All Publications

  • More is not better: A scoping review of simulation in transition to residency programs. Surgery Anand, A., Jensen, R., Korndorffer, J. R. 2023


    Transition to residency programs frequently use simulation to promote clinical skills but place limited emphasis on non-clinical skills. We conducted a scoping review to determine how simulation is being used in transition to residency programs and the key non-clinical skills addressed by simulation activities and tools in these programs.We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase to identify articles addressing transition to residency, simulation, and non-clinical skills/attributes. Two authors independently screened all abstracts and full-text articles and identified non-clinical attributes elicited in each study. Using descriptive statistics, we characterized the simulation activities and tools and the number and type of non-clinical attributes captured in the programs. Using analysis of variance, we compared the number of non-clinical attributes elicited based on the number of simulation activities used and compared the number of non-clinical attributes elicited based on the number of simulation tools used.We identified 38 articles that met the study criteria. We characterized simulation activities as mock paging (37%), case-based scenarios (74%), and/or procedural skills training (39%). We found that the most common simulation tools were standardized patients (64.8%), and the most elicited non-clinical attributes were communication skills, critical thinking, and teamwork. Using more simulation activity categories or simulation tools did not increase the number of non-clinical skills elicited.Simulation is used broadly in transition to residency programs but provides training in a few of the non-clinical skills required for a successful transition. Incorporating more simulation activities or tools does not increase the number of non-clinical attributes elicited, illustrating the importance of developing more targeted simulation activities to promote non-clinical skills more effectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2023.08.030

    View details for PubMedID 37852830

  • The domino effect: the impact of gender on operative self-efficacy. Surgical endoscopy Jensen, R. M., Anand, A., Kearse, L. E., Korndorffer, J. R. 2023


    Studies suggest that there are key differences in operative experience based on a trainee's gender. A large-scale self-efficacy (SE) survey, distributed to general surgery residents after the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination in 2020, found that female gender was associated with decreased SE in graduating PGY5 residents for all 4 laparoscopic procedures included on the survey (cholecystectomy, appendectomy, right hemicolectomy, and diagnostic laparoscopy). We sought to determine whether these differences were reflected at the case level when considering operative performance and supervision using an operative assessment tool (SIMPL OR).Supervision and performance data reported through the SIMPL OR platform for the same 4 laparoscopic procedures included in the SE survey were aggregated for residents who were PGY5s in 2020. Independent t-tests and multiple linear regression were used to determine the relationship between trainee gender and supervision/performance ratings.For laparoscopic cases in aggregate (n = 2708), male residents rated their performance higher than females (3.57 vs. 3.26, p < 0.001, 1 = critical deficiency, 5 = exceptional performance) and reported less supervision (3.15 vs. 2.85, p < 0.001, 1 = show and tell, 4 = supervision only); similar findings were seen when looking at attending reports of resident supervision and performance. A multiple linear regression model showed that attending gender did not significantly predict resident-reported supervision or performance levels, while case complexity and trainee gender significantly affected both supervision and performance (p < 0.001).Female residents perceive themselves to be less self-efficacious at core laparoscopic procedures compared to their male colleagues. Comparison to more case-specific data confirm that female residents receive more supervision and lower performance ratings. This may create a domino effect in which female residents receive less operative independence, preventing the opportunity to establish SE. Further research should identify opportunities to break this cycle and consider gender identity beyond the male/female construct.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00464-023-10378-2

    View details for PubMedID 37697120

    View details for PubMedCentralID 7450402

  • Thriving as a Surgical Intern: Three Tips From the Collaboration of Surgical Education Fellows (CoSEF). Annals of surgery open : perspectives of surgical history, education, and clinical approaches L'Huillier, J. C., Lund, S., Anand, A., Jensen, R. M., Williamson, A. J., Clanahan, J. M., Moreci, R., Gates, R. S. 2023; 4 (3): e306


    We are the multi-institutional organization known as the Collaboration of Surgical Education Fellows (CoSEF). We've collectively reflected on our range of experiences across the country and identified 3 principles which promote a successful intern experience: (1) Own your patients; (2) Treat people like people; and (3) Take care of yourself.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AS9.0000000000000306

