A computer-based system for dietary self-management of hyperlipidemia, implemented by mail, was effective in short-term studies. This self-management system can potentially provide health-promoting services to large numbers of people at low cost.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WG18100006

    View details for PubMedID 9020241

  • Ontological and epistemological terrains revisited JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHIATRY Bandura, A. 1996; 27 (4): 323-345

    Abstract

    The present commentary discusses the scientific legitimacy of theories confined to correlations of observables and those that specify the mechanisms governing the relations between observable events. Operant analysts frame the theoretical differences misleadingly when the operant approach is portrayed as addressing environmental influence for effecting change but cognitive approaches are depicted as disembodied from environmental influences and thus can only provide correlates with action. In point of fact, both approaches encompass environmental influences. The major issues in contention are whether human thinking is entirely or only partially shaped by environmental influences; whether the influences in the person-environment relation flow unidirectionally or bidirectionally; and whether human thought serves a determinative function or is a functionless epiphenomenon. Proponents of epiphenomenalism regard other people's thinking as functionless by-products of conditioned responses, but present their own thoughts on matters as the right ones that provide functional guides for structuring interventions. This commentary discusses the self-negating nature of the epiphenomenalism argument. It also corrects misunderstandings and misrepresentations of self-efficacy theory.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996WE06700002

    View details for PubMedID 9120037

  • Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V. 1996; 71 (2): 364-374
  • Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning CHILD DEVELOPMENT Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., Pastorelli, C. 1996; 67 (3): 1206-1222

    Abstract

    This research analyzed the network of psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children were linked to their children's scholastic achievement through their perceived academic capabilities and aspirations. Children's beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and academic attainments, in turn, contributed to scholastic achievement both independently and by promoting high academic aspirations and prosocial behavior and reducing vulnerability to feelings of futility and depression. Children's perceived social efficacy and efficacy to manage peer pressure for detrimental conduct also contributed to academic attainments but through partially different paths of affective and self-regulatory influence. The impact of perceived social efficacy was mediated through academic aspirations and a low level of depression. Perceived self-regulatory efficacy was related to academic achievement both directly and through adherence to moral self-sanctions for detrimental conduct and problem behavior that can subvert academic pursuits. Familial socioeconomic status was linked to children's academic achievement only indirectly through its effects on parental aspirations and children's prosocialness. The full set of self-efficacy, aspirational, and psychosocial factors accounted for a sizable share of the variance in academic achievement.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VA15200031

    View details for PubMedID 8706518

  • Failures in self-regulation: Energy depletion or selective disengagement? PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Bandura, A. 1996; 7 (1): 20-24
  • Reflections on human agency IVth European Congress of Psychology Bandura, A. HOGREFE & HUBER PUBLISHERS. 1996: 194–210
  • COMMENTS ON THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE CAUSAL EFFICACY OF HUMAN THOUGHT JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHIATRY Bandura, A. 1995; 26 (3): 179-190

    Abstract

    Hawkins reiterates the familiar behavioristic doctrine that psychology should banish factors that cannot be directly observed. He seems to be unaware that the very operant theory he is espousing is heavily invested in internal determinants that do not lend themselves to direct observation. Because behavior is often unaffected by its immediate situational antecedents and consequences, operant analysts are turning increasingly to internalized determinants of behavior, such as the residues of past reinforcements. These internalized determinants are not directly observable or measurable. They are inferred organismic states. Hawkins invokes the standard behavioristic arguments that, like other cognitive events, beliefs of personal efficacy are epiphenomenal by-products of conditioned responses. The paradigms used to verify the causal contribution of efficacy beliefs to performance renders this claim empirically baseless. Efficacy beliefs are systematically raised to differential levels by means that involve no performances or by bogus feedback that is either unrelated to performance or is contrary to performance. In none of these paradigms are instated efficacy beliefs reflections of performance, but they are uniformly good predictors of subsequent performance. Epiphenomenal assertions are self-destruct arguments.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TA08600002

    View details for PubMedID 8576397

  • A CASE-MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR CORONARY RISK FACTOR MODIFICATION AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE DeBusk, R. F., Miller, N. H., Superko, H. R., Dennis, C. A., Thomas, R. J., LEW, H. T., Berger, W. E., Heller, R. S., ROMPF, J., Gee, D., Kraemer, H. C., Bandura, A., Ghandour, G., Clark, M., Shah, R. V., Fisher, L., Taylor, C. B. 1994; 120 (9): 721-729

