Visiting Professor, Center for Latin American Studies
- Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America PLOS GENETICS 2015; 11 (12)
HUMAN GENETICS The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits
2014; 344 (6189): 1280-1285
Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between subcontinental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1251688
View details for Web of Science ID 000337077500040
- Reconstructing the Population Genetic History of the Caribbean PLOS GENETICS 2013; 9 (11)
- Genome-Wide Association Study in an Amerindian Ancestry Population Reveals Novel Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Risk Loci and the Role of European Admixture ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATOLOGY 2016; 68 (4): 932-943
Genome-Wide Association Study in an Amerindian Ancestry Population Reveals Novel Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Risk Loci and the Role of European Admixture.
Arthritis & rheumatology
2016; 68 (4): 932-943
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. We undertook the present work to perform the first genome-wide association study on individuals from the Americas who are enriched for Native American heritage.We analyzed 3,710 individuals from the US and 4 countries of Latin America who were diagnosed as having SLE, and healthy controls. Samples were genotyped with HumanOmni1 BeadChip. Data on out-of-study controls genotyped with HumanOmni2.5 were also included. Statistical analyses were performed using SNPtest and SNPGWA. Data were adjusted for genomic control and false discovery rate. Imputation was performed using Impute2 and, for classic HLA alleles, HiBag. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.The IRF5-TNPO3 region showed the strongest association and largest OR for SLE (rs10488631: genomic control-adjusted P [Pgcadj ] = 2.61 × 10(-29) , OR 2.12 [95% CI 1.88-2.39]), followed by HLA class II on the DQA2-DQB1 loci (rs9275572: Pgcadj = 1.11 × 10(-16) , OR 1.62 [95% CI 1.46-1.80] and rs9271366: Pgcadj = 6.46 × 10(-12) , OR 2.06 [95% CI 1.71-2.50]). Other known SLE loci found to be associated in this population were ITGAM, STAT4, TNIP1, NCF2, and IRAK1. We identified a novel locus on 10q24.33 (rs4917385: Pgcadj = 1.39 × 10(-8) ) with an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) effect (Peqtl = 8.0 × 10(-37) at USMG5/miR1307), and several new suggestive loci. SLE risk loci previously identified in Europeans and Asians were corroborated. Local ancestry estimation showed that the HLA allele risk contribution is of European ancestral origin. Imputation of HLA alleles suggested that autochthonous Native American haplotypes provide protection against development of SLE.Our results demonstrate that studying admixed populations provides new insights in the delineation of the genetic architecture that underlies autoimmune and complex diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1002/art.39504
View details for PubMedID 26606652
Genomic variation in recently collected maize landraces from Mexico.
2016; 7: 38-45
The present dataset comprises 36,931 SNPs genotyped in 46 maize landraces native to Mexico as well as the teosinte subspecies Zea maiz ssp. parviglumis and ssp. mexicana. These landraces were collected directly from farmers mostly between 2006 and 2010. We accompany these data with a short description of the variation within each landrace, as well as maps, principal component analyses and neighbor joining trees showing the distribution of the genetic diversity relative to landrace, geographical features and maize biogeography. High levels of genetic variation were detected for the maize landraces (H E = 0.234 to 0.318 (mean 0.311), while slightly lower levels were detected in Zea m. mexicana and Zea m. parviglumis (H E = 0.262 and 0.234, respectively). The distribution of genetic variation was better explained by environmental variables given by the interaction of altitude and latitude than by landrace identity. This dataset is a follow up product of the Global Native Maize Project, an initiative to update the data on Mexican maize landraces and their wild relatives, and to generate information that is necessary for implementing the Mexican Biosafety Law.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gdata.2015.11.002
View details for PubMedID 26981357
- A global reference for human genetic variation NATURE 2015; 526 (7571): 68-?
Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans
2015; 349 (6250)
View details for Web of Science ID 000359832700041
Genome-wide association study and admixture mapping reveal new loci associated with total IgE levels in Latinos
JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
2015; 135 (6): 1502-1510
IgE is a key mediator of allergic inflammation, and its levels are frequently increased in patients with allergic disorders.We sought to identify genetic variants associated with IgE levels in Latinos.We performed a genome-wide association study and admixture mapping of total IgE levels in 3334 Latinos from the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study. Replication was evaluated in 454 Latinos, 1564 European Americans, and 3187 African Americans from independent studies.We confirmed associations of 6 genes identified by means of previous genome-wide association studies and identified a novel genome-wide significant association of a polymorphism in the zinc finger protein 365 gene (ZNF365) with total IgE levels (rs200076616, P = 2.3 × 10(-8)). We next identified 4 admixture mapping peaks (6p21.32-p22.1, 13p22-31, 14q23.2, and 22q13.1) at which local African, European, and/or Native American ancestry was significantly associated with IgE levels. The most significant peak was 6p21.32-p22.1, where Native American ancestry was associated with lower IgE levels (P = 4.95 × 10(-8)). All but 22q13.1 were replicated in an independent sample of Latinos, and 2 of the peaks were replicated in African Americans (6p21.32-p22.1 and 14q23.2). Fine mapping of 6p21.32-p22.1 identified 6 genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms in Latinos, 2 of which replicated in European Americans. Another single nucleotide polymorphism was peak-wide significant within 14q23.2 in African Americans (rs1741099, P = 3.7 × 10(-6)) and replicated in non-African American samples (P = .011).We confirmed genetic associations at 6 genes and identified novel associations within ZNF365, HLA-DQA1, and 14q23.2. Our results highlight the importance of studying diverse multiethnic populations to uncover novel loci associated with total IgE levels.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.033
View details for Web of Science ID 000355933400013
View details for PubMedID 25488688
Genetic ancestry influences asthma susceptibility and lung function among Latinos
JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
2015; 135 (1): 228-235
Childhood asthma prevalence and morbidity varies among Latinos in the United States, with Puerto Ricans having the highest and Mexicans the lowest.To determine whether genetic ancestry is associated with the odds of asthma among Latinos, and secondarily whether genetic ancestry is associated with lung function among Latino children.We analyzed 5493 Latinos with and without asthma from 3 independent studies. For each participant, we estimated the proportion of African, European, and Native American ancestry using genome-wide data. We tested whether genetic ancestry was associated with the presence of asthma and lung function among subjects with and without asthma. Odds ratios (OR) and effect sizes were assessed for every 20% increase in each ancestry.Native American ancestry was associated with lower odds of asthma (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.66-0.78, P = 8.0 × 10(-15)), while African ancestry was associated with higher odds of asthma (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.14-1.72, P = .001). These associations were robust to adjustment for covariates related to early life exposures, air pollution, and socioeconomic status. Among children with asthma, African ancestry was associated with lower lung function, including both pre- and post-bronchodilator measures of FEV1 (-77 ± 19 mL; P = 5.8 × 10(-5) and -83 ± 19 mL; P = 1.1 x 10(-5), respectively) and forced vital capacity (-100 ± 21 mL; P = 2.7 × 10(-6) and -107 ± 22 mL; P = 1.0 x 10(-6), respectively).Differences in the proportions of genetic ancestry can partially explain disparities in asthma susceptibility and lung function among Latinos.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.07.053
View details for Web of Science ID 000347298200027
View details for PubMedID 25301036
- Population Genomic Analysis of Ancient and Modern Genomes Yields New Insights into the Genetic Ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the Genetic Structure of Europe PLOS GENETICS 2014; 10 (5)
- A genome-wide association study of bronchodilator response in Latinos implicates rare variants JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2014; 133 (2): 370-?
- Reconstructing Native American Migrations from Whole-Genome and Whole-Exome Data PLOS GENETICS 2013; 9 (12)
- Pulling out the 1%: Whole-Genome Capture for the Targeted Enrichment of Ancient DNA Sequencing Libraries AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS 2013; 93 (5): 852-864
Factors associated with degree of atopy in Latino children in a nationwide pediatric sample: The Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Asthmatics (GALA II) study
JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
2013; 132 (4): 896-?
