- Critical Care Medicine
Clinical Associate Professor, Emergency Medicine
Medical Director, Stanford Life Flight (2020 - Present)
Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Critical Care Medicine (2015)
Residency: UCSF Fresno Emergency Medicine Residency (2011) CA
Medical Education: Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons (2016) NY
Fellowship: University of Washington Medical Center (2015) WA
Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2012)
Internship: University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine (2007) IL
Graduate and Fellowship Programs
Critical Care Medicine (Fellowship Program)
Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) adult study protocol: Rationale, objectives, and design.
2023; 18 (6): e0286297
SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in ongoing, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects after the acute phase of infection; termed post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), or long COVID. The characteristics, prevalence, trajectory and mechanisms of PASC are ill-defined. The objectives of the Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) Multi-site Observational Study of PASC in Adults (RECOVER-Adult) are to: (1) characterize PASC prevalence; (2) characterize the symptoms, organ dysfunction, natural history, and distinct phenotypes of PASC; (3) identify demographic, social and clinical risk factors for PASC onset and recovery; and (4) define the biological mechanisms underlying PASC pathogenesis.RECOVER-Adult is a combined prospective/retrospective cohort currently planned to enroll 14,880 adults aged ≥18 years. Eligible participants either must meet WHO criteria for suspected, probable, or confirmed infection; or must have evidence of no prior infection. Recruitment occurs at 86 sites in 33 U.S. states, Washington, DC and Puerto Rico, via facility- and community-based outreach. Participants complete quarterly questionnaires about symptoms, social determinants, vaccination status, and interim SARS-CoV-2 infections. In addition, participants contribute biospecimens and undergo physical and laboratory examinations at approximately 0, 90 and 180 days from infection or negative test date, and yearly thereafter. Some participants undergo additional testing based on specific criteria or random sampling. Patient representatives provide input on all study processes. The primary study outcome is onset of PASC, measured by signs and symptoms. A paradigm for identifying PASC cases will be defined and updated using supervised and unsupervised learning approaches with cross-validation. Logistic regression and proportional hazards regression will be conducted to investigate associations between risk factors, onset, and resolution of PASC symptoms.RECOVER-Adult is the first national, prospective, longitudinal cohort of PASC among US adults. Results of this study are intended to inform public health, spur clinical trials, and expand treatment options.NCT05172024.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0286297
View details for PubMedID 37352211
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10289397
Association of an Emergency Critical Care Program With Survival and Early Downgrade Among Critically Ill Medical Patients in the Emergency Department.
Critical care medicine
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether implementation of an Emergency Critical Care Program (ECCP) is associated with improved survival and early downgrade of critically ill medical patients in the emergency department (ED).DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective cohort study using ED-visit data between 2015 and 2019.SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center.PATIENTS: Adult medical patients presenting to the ED with a critical care admission order within 12 hours of arrival.INTERVENTIONS: Dedicated bedside critical care for medical ICU patients by an ED-based intensivist following initial resuscitation by the ED team.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary outcomes were inhospital mortality and the proportion of patients downgraded to non-ICU status while in the ED within 6 hours of the critical care admission order (ED downgrade <6hr). A difference-in-differences (DiD) analysis compared the change in outcomes for patients arriving during ECCP hours (2 pm to midnight, weekdays) between the preintervention period (2015-2017) and the intervention period (2017-2019) to the change in outcomes for patients arriving during non-ECCP hours (all other hours). Adjustment for severity of illness was performed using the emergency critical care Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (eccSOFA) score. The primary cohort included 2,250 patients. The DiDs for the eccSOFA-adjusted inhospital mortality decreased by 6.0% (95% CI, -11.9 to -0.1) with largest difference in the intermediate illness severity group (DiD, -12.2%; 95% CI, -23.1 to -1.3). The increase in ED downgrade less than 6 hours was not statistically significant (DiD, 4.8%; 95% CI, -0.7 to 10.3%) except in the intermediate group (DiD, 8.8%; 95% CI, 0.2-17.4).CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a novel ECCP was associated with a significant decrease in inhospital mortality among critically ill medical ED patients, with the greatest decrease observed in patients with intermediate severity of illness. Early ED downgrades also increased, but the difference was statistically significant only in the intermediate illness severity group.