    Abstract

    To evaluate the efficacy of a physician-directed, nurse-managed, home-based case-management system for coronary risk factor modification.Randomized clinical trial in which patients received a special intervention (n = 293) or usual medical care (n = 292) during the first year after acute myocardial infarction.5 Kaiser Permanente Medical Centers in the San Francisco Bay area.585 men and women aged 70 years or younger who were hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction.In the hospital, specially trained nurses initiated interventions for smoking cessation, exercise training, and diet-drug therapy for hyperlipidemia. Intervention after discharge was implemented primarily by telephone and mail contact with patients in their homes. All medically eligible patients received exercise training; all smokers received the smoking cessation intervention; and all patients received dietary counseling and, if needed, lipid-lowering drug therapy.Smoking prevalence and plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) concentrations were measured 2 months after infarction, and functional capacity was measured 6 months after infarction.In the special intervention and usual care groups, the cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation rates were 70% and 53% (P = 0.03), plasma LDL cholesterol levels were 2.77 +/- 0.69 mmol/L and 3.41 +/- 0.90 mmol/L (107 +/- 30 mg/dL and 132 +/- 30 mg/dL) (P = 0.001), and functional capacities were 9.3 +/- 2.4 METS and 8.4 +/- 2.5 METS (P = 0.001), respectively.In a large health maintenance organization, a case-management system was considerably more effective than usual medical care for modification of coronary risk factors after myocardial infarction.

    View details for PubMedID 8147544

  • REGULATIVE FUNCTION OF PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY US-Army-Research-Institute (ARI) Selection and Classification Conference Bandura, A. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC PUBL. 1994: 261–271
  • IMPACT OF SELF-REGULATORY INFLUENCES ON WRITING COURSE ATTAINMENT AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A. 1994; 31 (4): 845-862
  • PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY IN COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTIONING EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST Bandura, A. 1993; 28 (2): 117-148
  • SELF-MOTIVATION FOR ACADEMIC ATTAINMENT - THE ROLE OF SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS AND PERSONAL GOAL-SETTING AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., MARTINEZPONS, M. 1992; 29 (3): 663-676
  • SELF-REGULATORY MECHANISMS GOVERNING GENDER DEVELOPMENT CHILD DEVELOPMENT Bussey, K., Bandura, A. 1992; 63 (5): 1236-1250

    Abstract

    This study tested predictions about development of gender-related thought and action from social cognitive theory. Children at 4 levels of gender constancy were assessed for their gender knowledge, personal gender standards, and gender-linked behavior under different situational conditions. Irrespective of gender constancy level, all children engaged in more same-sex than cross-sex typed behavior. Younger children reacted in a gender stereotypic manner to peers' gender-linked behavior but did not regulate their own behavior on the basis of personal gender standards. Older children exhibited substantial self-regulatory guidance based on personal standards. They expressed anticipatory self-approval for same-sex typed behavior and self-criticism for cross-sex typed behavior. Their anticipatory self-sanctions, in turn, predicted their actual gender-linked behavior. Neither gender knowledge nor gender constancy predicted gender-linked behavior. These results lend support to social cognitive theory that evaluation and regulation of gender-linked conduct shifts developmentally from anticipatory social sanctions to anticipatory self-sanctions rooted in personal standards.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JR92900014

    View details for PubMedID 1446551

  • SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY OF SELF-REGULATION ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES Bandura, A. 1991; 50 (2): 248-287
  • SOCIOCOGNITIVE THEORY OF HUMAN ADAPTATION - A CITATION-CLASSIC COMMENTARY ON SOCIAL-LEARNING THEORY BY BANDURA,A. CURRENT CONTENTS/ARTS & HUMANITIES Bandura, A. 1991: 18-18
  • SOCIOCOGNITIVE THEORY OF HUMAN ADAPTATION - A CITATION-CLASSIC COMMENTARY ON SOCIAL-LEARNING THEORY, BY BANDURA,A. CURRENT CONTENTS/SOCIAL & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES Bandura, A. 1991: 10-10
  • THE IMPACT OF CONCEPTIONS OF ABILITY ON SELF-REGULATORY FACTORS AND MOTOR SKILL ACQUISITION JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY Jourden, F. J., Bandura, A., BANFIELD, J. T. 1991; 13 (3): 213-226
  • SELF-REGULATORY MECHANISMS GOVERNING THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL-COMPARISON ON COMPLEX DECISION-MAKING JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Jourden, F. J. 1991; 60 (6): 941-951
  • SELF-REGULATION OF MOTIVATION THROUGH ANTICIPATORY AND SELF-REACTIVE MECHANISMS NEBRASKA SYMPOSIUM ON MOTIVATION Bandura, A. 1991; 38: 69-164
  • SELF-REGULATION OF MOTIVATION THROUGH ANTICIPATORY AND SELF-REACTIVE MECHANISMS 38TH SESSION OF THE NEBRASKA SYMP ON MOTIVATION Bandura, A. UNIV NEBRASKA PRESS. 1991: 69–164
  • IMPACT OF PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY IN COPING WITH STRESSORS ON COMPONENTS OF THE IMMUNE-SYSTEM JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY WIEDENFELD, S. A., Bandura, A., LEVINE, S., OLEARY, A., Brown, S., Raska, K. 1990; 59 (5): 1082-1094