BACKGROUND: Atopy varies by ethnicity, even within Latino groups. This variation might be due to environmental, sociocultural, or genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine risk factors for atopy within a nationwide study of US Latino children with and without asthma. METHODS: Aeroallergen skin test responses were analyzed in 1830 US Latino subjects. Key determinants of atopy included country/region of origin, generation in the United States, acculturation, genetic ancestry, and site to which subjects migrated. Serial multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regressions stratified by asthma status examined the association of each key determinant variable with the number of positive skin test responses. In addition, the independent effect of each key variable was determined by including all key variables in the final models. RESULTS: In baseline analyses African ancestry was associated with 3 times (95% CI, 1.62-5.57) as many positive skin test responses in asthmatic participants and 3.26 times (95% CI, 1.02-10.39) as many positive skin test responses in control participants. Generation and recruitment site were also associated with atopy in crude models. In final models adjusted for key variables, asthmatic patients of Puerto Rican (exp[β] [95% CI], 1.31 [1.02-1.69]) and mixed (exp[β] [95% CI], 1.27 [1.03-1.56]) ethnicity had a greater probability of positive skin test responses compared with Mexican asthmatic patients. Ancestry associations were abrogated by recruitment site but not region of origin. CONCLUSIONS: Puerto Rican ethnicity and mixed origin were associated with degree of atopy within US Latino children with asthma. African ancestry was not associated with degree of atopy after adjusting for recruitment site. Local environment variation, represented by site, was associated with degree of sensitization.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.02.046
View details for Web of Science ID 000325096500017
View details for PubMedID 23684070
An integrated map of genetic variation from 1,092 human genomes
2012; 491 (7422): 56-65
By characterizing the geographic and functional spectrum of human genetic variation, the 1000 Genomes Project aims to build a resource to help to understand the genetic contribution to disease. Here we describe the genomes of 1,092 individuals from 14 populations, constructed using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome and exome sequencing. By developing methods to integrate information across several algorithms and diverse data sources, we provide a validated haplotype map of 38?million single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1.4?million short insertions and deletions, and more than 14,000 larger deletions. We show that individuals from different populations carry different profiles of rare and common variants, and that low-frequency variants show substantial geographic differentiation, which is further increased by the action of purifying selection. We show that evolutionary conservation and coding consequence are key determinants of the strength of purifying selection, that rare-variant load varies substantially across biological pathways, and that each individual contains hundreds of rare non-coding variants at conserved sites, such as motif-disrupting changes in transcription-factor-binding sites. This resource, which captures up to 98% of accessible single nucleotide polymorphisms at a frequency of 1% in related populations, enables analysis of common and low-frequency variants in individuals from diverse, including admixed, populations.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature11632
View details for Web of Science ID 000310434500030
View details for PubMedID 23128226
Population Genetic Inference from Personal Genome Data: Impact of Ancestry and Admixture on Human Genomic Variation
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS
2012; 91 (4): 660-671
Full sequencing of individual human genomes has greatly expanded our understanding of human genetic variation and population history. Here, we present a systematic analysis of 50 human genomes from 11 diverse global populations sequenced at high coverage. Our sample includes 12 individuals who have admixed ancestry and who have varying degrees of recent (within the last 500 years) African, Native American, and European ancestry. We found over 21 million single-nucleotide variants that contribute to a 1.75-fold range in nucleotide heterozygosity across diverse human genomes. This heterozygosity ranged from a high of one heterozygous site per kilobase in west African genomes to a low of 0.57 heterozygous sites per kilobase in segments inferred to have diploid Native American ancestry from the genomes of Mexican and Puerto Rican individuals. We show evidence of all three continental ancestries in the genomes of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and African American populations, and the genome-wide statistics are highly consistent across individuals from a population once ancestry proportions have been accounted for. Using a generalized linear model, we identified subtle variations across populations in the proportion of neutral versus deleterious variation and found that genome-wide statistics vary in admixed populations even once ancestry proportions have been factored in. We further infer that multiple periods of gene flow shaped the diversity of admixed populations in the Americas-70% of the European ancestry in today's African Americans dates back to European gene flow happening only 7-8 generations ago.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.08.025
View details for Web of Science ID 000309568500008
View details for PubMedID 23040495
Y-chromosome diversity in Native Mexicans reveals continental transition of genetic structure in the Americas
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
2012; 148 (3): 395-405
The genetic characterization of Native Mexicans is important to understand multiethnic based features influencing the medical genetics of present Mexican populations, as well as to the reconstruct the peopling of the Americas. We describe the Y-chromosome genetic diversity of 197 Native Mexicans from 11 populations and 1,044 individuals from 44 Native American populations after combining with publicly available data. We found extensive heterogeneity among Native Mexican populations and ample segregation of Q-M242* (46%) and Q-M3 (54%) haplogroups within Mexico. The northernmost sampled populations falling outside Mesoamerica (Pima and Tarahumara) showed a clear differentiation with respect to the other populations, which is in agreement with previous results from mtDNA lineages. However, our results point toward a complex genetic makeup of Native Mexicans whose maternal and paternal lineages reveal different narratives of their population history, with sex-biased continental contributions and different admixture proportions. At a continental scale, we found that Arctic populations and the northernmost groups from North America cluster together, but we did not find a clear differentiation within Mesoamerica and the rest of the continent, which coupled with the fact that the majority of individuals from Central and South American samples are restricted to the Q-M3 branch, supports the notion that most Native Americans from Mesoamerica southwards are descendants from a single wave of migration. This observation is compatible with the idea that present day Mexico might have constituted an area of transition in the diversification of paternal lineages during the colonization of the Americas.