View details for DOI 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005835
View details for PubMedID 37010317
An Ethical Anaylsis of the Arguments Both For and Against COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates for Healthcare Workers
JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE
2023; 64 (2): 246-250
Since the development of the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine for the prevention of serious disease and death associated with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, health care workers have been expected to comply with mandatory immunization requirements or face potential termination of employment and censure by their state medical boards. Although most accepted this mandate, there have been several who have felt this was an unnecessary intrusion and violation of their right to choose their own health care mitigation strategies, or an infringement on their autonomy and other civil liberties. Others have argued that being a health care professional places your duties above your own self-interests, so-called fiduciary duties. As a result of these duties, there is an expected obligation to do the best action to achieve the "most good" for society. A so-called "utilitarian argument."We explore arguments both for and against these mandatory vaccine requirements and conclude using duty- and consequence-based moral reasoning to weigh the merits of each.Although arguments for and against vaccine mandates are compelling, it is the opinion of the Ethics Committee of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine that vaccine mandates for health care workers are ethically just and appropriate, and the benefit to society far outweighs the minor inconvenience to an individual's personal liberties.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2022.11.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000951686600001
View details for PubMedID 36746692
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9659509
Development of a Definition of Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
Importance: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with persistent, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects occurring after acute infection, termed postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), also known as long COVID. Characterizing PASC requires analysis of prospectively and uniformly collected data from diverse uninfected and infected individuals.Objective: To develop a definition of PASC using self-reported symptoms and describe PASC frequencies across cohorts, vaccination status, and number of infections.Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective observational cohort study of adults with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection at 85 enrolling sites (hospitals, health centers, community organizations) located in 33 states plus Washington, DC, and Puerto Rico. Participants who were enrolled in the RECOVER adult cohort before April 10, 2023, completed a symptom survey 6 months or more after acute symptom onset or test date. Selection included population-based, volunteer, and convenience sampling.Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection.Main Outcomes and Measures: PASC and 44 participant-reported symptoms (with severity thresholds).Results: A total of 9764 participants (89% SARS-CoV-2 infected; 71% female; 16% Hispanic/Latino; 15% non-Hispanic Black; median age, 47 years [IQR, 35-60]) met selection criteria. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.5 or greater (infected vs uninfected participants) for 37 symptoms. Symptoms contributing to PASC score included postexertional malaise, fatigue, brain fog, dizziness, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, changes in sexual desire or capacity, loss of or change in smell or taste, thirst, chronic cough, chest pain, and abnormal movements. Among 2231 participants first infected on or after December 1, 2021, and enrolled within 30 days of infection, 224 (10% [95% CI, 8.8%-11%]) were PASC positive at 6 months.Conclusions and Relevance: A definition of PASC was developed based on symptoms in a prospective cohort study. As a first step to providing a framework for other investigations, iterative refinement that further incorporates other clinical features is needed to support actionable definitions of PASC.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2023.8823
View details for PubMedID 37278994
Call of Duty - What are Physicians' Obligations During Crises?
The Journal of emergency medicine
BACKGROUND: Society allows physicians the privilege and responsibility of caring for patients. Those responsibilities demand that their knowledge and technical expertise meet standards defined and policed by their colleagues, through medical societies or governmental entities. However, the fiduciary duty that patients' interests are held above those of the physicians' is an ethical precept that is tested when society is under threat.DISCUSSION: Disasters that stress society are a constant and can present themselves in a myriad of ways to include medical, meteorological, or political. Minimizing the potential damage to the quality and quantity of life of the population is dependent upon public safety personnel and health care professionals who may put their health and safety in harm's way to care for patients. These acts may be taken for granted or assumed to be part of the professional obligations of physicians and other health care workers who work at the bedside. The obligations of physicians to their patients and society may differ from those not in the medical field, and the level of risk deemed acceptable by the physician and by society should be clearly delineated.CONCLUSION: Despite the conflict between normative and descriptive ethics, in times of disaster, physicians must respond to the call of duty. This duty is contingent on the responsibility being shared with governmental agencies and health care facilities, to mitigate the risks borne by those who answer the call.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2022.07.017
View details for PubMedID 36229319
Cutting Edge Acute Ischemic Stroke Management.