    Abstract

    This experiment examined the impact of experimentally varied perceived self-efficacy in exercising control over stressors on components of the immunological system. Immunological changes while coping with phobic stressors were measured within an intrasubject control design that included a baseline phase, an efficacy-acquisition phase, and a maximal-efficacy phase. In each of these phases, perceived coping self-efficacy, level of autonomic and endocrine activation, and several components of the immunological system were measured. Development of strong perceived self-efficacy to control phobic stressors had an immunoenhancing effect. A slow growth of perceived self-efficacy, heart rate acceleration, and cortisol activation attenuated immunological system status during the efficacy-acquisition phase. Rapid growth of perceived self-efficacy also predicted maintenance of immunoenhancement during the maximal perceived self-efficacy phase.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EH76200022

    View details for PubMedID 2148350

  • MECHANISMS GOVERNING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN COMPLEX DECISION-MAKING ENVIRONMENTS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES Wood, R., Bandura, A., Bailey, T. 1990; 46 (2): 181-201
  • SELECTIVE ACTIVATION AND DISENGAGEMENT OF MORAL CONTROL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES Bandura, A. 1990; 46 (1): 27-46
  • MECHANISMS GOVERNING EMPOWERMENT EFFECTS - A SELF-EFFICACY ANALYSIS JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Ozer, E. M., Bandura, A. 1990; 58 (3): 472-486

    Abstract

    This experiment tested the hypotheses that perceived coping and cognitive control self-efficacy govern the effects of personal empowerment over physical threats. Women participated in a mastery modeling program in which they mastered the physical skills to defend themselves successfully against unarmed sexual assailants. Multifaceted measures of theoretically relevant variables were administered within a staggered intragroup control design to test the immediate and long-term effects of the empowerment program and the mechanisms through which it produced its effects. Mastery modeling enhanced perceived coping and cognitive control efficacy, decreased perceived vulnerability to assault, and reduced the incidence of intrusive negative thinking and anxiety arousal. These changes were accompanied by increased freedom of action and decreased avoidant behavior. Path analyses of causal structures revealed a dual path of regulation of behavior by perceived coping self-efficacy, one mediated through perceived vulnerability and risk discernment and the other through perceived cognitive control self-efficacy and intrusive negative thinking.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CV62900009

    View details for PubMedID 2324938

  • REPRESENTATIONAL GUIDANCE OF ACTION PRODUCTION IN OBSERVATIONAL-LEARNING - A CAUSAL-ANALYSIS JOURNAL OF MOTOR BEHAVIOR Carroll, W. R., Bandura, A. 1990; 22 (1): 85-97

    Abstract

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that the number of model presentations and verbal coding of modeled actions affect reproduction accuracy through their effect on cognitive representation. Subjects viewed a complex action pattern either two or eight times with or without verbal coding to highlight the dynamic structure of the component actions and their temporal sequencing. They then received, in order, a recognition test and a pictorial-arrangement test to assess the accuracy of their cognitive representations of the modeled actions. Subsequently, all subjects were tested for their ability to reproduce the action pattern from memory. Results showed that increased exposure to modeled actions enhanced the accuracy of both the cognitive representation and the behavioral reproduction. Verbal coding also increased cognitive and reproduction accuracy, but only when combined with multiple opportunities to observe the modeled actions. A causal analysis confirmed that the effects of multiple exposures and verbal coding were entirely mediated by changes produced in the accuracy of cognitive representation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CV20200005

    View details for PubMedID 15111282

  • Self-regulation of motivation through anticipatory and self-reactive mechanisms. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation Bandura, A. 1990; 38: 69-164

    View details for PubMedID 2130260

  • PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY IN THE EXERCISE OF CONTROL OVER AIDS INFECTION RESEARCH CONF ON WOMEN AND AIDS : PROMOTING HEALTH BEHAVIORS Bandura, A. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 1990: 9–17
  • REGULATION OF COGNITIVE-PROCESSES THROUGH PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A. 1989; 25 (5): 729-735
  • HUMAN AGENCY IN SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Bandura, A. 1989; 44 (9): 1175-1184

