Professional Education


  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Kansas (2015)
  • Bachelor of Science, Baker University (2010)

Stanford Advisors


All Publications


  • Organoid Modeling of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment. Cell Neal, J. T., Li, X., Zhu, J., Giangarra, V., Grzeskowiak, C. L., Ju, J., Liu, I. H., Chiou, S., Salahudeen, A. A., Smith, A. R., Deutsch, B. C., Liao, L., Zemek, A. J., Zhao, F., Karlsson, K., Schultz, L. M., Metzner, T. J., Nadauld, L. D., Tseng, Y., Alkhairy, S., Oh, C., Keskula, P., Mendoza-Villanueva, D., De La Vega, F. M., Kunz, P. L., Liao, J. C., Leppert, J. T., Sunwoo, J. B., Sabatti, C., Boehm, J. S., Hahn, W. C., Zheng, G. X., Davis, M. M., Kuo, C. J. 2018; 175 (7): 1972

    Abstract

    Invitro cancer cultures, including three-dimensional organoids, typically contain exclusively neoplastic epithelium but require artificial reconstitution to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment (TME). The co-culture of primary tumor epithelia with endogenous, syngeneic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as a cohesive unit has been particularly elusive. Here, an air-liquid interface (ALI) method propagated patient-derived organoids (PDOs) from >100 human biopsies or mouse tumors in syngeneic immunocompetent hosts as tumor epithelia with native embedded immune cells (T, B, NK, macrophages). Robust droplet-based, single-cell simultaneous determination of gene expression and immune repertoire indicated that PDO TILs accurately preserved the original tumor Tcell receptor (TCR) spectrum. Crucially, human and murine PDOs successfully modeled immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with anti-PD-1- and/or anti-PD-L1 expanding and activating tumor antigen-specific TILs and eliciting tumor cytotoxicity. Organoid-based propagation of primary tumor epithelium en bloc with endogenous immune stroma should enable immuno-oncology investigations within the TME and facilitate personalized immunotherapy testing.

    View details for PubMedID 30550791

  • Organoids lead the cancer attack NATURE MEDICINE Smith, A. R., Kuo, C. J. 2017; 23 (12): 1399–1400

    View details for PubMedID 29216041