Emergency medicine clinics of North America
2019; 37 (3): 365–79
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and streamlined work-up to ensure that time-dependent therapies are initiated to achieve the best outcomes. This article discusses frequently missed AIS in the emergency department, the role of various imagining modalities in the work-up of AIS, updates on the use of intravenous thrombolytics and endovascular therapy for AIS, pearls on supportive care management of AIS, and prehospital and hospital process improvements to shorten door-to-needle time.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.emc.2019.03.001
View details for PubMedID 31262409
Radiographic and Clinical Predictors of Cardiac Dysfunction Following Isolated Traumatic Brain Injury
JOURNAL OF INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE
2017; 32 (2): 151-157
Although cardiac dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been described, there is little data regarding the association of radiographic severity and particular lesions of TBI with the development of cardiac dysfunction. We hypothesize that the Rotterdam or Marshall scores and particular TBI lesions are associated with the development of cardiac dysfunction after isolated TBI.We performed a retrospective cohort study. Adult patients with isolated TBI who underwent echocardiography between 2003 and 2010 were included. A board-certified neuroradiologist assessed the first computed tomography head, assigning the Rotterdam and Marshall scores and the type of TBI. Cardiac dysfunction was defined as either systolic or all cause based on the first echocardiogram after TBI. Demographic, radiological, and clinical variables were used in our analysis.A total of 139 patients were identified, with 20 having isolated systolic dysfunction. The Marshall and Rotterdam scores were not associated with the development of cardiac dysfunction. Only head Abbreviated Injury Scale was found to be an independent predictor of systolic cardiac dysfunction (relative risk: 2.70, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-6.13; P = .02).No specific radiographic variable was found to be an independent predictor of cardiac dysfunction. Further study into clinical or radiological features that would warrant an echocardiogram is warranted, as it may direct patient management.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0885066615616907
View details for Web of Science ID 000394894200007
View details for PubMedID 26584593
CERVICAL SPINE INJURY: ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF PATIENTS BY MODE OF TRANSPORTATION
JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE
2013; 44 (2): 287-291
Cervical spine injury (CSI) studies have identified different factors contributing to CSI, but none compares the incidence and pattern of injury of patients arriving at the Emergency Department (ED) by private vehicle (PV).We compared the characteristics and injury patterns in CSI patients who were transported to the ED via Emergency Medical Services (EMS) versus PV.We conducted a three-hospital retrospective review of patients with CSI from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2007. We excluded transfers and follow-up visits. Using a standardized data collection form, we reviewed demographics, mode of transport, mechanism of injury, imaging results, injury type and level, and neurologic deficits. Means and proportions were compared using t-tests and chi-squared as appropriate.Of 1174 charts identified, 718 met all study criteria; 671 arrived by EMS and 47 by PV. There was no difference between groups in age or gender. Ground-level fall was more likely in PV patients (32%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 20-46% vs. 6%, 95% CI 4-9%), whereas motor vehicle collision was less likely (32%, 95% CI 20-46% vs. 67%, 95% CI 63-70%). PV patients more often sustained a stable injury (66%, 95% CI 52-78% vs. 40%, 95% CI 36-44%), and were more often triaged to a lower-acuity area (25%, 95% CI 15-40% vs. 4%, 95% CI 3-6%). The incidence of neurologic deficit was similar (32%, 95% CI 20-46% vs. 24%, 95% CI 21-28%), though more PV patients had spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (21%, 95% CI 12-35% vs. 5%, 95% CI 4-7%).A small proportion of patients with CSI present to the ED by PV. Although most had stable injuries, a surprising number had unstable injuries with neurologic deficits, and were triaged to lower-acuity areas in the ED.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.06.021
View details for Web of Science ID 000314665400039
View details for PubMedID 22917652