Stanford Advisors


Research Projects


  • A Womans Worth: Understanding Gender Disparities in Access to Surgery in Cameroon (MedScholars Project)

All Publications


  • Assessing the Fisher, Mohler, and Millard Techniques of Cleft Lip Repair Surgery With Eye-Tracking Technology ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Kwong, J. W., Cai, L. Z., Azad, A. D., Lorenz, H., Khosla, R. K., Lee, G. K., Nazerali, R. S. 2019; 82: S313–S319
  • Where Do We Look? Assessing Gaze Patterns in Cosmetic Facelift Surgery with Eye Tracking Technology. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Cai, L. Z., Kwong, J. W., Azad, A. D., Kahn, D., Lee, G. K., Nazerali, R. S. 2019

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Aesthetics plays a central role in determining success in plastic surgery. Understanding perceptions of favorable aesthetics is critical to ensure patient satisfaction. Eye-tracking technology offers an objective way to evaluate attention and understand how viewers direct their focus in patients who undergo cosmetic facelift procedures.METHODS: Thirty-six subjects ranging from layperson to attending plastic surgeon viewed 15 sets of photos before and after patients underwent an elective facelift procedure. They were instructed to evaluate the aesthetic quality on a Likert scale, while eye-tracking equipment tracked their gaze and analyzed their distribution of attention.RESULTS: Post-operative images showed a Likert score improvement of 0.51±0.26, with the greatest difference in attending cosmetic plastic surgeons (1.36±0.22; p<0.05). The nose was the most common first fixation location (31% of first fixations) and the most viewed area (16±3% of fixation time) for all subjects. Experienced subjects spent less time in non-relevant areas (30±11% for attending cosmetic plastic surgeons and 37±10% for attending non-cosmetic plastic surgeons) compared to less experienced subjects (50±15% for laypersons).CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that viewers with greater experience in cosmetic surgery focus quickly on the cheeks, chin, and neck and have evenly distributed gaze across the entire face. These results suggest that laypersons' gaze are drawn to the center of the face - due to both unfamiliarity with the facelift procedure and the natural tendency to look at the central face - while attending plastic surgeons exhibit holistic gaze patterns and are more aware of the impact of the procedure.

    View details for PubMedID 30998662

  • Assessing the Fisher, Mohler, and Millard Techniques of Cleft Lip Repair Surgery With Eye-Tracking Technology. Annals of plastic surgery Kwong, J. W., Cai, L. Z., Azad, A. D., Lorenz, H. P., Khosla, R. K., Lee, G. K., Nazerali, R. S. 2019

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Cleft lip repair is essential to restoring physiologic function and ensuring social and psychological well-being in children with orofacial clefts. It is important to critically study various techniques to understand the elements of the lip and nasal repair that contribute to favorable results. Here, we use eye-tracking technology to evaluate how viewers analyze images of cleft lips repaired by the Fisher, Millard, or Mohler techniques.METHODS: Thirty viewers were shown 5 images without deformity and 5 images each of unilateral cleft lips repaired by the Fisher, Millard, or Mohler techniques. Viewers assessed the esthetic quality of images on a Likert scale while eye-tracking technology analyzed their gaze patterns.RESULTS: Of the 3 repair techniques, viewers found Fisher repairs most esthetically pleasing (mean ± standard error, 6.91 ± 0.13). Mohler repairs were next most attractive at (6.47 ± 0.13), followed by Millard repairs at (5.60 ± 0.14). The proportion of time spent in fixed gaze on the nose and upper lip was greatest for Millard repairs (58.3% ± 0.4%) and least for Fisher repairs (51.9% ± 0.5%). Viewers fixated most frequently on the nose and upper lip in Millard repairs (83.2% ± 0.5%) and least frequently in Fisher repairs (75.3% ± 0.5%). When examining the Millard compared with Fisher and Mohler repairs, viewers spent more time and fixations on the ipsilateral lip, nose, and repair scar than on the contralateral lip.CONCLUSIONS: The esthetics of the Fisher repair appear to be favored as measured by Likert scores and gaze data. Eye-tracking technology may be a useful tool to assess outcomes in plastic surgery.

