Professional Education

  • Bachelor of Science, University of California Irvine, Biological Sciences (2010)
  • Bachelor of Science, University of California Irvine, Chemistry (2010)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, California Institute of Technology, Biology (2015)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Structural characterization of GASDALIE Fc bound to the activating Fc receptor Fc gamma RIIIa JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY Ahmed, A. A., Keremane, S. R., Vielmetter, J., Bjorkman, P. J. 2016; 194 (1): 78-89


    The Fc region of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) initiates inflammatory responses such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) through binding to activating Fc receptors (FcγRI, FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIa). These receptors are expressed on the surface of immune cells including macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. An inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIb, is expressed on macrophages and other myeloid leukocytes simultaneously with the activating receptor FcγRIIa, thereby setting a threshold for cell activation. The affinity of IgG Fc for binding activating Fc receptors depends on IgG subclass and the composition of N-linked glycans attached to a conserved asparagine in the Fc CH2 domain. For example, Fc regions with afucosylated glycans bind more tightly to FcγRIIIa than fucosylated Fc, and afucosylated Fcs exhibit enhanced ADCC activity in vivo and in vitro. Enhanced pro-inflammatory responses have also been seen for Fc regions with amino acid substitutions. GASDALIE Fc is an Fc mutant (G236A/S239D/A330L/I332E) that exhibits a higher affinity for FcγRIIIa and increased effector functions in vivo compared to wild-type Fc. To explore its altered functions, we compared the affinities of GASDALIE and wild-type Fc for activating and inhibitory FcγRs. We also determined the crystal structure of GASDALIE Fc alone and bound to FcγRIIIa. The overall structure of GASDALIE Fc alone was similar to wild-type Fc structures, however, increased electrostatic interactions in the GASDALIE Fc:FcγRIIIa interface compared with other Fc:FcγR structures suggest a mechanism for the increased affinity of GASDALIE Fc for FcγRIIIa.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsb.2016.02.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371193600009

    View details for PubMedID 26850169

  • Structural Characterization of Anti-Inflammatory Immunoglobulin G Fc Proteins JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Ahmed, A. A., Giddens, J., Pincetic, A., Lomino, J. V., Ravetch, J. V., Wang, L., Bjorkman, P. J. 2014; 426 (18): 3166-3179


    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a central mediator of host defense due to its ability to recognize and eliminate pathogens. The recognition and effector responses are encoded on distinct regions of IgGs. The diversity of the antigen recognition Fab domains accounts for IgG's ability to bind with high specificity to essentially any antigen. Recent studies have indicated that the Fc effector domain also displays considerable heterogeneity, accounting for its complex effector functions of inflammation, modulation, and immune suppression. Therapeutic anti-tumor antibodies, for example, require the pro-inflammatory properties of the IgG Fc to eliminate tumor cells, while the anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous IgG requires specific Fc glycans for activity. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous IgG is ascribed to a small population of IgGs in which the Asn297-linked complex N-glycans attached to each Fc CH2 domain include terminal α2,6-linked sialic acids. We used chemoenzymatic glycoengineering to prepare fully disialylated IgG Fc and solved its crystal structure. Comparison of the structures of asialylated Fc, sialylated Fc, and F241A Fc, a mutant that displays increased glycan sialylation, suggests that increased conformational flexibility of the CH2 domain is associated with the switch from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory activity of the Fc.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jmb.2014.07.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341539200006

    View details for PubMedID 25036289