    Abstract

    The present article examines the nature and function of human agency within the conceptual model of triadic reciprocal causation. In analyzing the operation of human agency in this interactional causal structure, social cognitive theory accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, self-reflective, and self-regulatory processes. The issues addressed concern the psychological mechanisms through which personal agency is exercised, the hierarchical structure of self-regulatory systems, eschewal of the dichotomous construal of self as agent and self as object, and the properties of a nondualistic but nonreductional conception of human agency. The relation of agent causality to the fundamental issues of freedom and determinism is also analyzed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AN65800001

    View details for PubMedID 2782727

  • SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW Wood, R., Bandura, A. 1989; 14 (3): 361-384
  • EXERCISE OF CONTROL THROUGH SELF-BELIEF - A CITATION CLASSIC COMMENTARY ON SELF-EFFICACY - TOWARD A UNIFYING THEORY OF BEHAVIORAL-CHANGE BY BANDURA,A. CURRENT CONTENTS/SOCIAL & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES Bandura, A. 1989: 14-14
  • EFFECT OF PERCEIVED CONTROLLABILITY AND PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ON SELF-REGULATION OF COMPLEX DECISION-MAKING JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Wood, R. 1989; 56 (5): 805-814

    Abstract

    Tested the hypothesis that perceived controllability and stringency of performance standards would affect self-regulatory mechanisms governing performance attainments of a simulated organization. Ss who managed the simulated organization under a cognitive set that organizations are not easily controllable displayed low perceived self-efficacy, even when standards were within easy reach, and lowered their organizational goals. Ss who operated under a cognitive set that organizations are controllable maintained a strong sense of self-efficacy, set increasingly challenging goals, and exhibited effective analytic thinking. The divergent changes in these self-regulatory factors were accompanied by large differences in organizational attainments. Path analyses revealed that perceived self-efficacy, which was affected by prior accomplishments, influenced subsequent organizational performance through its effects on analytic strategies. After further experience, the performance system was regulated more extensively and intricately by Ss' self-conceptions of efficacy. Perceived self-efficacy affected subsequent organizational attainments both directly and indirectly through its influence on personal goal challenges. Personal goals, in turn, enhanced organizational attainments directly and through mediation of analytic strategies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U324700014

    View details for PubMedID 2724068

  • IMPACT OF CONCEPTIONS OF ABILITY ON SELF-REGULATORY MECHANISMS AND COMPLEX DECISION-MAKING JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Wood, R., Bandura, A. 1989; 56 (3): 407-415

    Abstract

    Tested the hypothesis that induced conceptions of ability as a stable entity or as an acquirable skill would affect self-regulatory mechanisms governing performance in a simulated organization. Ss served as managerial decision makers in which they had to match employees to subfunctions and to discover and apply managerial rules to achieve a difficult level of organizational performance. Those who performed the challenging managerial task under an entity conception of ability suffered a loss in perceived self-efficacy, lowered their organizational goals, and became less efficient in their analytic strategies. Ss who managed the organization under an acquirable skill conception of ability sustained their perceived self-efficacy, set challenging organizational goals, and used analytic strategies effectively. These divergences in self-regulatory factors were accompanied by substantial differences in organizational performance. Path analysis revealed that perceived self-efficacy had both a direct effect on organizational performance and an indirect effect through its influence on analytic strategies. Personal goals also affected organizational performance through the mediation of analytic strategies. The relation of prior organizational performance to subsequent performance was mediated entirely by the combined influence of the self-regulatory factors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T518000009

    View details for PubMedID 2926637

  • PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY IN COPING WITH COGNITIVE STRESSORS AND OPIOID ACTIVATION JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Cioffi, D., Taylor, C. B., Brouillard, M. E. 1988; 55 (3): 479-488

    Abstract

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that perceived self-inefficacy in exercising control over cognitive stressors activates endogenous opioid systems. Subjects performed mathematical operations under conditions in which they could exercise full control over the cognitive task demands or in which the cognitive demands strained or exceeded their cognitive capabilities. Subjects with induced high perceived self-efficacy exhibited little stress, whereas those with induced low perceived self-efficacy experienced a high level of stress and autonomic arousal. Subjects were then administered either an inert saline solution or naloxone, an opiate antagonist that blocks the analgesic effects of endogenous opiates, whereupon their level of pain tolerance was measured. The self-efficacious nonstressed subjects gave no evidence of opioid activation. The self-inefficacious stressed subjects were able to withstand increasing amounts of pain stimulation under saline conditions. However, when endogenous opioid mechanisms that control pain were blocked by naloxone, the subjects were unable to bear much pain stimulation. This pattern of changes suggests that the stress-induced analgesia found under the saline condition was mediated by endogenous opioid mechanisms and counteracted by the opiate antagonist.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P923300012