    View details for PubMedID 37746606

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10513340

  • We Need to Do Better: A Scoping Review of Wellness Programs In Surgery Residency. Journal of surgical education Anand, A., Jensen, R., Korndorffer, J. R. 2023


    Burnout, depression, and fatigue are common among surgical residents. Most published wellness studies in surgery only focus on a cross-sectional view of attitudes and perceptions around wellness in training. While much of this literature calls for interventions and presents strategies for improving resident well-being, there is a paucity of published wellness initiatives, and even fewer with programmatic evaluation.A scoping review was designed to address: (1) What wellness initiatives are used in surgery residency programs? (2) Which wellness domains do these programs address? and (3) How are program outcomes evaluated? A formal literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases to identify English-language studies conducted in the United States that described wellness-focused initiatives for surgery residents. Two authors independently screened all abstracts and full texts for inclusion. Data were extracted including wellness domain(s) and outcomes evaluation methods with associated Kirkpatrick level(s) (1-reaction, 2-learning, 3-behavior, 4-results). Study quality was examined using the medical education research study quality index (MERSQI) score.A total of 2237 abstracts were screened with 115 full texts reviewed for eligibility. Fifty-one studies were included in the final analysis, representing 39 distinct wellness programs. The most common domains of wellness addressed were emotional (19/39, 48.7%), occupational (17/39, 43.6%), and physical (16/39, 41.0%). Of the 51 studies reviewed, 8 (15.7%) did not conduct any program evaluation, 27 (52.9%) evaluated level 1, 30 (58.8%) evaluated level 2, 3 (5.9%) evaluated level 3, and none evaluated level 4 outcomes. The mean MERSQI score was 9.16 (SD 1.8).Wellness is an established problem in surgical training. This review reveals a small number of published wellness interventions and even fewer that incorporate programmatic evaluation at the level of behavior and results change. Effective change will require rigorous and deliberate programming that addresses multiple domains and evaluation levels.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsurg.2023.07.009

    View details for PubMedID 37541937

  • The Program Director Perspective: Perceptions of PGY5 Residents' Operative Self-Efficacy and Entrustment AMERICAN SURGEON Jensen, R. M., Kearse, L. E., Anand, A., Dent, D. L., Korndorffer, J. R. 2023: 31348231157862


    A 2020 survey of post-graduate year 5 (PGY5) general surgery residents linked to the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) revealed significant deficits in self-efficacy (SE), or personal judgment of one's ability to complete a task, for 10 commonly performed operations. Identifying whether this deficit is similarly perceived by program directors (PDs) has not been well established. We hypothesized that PDs would perceive higher levels of operative SE compared to PGY5s.A survey was distributed through the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv; PDs were queried about their PGY5 residents' ability to perform the same 10 operations independently and their accuracy of patient assessments and operative plans for components of several core entrustable professional activities (EPAs). Results of this survey were compared to PGY5 residents' perception of their SE and entrustment based on the 2020 post-ABSITE survey. Chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis.108 responses were received, representing ∼32% (108/342) of general surgery programs. Perceptions from PDs of PGY5 residents' operative SE were highly concordant with resident perceptions; no significant differences were observed for 9 of 10 procedures. Both PGY5 residents and PDs perceived adequate levels of entrustment; no significant differences were observed for 6 of 8 EPA components.These findings show concordance between PDs and PGY5 residents in their perceptions of operative SE and entrustment. Though both groups perceive adequate levels of entrustment, PDs corroborate the previously described operative SE deficit, illustrating the importance of improved preparation for independent practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/00031348231157862