    View details for PubMedID 30882421

  • Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials for Surgical Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Long, C., Azad, A. D., desJardins-Park, H. E., Fox, P. M. 2019; 143 (3): 791–99

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard in evidence-based medicine. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the quantity, quality, and trends of randomized controlled trials that assess surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.METHODS: The authors identified randomized controlled trials comparing two or more surgical interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome in PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Clinicaltrials.gov. Two independent reviewers evaluated articles for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed randomized controlled trial quality using the Jadad score.RESULTS: Of 2253 identified studies, 58 met full inclusion criteria. They were published between 1985 and 2015, with a significant increase over time (p = 0.003). They were most frequently published in Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume) [n = 15 (25.9 percent)]. Most randomized controlled trials were single-center studies [n = 54 (93.1 percent)] conducted in the United Kingdom [n = 13 (22.4 percent)] or the United States [n = 10 (17.2 percent)], with a mean study size of 80.1 ± 55.5 patients. Funding source was unknown in 62.1 percent (n = 36). Three-quarters [n = 44 (75.9 percent)] of randomized controlled trials did not define the primary outcome measure(s). Less than 30 percent (n = 17) of randomized controlled trials conducted a power analysis. Only four studies with patients reported lost to follow-up provided an explanation for each patient. Six randomized controlled trials (10.3 percent) conducted intention-to-treat analysis. The mean Jadad score was 2.14 ± 1.26, with no significant improvement over time (p = 0.245).CONCLUSIONS: Despite the significant increase in the number of randomized controlled trials published studying surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome over time, a mean Jadad score of 2.14 with no change over time indicates a need for improvement in quality. Proper study design is key to avoiding introduction of bias and ensuring the validity of conclusions drawn.

    View details for PubMedID 30822284

  • Where Do We Look? Assessing Gaze Patterns in Cosmetic Face-Lift Surgery with Eye Tracking Technology. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Cai, L. Z., Kwong, J. W., Azad, A. D., Kahn, D., Lee, G. K., Nazerali, R. S. 2019; 144 (1): 63–70

    Abstract

    Aesthetics plays a central role in determining success in plastic surgery. Understanding perceptions of favorable aesthetics is critical to ensure patient satisfaction. Eye-tracking technology offers an objective way of evaluating attention and understanding how viewers direct their focus on patients who undergo cosmetic face-lift procedures.Thirty-six subjects ranging from layperson to attending plastic surgeon viewed 15 sets of photographs before and after patients underwent an elective face-lift procedure. They were instructed to evaluate the aesthetic quality on a Likert scale while eye-tracking equipment tracked their gaze and analyzed their distribution of attention.Postoperative images showed a Likert score improvement of 0.51 ± 0.26, with the greatest difference in attending cosmetic plastic surgeons (1.36 ± 0.22; p < 0.05). The nose was the most common first fixation location (31 percent of first fixations) and the most viewed area (16 ± 3 percent of fixation time) for all subjects. Experienced subjects spent less time in nonrelevant areas (30 ± 11 percent for attending cosmetic plastic surgeons and 37 ± 10 percent for attending noncosmetic plastic surgeons) compared with less experienced subjects (50 ± 15 percent for laypersons).This study demonstrates that viewers with greater experience in cosmetic surgery focus quickly on the cheeks, chin, and neck and have evenly distributed gaze across the entire face. These results suggest that a layperson's gaze is drawn to the center of the face (because of both unfamiliarity with the face-lift procedure and the natural tendency to look at the central face), whereas attending plastic surgeons exhibit holistic gaze patterns and are more aware of the impact of the procedure.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000005700

    View details for PubMedID 31246802