    View details for PubMedID 3171918

  • TRANSLATING COGNITION INTO ACTION - THE ROLE OF VISUAL GUIDANCE IN OBSERVATIONAL-LEARNING JOURNAL OF MOTOR BEHAVIOR Carroll, W. R., Bandura, A. 1987; 19 (3): 385-398

    Abstract

    This experiment examined the role of two forms of visual guidance in facilitating the translation of cognitive representations into action. Subjects matched a modeled action pattern either concurrently with the model or after the modeled display. They then either did or did not visually monitor their actions during tests of production accuracy in the model's absence. Acquisition of the cognitive representation was assessed periodically. Concurrent matching of modeled actions or visual monitoring of productions both increased the level of observational learning. The more accurate the cognitive representation, the more skilled were subsequent reproductions of the modeled actions. After acquiring proficiency in converting cognition to action, subjects maintained their level of performance accuracy even though modeled and visual-monitoring guidance were withdrawn. These results are in accordance with the theory that cognitive representation mediates response production and that corrective adjustments through visual guidance aid in the translation of conception into action.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L451200006

    View details for PubMedID 14988054

  • PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY AND PAIN CONTROL - OPIOID AND NONOPIOID MECHANISMS JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., OLEARY, A., Taylor, C. B., Gauthier, J., Gossard, D. 1987; 53 (3): 563-571

    Abstract

    In this experiment, we tested for opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of pain control through cognitive means and the relation of opioid involvement to perceived coping efficacy. Subjects were taught cognitive methods of pain control, were administered a placebo, or received no intervention. Their pain tolerance was then measured at periodic intervals after they were administered either a saline solution or naloxone, an opiate antagonist that blocks the effects of endogenous opiates. Training in cognitive control strengthened perceived self-efficacy both to withstand and to reduce pain; placebo medication enhanced perceived efficacy to withstand pain but not reductive efficacy; and neither form of perceived self-efficacy changed without any intervention. Regardless of condition, the stronger the perceived self-efficacy to withstand pain, the longer subjects endured mounting pain stimulation. The findings provide evidence that attenuation of the impact of pain stimulation through cognitive control is mediated by both opioid and nonopioid mechanisms. Cognitive copers administered naloxone were less able to tolerate pain stimulation than were their saline counterparts. The stronger the perceived self-efficacy to reduce pain, the greater was the opioid activation. Cognitive copers were also able to achieve some increase in pain tolerance even when opioid mechanisms were blocked by naloxone, which is in keeping with a nonopioid component in cognitive pain control. We found suggestive evidence that placebo medication may also activate some opioid involvement. Because placebos do not impart pain reduction skills, it was perceived self-efficacy to endure pain that predicted degree of opioid activation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J918000015

    View details for PubMedID 2821217

  • DIFFERENTIAL ENGAGEMENT OF SELF-REACTIVE INFLUENCES IN COGNITIVE MOTIVATION ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES Bandura, A., Cervone, D. 1986; 38 (1): 92-113
  • FROM THOUGHT TO ACTION - MECHANISMS OF PERSONAL AGENCY NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A. 1986; 15 (1): 1-17
  • THE EXPLANATORY AND PREDICTIVE SCOPE OF SELF-EFFICACY THEORY JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A. 1986; 4 (3): 359-373
  • CATECHOLAMINE SECRETION AS A FUNCTION OF PERCEIVED COPING SELF-EFFICACY JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Taylor, C. B., Williams, S. L., MEFFORD, I. N., BARCHAS, J. D. 1985; 53 (3): 406-414

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AJC1000015

    View details for PubMedID 4008724

  • EXERCISE TESTING TO ENHANCE WIVES CONFIDENCE IN THEIR HUSBANDS CARDIAC CAPABILITY SOON AFTER CLINICALLY UNCOMPLICATED ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Taylor, C. B., Bandura, A., Ewart, C. K., Miller, N. H., DeBusk, R. F. 1985; 55 (6): 635-638