    View details for Web of Science ID 000935997000001

    View details for PubMedID 36802912

  • Open Abdominal Aortic Surgery in the Endovascular Era-Will we have Enough Volume for Vascular Trainees? George, E. L., Arya, S., Anand, A., Ho, V., Stern, J. R., Chandra, V., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E418
  • Open Abdominal Aortic Surgery in the Endovascular Era - Will We Have Enough Volume for Vascular Trainees? George, E. L., Arya, S., Anand, A., Ho, V. T., Stern, J. R., Chandra, V., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E259-E260
  • Complication to consider: delayed traumatic hemothorax in older adults Trauma Surgery Acute Care Open Choi, J., Anand, A., Sborov, K. D., Walton, W., Chow, L., Guillamondegui, O., Dennis, B. M., Spain, D., Staudenmayer, K. 2021
  • Safety of Foregoing Operation for Small Bowel Obstruction in the Virgin Abdomen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Choi, J. n., Fisher, A. T., Mulaney, B. n., Anand, A. n., Carlos, G. n., Stave, C. D., Spain, D. A., Weiser, T. G. 2020


    Our objective was to assess the safety of foregoing surgery in patients without abdominopelvic surgery history presenting with small bowel obstruction (SBO). Classic dogma has counseled early surgical intervention for small bowel obstruction (SBO) in the virgin abdomen - patients without abdominopelvic surgery history - given their presumed higher risk of malignant or potentially catastrophic etiologies compared to those who underwent prior abdominal operations. The term virgin abdomen was coined before widespread use of computed tomography, which now elucidates many SBO etiologies. Despite recent efforts to re-evaluate clinical management standards, the prevalence of SBO etiologies in the virgin abdomen and the current management landscape (non-operative vs operative) in these patients remain unclear. Our random-effects meta-analysis of six studies including 442 patients found the prevalence of malignant etiologies in patients without abdominopelvic surgery history presenting with SBO varied from 7.7% [95% CI:3.0-14.1] to 13.4% [95% CI:7.6-20.3] on sensitivity analysis. Most malignant etiologies were not suspected prior to surgery. De novo adhesions (54%) were the most common etiology. Over half of patients underwent a trial of non-operative management, which often failed. Subgroups of patients likely have variable risk profiles for underlying malignant etiologies, yet no study had consistent follow-up data and we did not find convincing evidence that foregoing operative management altogether in this population can be generally recommended.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.06.010

    View details for PubMedID 32574687

  • Concurrent large bowel obstruction secondary to idiopathic mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. Trauma surgery & acute care open Anand, A., Choi, J., Jaramillo, J. D., Lau, J. 2020; 5 (1): e000582

    View details for DOI 10.1136/tsaco-2020-000582

    View details for PubMedID 33024829

  • Fast Brain Volumetric Segmentation from T1 MRI Scans Anand, A., Anand, N., Arai, K., Kapoor, S. SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG. 2020: 402–15
  • Sjögren Syndrome and Cryoglobulinemic Glomerulonephritis. American journal of kidney diseases Anand, A., Krishna, G. G., Sibley, R. K., Kambham, N. 2015; 66 (3): 532-535


    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with Sjögren syndrome and cryoglobulinemia. The patient presented with nephrotic syndrome, hematuria, and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate. The kidney biopsy revealed diffuse endocapillary proliferation and leukocyte exudation with focal intraluminal hyaline thrombi, prominent tubulointerstitial inflammation, and vasculitis. Diffuse granular mesangial and segmental to global capillary wall staining was observed on immunofluorescence with antisera to C3 and immunoglobulin M (IgM), with less intense staining indicative of IgG and κ and λ light chains. A biopsy diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome-related cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and vasculitis was rendered. Subsequent investigations revealed the presence of circulating type II cryoglobulins with cryocrit of 9%. Although rare, Sjögren syndrome is the most common cause of non-hepatitis C virus-related mixed cryoglobulinemia. We discuss the possible pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of mixed cryoglobulinemia and its evolution to lymphoma, as best described in the setting of hepatitis C virus infection. Although the specific antigen involved is unknown, it is likely that the mixed cryoglobulinemia in Sjögren syndrome is triggered by the long-term B-cell stimulation, resulting in clonal proliferation of B cells. Additional chromosomal aberrations and cytokine milieu alterations, as seen in hepatitis C virus infection, may result in prolonged B-cell survival and progression to non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.11.032

    View details for PubMedID 25661680