View details for DOI 10.1002/ajpa.22062
View details for Web of Science ID 000305327600010
View details for PubMedID 22576278
EVOLUTION AND MEDICINE IN UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION: A PRESCRIPTION FOR ALL BIOLOGY STUDENTS
2012; 66 (6): 1991-2006
The interface between evolutionary biology and the biomedical sciences promises to advance understanding of the origins of genetic and infectious diseases in humans, potentially leading to improved medical diagnostics, therapies, and public health practices. The biomedical sciences also provide unparalleled examples for evolutionary biologists to explore. However, gaps persist between evolution and medicine, for historical reasons and because they are often perceived as having disparate goals. Evolutionary biologists have a role in building a bridge between the disciplines by presenting evolutionary biology in the context of human health and medical practice to undergraduates, including premedical and preprofessional students. We suggest that students will find medical examples of evolution engaging. By making the connections between evolution and medicine clear at the undergraduate level, the stage is set for future health providers and biomedical scientists to work productively in this synthetic area. Here, we frame key evolutionary concepts in terms of human health, so that biomedical examples may be more easily incorporated into evolution courses or more specialized courses on evolutionary medicine. Our goal is to aid in building the scientific foundation in evolutionary biology for all students, and to encourage evolutionary biologists to join in the integration of evolution and medicine.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01552.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000304757200026
View details for PubMedID 22671563
Melanesian Blond Hair Is Caused by an Amino Acid Change in TYRP1
2012; 336 (6081): 554-554
Naturally blond hair is rare in humans and found almost exclusively in Europe and Oceania. Here, we identify an arginine-to-cysteine change at a highly conserved residue in tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) as a major determinant of blond hair in Solomon Islanders. This missense mutation is predicted to affect catalytic activity of TYRP1 and causes blond hair through a recessive mode of inheritance. The mutation is at a frequency of 26% in the Solomon Islands, is absent outside of Oceania, represents a strong common genetic effect on a complex human phenotype, and highlights the importance of examining genetic associations worldwide.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1217849
View details for Web of Science ID 000303498800036
View details for PubMedID 22556244
Type 2 Diabetes Risk Alleles Demonstrate Extreme Directional Differentiation among Human Populations, Compared to Other Diseases
2012; 8 (4): 100-115
Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may contribute to the observed disparity in T2D incidence rates across ethnic populations.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002621
View details for Web of Science ID 000303441800007
View details for PubMedID 22511877
New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing
The Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old Copper age individual, was discovered in 1991 on the Tisenjoch Pass in the Italian part of the Ötztal Alps. Here we report the complete genome sequence of the Iceman and show 100% concordance between the previously reported mitochondrial genome sequence and the consensus sequence generated from our genomic data. We present indications for recent common ancestry between the Iceman and present-day inhabitants of the Tyrrhenian Sea, that the Iceman probably had brown eyes, belonged to blood group O and was lactose intolerant. His genetic predisposition shows an increased risk for coronary heart disease and may have contributed to the development of previously reported vascular calcifications. Sequences corresponding to ~60% of the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi are indicative of the earliest human case of infection with the pathogen for Lyme borreliosis.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms1701
View details for Web of Science ID 000302060100039
View details for PubMedID 22426219
Genomic Ancestry of North Africans Supports Back-to-Africa Migrations
2012; 8 (1)
North African populations are distinct from sub-Saharan Africans based on cultural, linguistic, and phenotypic attributes; however, the time and the extent of genetic divergence between populations north and south of the Sahara remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity. We present dense, genome-wide SNP genotyping array data (730,000 sites) from seven North African populations, spanning from Egypt to Morocco, and one Spanish population. We identify a gradient of likely autochthonous Maghrebi ancestry that increases from east to west across northern Africa; this ancestry is likely derived from "back-to-Africa" gene flow more than 12,000 years ago (ya), prior to the Holocene. The indigenous North African ancestry is more frequent in populations with historical Berber ethnicity. In most North African populations we also see substantial shared ancestry with the Near East, and to a lesser extent sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. To estimate the time of migration from sub-Saharan populations into North Africa, we implement a maximum likelihood dating method based on the distribution of migrant tracts. In order to first identify migrant tracts, we assign local ancestry to haplotypes using a novel, principal component-based analysis of three ancestral populations. We estimate that a migration of western African origin into Morocco began about 40 generations ago (approximately 1,200 ya); a migration of individuals with Nilotic ancestry into Egypt occurred about 25 generations ago (approximately 750 ya). Our genomic data reveal an extraordinarily complex history of migrations, involving at least five ancestral populations, into North Africa.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002397
View details for Web of Science ID 000300223400001
View details for PubMedID 22253600
Fine-scale population structure and the era of next-generation sequencing
HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS
2010; 19: R221-R226
Fine-scale population structure characterizes most continents and is especially pronounced in non-cosmopolitan populations. Roughly half of the world's population remains non-cosmopolitan and even populations within cities often assort along ethnic and linguistic categories. Barriers to random mating can be ecologically extreme, such as the Sahara Desert, or cultural, such as the Indian caste system. In either case, subpopulations accumulate genetic differences if the barrier is maintained over multiple generations. Genome-wide polymorphism data, initially with only a few hundred autosomal microsatellites, have clearly established differences in allele frequency not only among continental regions, but also within continents and within countries. We review recent evidence from the analysis of genome-wide polymorphism data for genetic boundaries delineating human population structure and the main demographic and genomic processes shaping variation, and discuss the implications of population structure for the distribution and discovery of disease-causing genetic variants, in the light of the imminent availability of sequencing data for a multitude of diverse human genomes.