    Abstract

    The effects of wives' involvement in their husbands' performance of treadmill exercise testing 3 weeks after clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction was compared in 10 wives who did not observe the test, 10 who observed the test, and 10 who observed and participated in the test themselves. In a counseling session after the treadmill test, couples were fully informed about the patient's capacity to perform various physical activities. Wives' final ratings of confidence (perceived efficacy) in their husbands' physical and cardiac capability were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in those who also performed the test than in the other 2 groups. Only wives who walked on the treadmill increased their ratings of their husbands' physical and cardiac efficacy to a level equivalent to those of their husbands. Spouses' and patients' perceptions of patients' cardiac capability after treadmill testing and counseling at 3 weeks were significantly correlated with peak treadmill heart rate and workload at 11 and 26 weeks. Efficacy ratings at 3 weeks were slightly better than peak 3-week treadmill heart rate and workload as predictors of treadmill performance at 11 and 26 weeks. Participation in treadmill testing early after acute myocardial infarction is an effective means for reassuring spouses about the capacity of their partners to resume their customary physical activities with safety.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ADE5000004

    View details for PubMedID 3976503

  • ROLE OF TIMING OF VISUAL MONITORING AND MOTOR REHEARSAL IN OBSERVATIONAL-LEARNING OF ACTION PATTERNS JOURNAL OF MOTOR BEHAVIOR Carroll, W. R., Bandura, A. 1985; 17 (3): 269-281

    Abstract

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that observational learning is enhanced by visual monitoring of enactments that is optimally timed for conception-action matching and by motor rehearsal that serves to refine the cognitive representation. Subjects observed a modeled action pattern, after which they enacted it with either concurrent, delayed, or no visual monitoring. They then engaged in motor rehearsal or did not rehearse the action pattern. Development of the cognitive representation of the modeled action was also measured. Concurrent visual monitoring of enactments greatly facilitated observational learning, whereas delayed visual monitoring did not affect the acquisition process. Rehearsal aided cognitive representation and behavioral reproduction. The more accurate the cognitive representation of the modeled action pattern, the more skilled were the subsequent reproductions of it. After gaining proficiency in converting conception to action, subjects showed no decline in reproduction accuracy when modeling and visual monitoring were withdrawn.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ARM5700002

    View details for PubMedID 15140682

  • RECYCLING MISCONCEPTIONS OF PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY COGNITIVE THERAPY AND RESEARCH Bandura, A. 1984; 8 (3): 231-255
  • INFLUENCE OF GENDER CONSTANCY AND SOCIAL POWER ON SEX-LINKED MODELING JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bussey, K., Bandura, A. 1984; 47 (6): 1292-1302

    Abstract

    Competing predictions derived from cognitive-developmental theory and social learning theory concerning sex-linked modeling were tested. In cognitive-developmental theory, gender constancy is considered a necessary prerequisite for the emulation of same-sex models, whereas according to social learning theory, sex-role development is promoted through a vast system of social influences with modeling serving as a major conveyor of sex role information. In accord with social learning theory, even children at a lower level of gender conception emulated same-sex models in preference to opposite-sex ones. Level of gender constancy was associated with higher emulation of both male and female models rather than operating as a selective determinant of modeling. This finding corroborates modeling as a basic mechanism in the sex-typing process. In a second experiment we explored the limits of same-sex modeling by pitting social power against the force of collective modeling of different patterns of behavior by male and female models. Social power over activities and rewarding resources produced cross-sex modeling in boys, but not in girls. This unexpected pattern of cross-sex modeling is explained by the differential sex-typing pressures that exist for boys and girls and socialization experiences that heighten the attractiveness of social power for boys.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984ABC9400009

    View details for PubMedID 6527216

  • SELF-EVALUATIVE AND SELF-EFFICACY MECHANISMS GOVERNING THE MOTIVATIONAL EFFECTS OF GOAL SYSTEMS JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Cervone, D. 1983; 45 (5): 1017-1028
  • SELF-EFFICACY DETERMINANTS OF ANTICIPATED FEARS AND CALAMITIES JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A. 1983; 45 (2): 464-469
  • SOCIAL DEMAND FOR CONSISTENCY AND CONGRUENCE BETWEEN SELF-EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE BEHAVIOR THERAPY Telch, M. J., Bandura, A., Vinciguerra, P., AGRAS, A., Stout, A. L. 1982; 13 (5): 694-701
  • THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANCE ENCOUNTERS AND LIFE PATHS AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Bandura, A. 1982; 37 (7): 747-755
  • THE ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE GENERALITY OF SELF-PERCEPTS OF EFFICACY JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHIATRY Bandura, A. 1982; 13 (3): 195-199

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PL34400003

    View details for PubMedID 7142408

  • MICROANALYSIS OF ACTION AND FEAR AROUSAL AS A FUNCTION OF DIFFERENTIAL LEVELS OF PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Reese, L., Adams, N. E. 1982; 43 (1): 5-21

    Abstract

    Two experiments combining intergroup and intrasubject designs were conducted to test the hypothesis that self-percepts of efficacy operate as cognitive mediators of coping behavior and fear arousal. Differential levels of self-efficacy were induced in phobic subjects through either inactive mastery or modeling. Their coping behavior and accompanying fear arousal were then measured. In the next phase, self-efficacy was successively raised to designated levels within the same subjects, whereupon their behavior and fear arousal were again measured. Coping behavior corresponded closely to instated self-percepts of efficacy, with higher levels of perceived self-efficacy being accompanied by greater performance attainments. The efficacy-action relationship was replicated across different modes of efficacy induction, different types of behavioral dysfunctions, and in both intergroup and intrasubject comparisons. The hypothesis that fear arousal stems largely from perceived coping inefficacy also received support from the findings. As subjects' self-efficacy level was raised, they experienced progressively less anticipatory and performance distress while coping with threats. Results of a third experiment using cardiac acceleration and elevation in blood pressure as indicants of arousal further corroborate the generality of the relationship between perceived coping inefficacy and stress reactions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NY09900001

    View details for PubMedID 7108745

  • SELF-EFFICACY MECHANISM IN HUMAN AGENCY AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Bandura, A. 1982; 37 (2): 122-147
  • THE ROLE OF VISUAL MONITORING IN OBSERVATIONAL-LEARNING OF ACTION PATTERNS - MAKING THE UNOBSERVABLE OBSERVABLE JOURNAL OF MOTOR BEHAVIOR Carroll, W. R., Bandura, A. 1982; 14 (2): 153-167

    Abstract

    The present experiment tested the hypothesis that concurrent visual feedback enhances observational learning of a novel action pattern that normally would be unobservable. Subjects repeatedly enacted a modeled action pattern with visual monitoring of their reproductions throughout enactments, during only early or late phases of enactment, or not at all. At periodic intervals the adequacy of their conception of the modeled pattern was also measured. Visual feedback during ongoing performance enhanced accurate reproduction of the modeled pattern; the facilitative effect was most pronounced for reproduction of complex response components. The superiority of subjects who had enacted these difficult response components with visual feedback was maintained even when both the model and feedback were withdrawn. Visual feedback did not facilitate accurate enactment of the modeled pattern before development of an adequate cognitive representation of it. The results support the social learning view that observationally-learned behaviors are cognitively represented and that visual monitoring serves to decrease discrepancies between conception and action.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PC40200004

    View details for PubMedID 15155177

  • CITATION CLASSIC - SOCIAL-LEARNING AND PERSONALITY-DEVELOPMENT CURRENT CONTENTS/SOCIAL & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES Bandura, A. 1981: 16-16
  • IN SEARCH OF PURE UNIDIRECTIONAL DETERMINANTS BEHAVIOR THERAPY Bandura, A. 1981; 12 (1): 30-40
  • PREVENTING VIOLENCE - BEFORE AND AFTER THE 1ST OFFENSE CENTER MAGAZINE Berk, R. A., Marcus, M., Diamond, B., CASTLIO, G., Fleming, M., Newman, J., BEGAN, J. M., Bandura, A., CRESSEY, D. R., Harrington, J. 1981; 14 (6): 39-44
  • PREDICTING VIOLENCE IN YOUTHS IS RISKY CENTER MAGAZINE Short, J. F., Marcus, M., Bandura, A., Fleming, M., FARSON, R., BEGAN, J. M., Campbell, D., Berk, R. A., Diamond, B., Price, R. 1981; 14 (6): 14-20
  • CULTIVATING COMPETENCE, SELF-EFFICACY, AND INTRINSIC INTEREST THROUGH PROXIMAL SELF-MOTIVATION JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., SCHUNK, D. H. 1981; 41 (3): 586-598
  • IS TELEVISION A SCHOOL FOR AGGRESSION CENTER MAGAZINE Bandura, A., Marcus, M., Diamond, B., KESSLER, L. B., Berk, R. A. 1981; 14 (6): 20-21
  • TESTS OF THE GENERALITY OF SELF-EFFICACY THEORY COGNITIVE THERAPY AND RESEARCH Bandura, A., Adams, N. E., Hardy, A. B., HOWELLS, G. N. 1980; 4 (1): 39-66
  • GAUGING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF-EFFICACY JUDGMENT AND ACTION COGNITIVE THERAPY AND RESEARCH Bandura, A. 1980; 4 (2): 263-268
  • CITATION CLASSIC - PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR-MODIFICATION CURRENT CONTENTS/SOCIAL & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES Bandura, A. 1979: 10-10
  • ECUMENISM IN RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES COGNITIVE THERAPY AND RESEARCH Bandura, A. 1979; 3 (3): 245-248
  • DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN LOGICAL AND EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION - COMMENT ON SMEDSLUND SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A. 1978; 19 (2): 97-99
  • SOCIAL-LEARNING THEORY OF AGGRESSION JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION Bandura, A. 1978; 28 (3): 12-29