View details for DOI 10.1093/hmg/ddq403
View details for Web of Science ID 000284456100014
View details for PubMedID 20876616
African signatures of recent positive selection in human FOXI1
BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
The human FOXI1 gene codes for a transcription factor involved in the physiology of the inner ear, testis, and kidney. Using three interspecies comparisons, it has been suggested that this may be a gene under human-specific selection. We sought to confirm this finding by using an extended set of orthologous sequences. Additionally, we explored for signals of natural selection within humans by sequencing the gene in 20 Europeans, 20 East Asians and 20 Yorubas and by analysing SNP variation in a 2 Mb region centered on FOXI1 in 39 worldwide human populations from the HGDP-CEPH diversity panel.The genome sequences recently available from other primate and non-primate species showed that FOXI1 divergence patterns are compatible with neutral evolution. Sequence-based neutrality tests were not significant in Europeans, East Asians or Yorubas. However, the Long Range Haplotype (LRH) test, as well as the iHS and XP-Rsb statistics revealed significantly extended tracks of homozygosity around FOXI1 in Africa, suggesting a recent episode of positive selection acting on this gene. A functionally relevant SNP, as well as several SNPs either on the putatively selected core haplotypes or with significant iHS or XP-Rsb values, displayed allele frequencies strongly correlated with the absolute geographical latitude of the populations sampled.We present evidence for recent positive selection in the FOXI1 gene region in Africa. Climate might be related to this recent adaptive event in humans. Of the multiple functions of FOXI1, its role in kidney-mediated water-electrolyte homeostasis is the most obvious candidate for explaining a climate-related adaptation.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2148-10-267
View details for Web of Science ID 000282768900002
View details for PubMedID 20809947
A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans
HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS
2010; 19 (14): 2877-2885
It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 x 10(-11)) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations.
View details for DOI 10.1093/hmg/ddq173
View details for Web of Science ID 000279469100012
View details for PubMedID 20418488
Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture among Hispanic/Latino populations
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2010; 107: 8954-8961
Hispanic/Latino populations possess a complex genetic structure that reflects recent admixture among and potentially ancient substructure within Native American, European, and West African source populations. Here, we quantify genome-wide patterns of SNP and haplotype variation among 100 individuals with ancestry from Ecuador, Colombia, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic genotyped on the Illumina 610-Quad arrays and 112 Mexicans genotyped on Affymetrix 500K platform. Intersecting these data with previously collected high-density SNP data from 4,305 individuals, we use principal component analysis and clustering methods FRAPPE and STRUCTURE to investigate genome-wide patterns of African, European, and Native American population structure within and among Hispanic/Latino populations. Comparing autosomal, X and Y chromosome, and mtDNA variation, we find evidence of a significant sex bias in admixture proportions consistent with disproportionate contribution of European male and Native American female ancestry to present-day populations. We also find that patterns of linkage-disequilibria in admixed Hispanic/Latino populations are largely affected by the admixture dynamics of the populations, with faster decay of LD in populations of higher African ancestry. Finally, using the locus-specific ancestry inference method LAMP, we reconstruct fine-scale chromosomal patterns of admixture. We document moderate power to differentiate among potential subcontinental source populations within the Native American, European, and African segments of the admixed Hispanic/Latino genomes. Our results suggest future genome-wide association scans in Hispanic/Latino populations may require correction for local genomic ancestry at a subcontinental scale when associating differences in the genome with disease risk, progression, and drug efficacy, as well as for admixture mapping.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0914618107
View details for Web of Science ID 000277553800009