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978FH06300001

    View details for PubMedID 690254

  • SELF SYSTEM IN RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Bandura, A. 1978; 33 (4): 344-358
  • PARADIGMS AND RECYCLED IDEOLOGIES COGNITIVE THERAPY AND RESEARCH Bandura, A. 1978; 2 (1): 79-103
  • COGNITIVE-PROCESSES MEDIATING BEHAVIORAL CHANGE JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Adams, N. E., Beyer, J. 1977; 35 (3): 125-139

    Abstract

    The present experiment was designed to test the theory that psychological procedures achieve changes in behavior by altering the level and strength of self-efficacy. In this formulation, perceived self-efficacy. In this formulation, perceived self-efficacy influences level of performance by enhancing intensity and persistence of effort. Adult phobics were administered treatments based upon either performance mastery experiences, vicarious experiences., or they received no treatment. Their efficacy expectations and approach behavior toward threats differing on a similarity dimension were measured before and after treatment. In accord with our prediction, the mastery-based treatment produced higher, stronger, and more generalized expectations of personal efficacy than did the treatment relying solely upon vicarious experiences. Results of a microanalysis further confirm the hypothesized relationship between self-efficacy and behavioral change. Self-efficacy was a uniformly accurate predictor of performance on tasks of varying difficulty with different threats regardless of whether the changes in self-efficacy were produced through enactive mastery or by vicarious experience alone.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1977DB88100001

    View details for PubMedID 15093

  • SELF-EFFICACY - TOWARD A UNIFYING THEORY OF BEHAVIORAL CHANGE PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW Bandura, A. 1977; 84 (2): 191-215

    View details for Web of Science ID A1977CY52700002

    View details for PubMedID 847061

  • DISCRIMINATIVE ACTIVATION AND MAINTENANCE OF CONTINGENT SELF-REINFORCEMENT BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Bandura, A., Mahoney, M. J., Dirks, S. J. 1976; 14 (1): 1-6

    View details for Web of Science ID A1976BJ09400001

    View details for PubMedID 938415

  • SELF-REINFORCEMENT - THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS BEHAVIORISM Bandura, A. 1976; 4 (2): 135-155
  • DISINHIBITION OF AGGRESSION THROUGH DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY AND DEHUMANIZATION OF VICTIMS JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Bandura, A., Underwood, B., FROMSON, M. E. 1975; 9 (4): 253-269
  • GENERALIZING CHANGE THROUGH PARTICIPANT MODELING WITH SELF-DIRECTED MASTERY BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Bandura, A., Jeffery, R. W., Gajdos, E. 1975; 13 (2-3): 141-152

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975AF23200008

    View details for PubMedID 1164369

  • MAINTENANCE AND TRANSFER OF SELF-REINFORCEMENT FUNCTIONS BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Bandura, A., Mahoney, M. J. 1974; 12 (2): 89-97
  • BEHAVIOR-THEORY AND MODELS OF MAN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Bandura, A. 1974; 29 (12): 859-869
  • ANALYSIS OF MEMORY CODES AND CUMULATIVE REHEARSAL IN OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Bandura, A., Jeffery, R., BACHICHA, D. L. 1974; 7 (4): 295-305
  • RELATIVE PREFERENCE FOR EXTERNAL AND SELF-CONTROLLED REINFORCEMENT IN MONKEYS BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Mahoney, M. J., Bandura, A., Dirks, S. J., Wright, C. L. 1974; 12 (3): 157-163
  • EFFICACY OF PARTICIPANT MODELING AS A FUNCTION OF RESPONSE INDUCTION AIDS JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Jeffery, R. W., Wright, C. L. 1974; 83 (1): 56-64

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974S343300007

    View details for PubMedID 4855861

  • ROLE OF SYMBOLIC CODING AND REHEARSAL PROCESSES IN OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., Jeffery, R. W. 1973; 26 (1): 122-130
  • PROCESSES GOVERNING DISINHIBITORY EFFECTS THROUGH SYMBOLIC MODELING JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., BARAB, P. G. 1973; 82 (1): 1-9

    View details for Web of Science ID A1973Q596500001

    View details for PubMedID 4738326

  • CONDITIONS GOVERNING NONREINFORCED IMITATION DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Bandura, A., BARAB, P. G. 1971; 5 (2): 244-255