Brain Endothelial Cells Are Exquisite Sensors of Age-Related Circulatory Cues.
2020; 30 (13): 4418
Brain endothelial cells (BECs) are key constituents of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting the brain from pathogens and restricting access of circulatory factors. Yet, because circulatory proteins have prominent age-related effects on adult neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and cognitive function in mice, we wondered whether BECs receive and potentially relay signals between the blood and brain. Using single-cell RNA sequencing of hippocampal BECs, we discover that capillary BECs-compared with arterial and venous BECs-undergo the greatest transcriptional changes in normal aging, upregulating innate immunity and oxidative stress response pathways. Short-term infusions of aged plasma into young mice recapitulate key aspects of this aging transcriptome, and remarkably, infusions of young plasma into aged mice exert rejuvenation effects on the capillary transcriptome. Together, these findings suggest that the transcriptional age of BECs is exquisitely sensitive to age-related circulatory cues and pinpoint the BBB itself as a promising therapeutic target to treat brain disease.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.03.012
View details for PubMedID 32234477
Clonally expanded CD8 T cells patrol the cerebrospinal fluid in Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer's disease is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder in which neuroinflammation has a critical function1. However, little is known about the contribution of the adaptive immune response in Alzheimer's disease2. Here, using integrated analyses of multiple cohorts, we identify peripheral and central adaptive immune changes in Alzheimer's disease. First, we performed mass cytometry of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and discovered an immune signature of Alzheimer's disease that consists of increased numbers of CD8+ T effector memory CD45RA+ (TEMRA) cells. In a second cohort, we found that CD8+ TEMRA cells were negatively associated with cognition. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that T cell receptor (TCR) signalling was enhanced in these cells. Notably, by using several strategies of single-cell TCR sequencing in a third cohort, we discovered clonally expanded CD8+ TEMRA cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we used machine learning, cloning and peptide screens to demonstrate the specificity of clonally expanded TCRs in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease to two separate Epstein-Barr virus antigens. These results reveal an adaptive immune response in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid in Alzheimer's disease and provide evidence of clonal, antigen-experienced T cells patrolling the intrathecal space of brains affected by age-related neurodegeneration.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-019-1895-7
View details for PubMedID 31915375
CD22 blockade restores homeostatic microglial phagocytosis in ageing brains.
Microglia maintain homeostasis in the central nervous system through phagocytic clearance of protein aggregates and cellular debris. This function deteriorates during ageing and neurodegenerative disease, concomitant with cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms of impaired microglial homeostatic function and the cognitive effects of restoring this function remain unknown. We combined CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens with RNAsequencing analysis to discover age-related genetic modifiers of microglial phagocytosis. These screens identified CD22, a canonical Bcell receptor, as a negative regulator of phagocytosis that is upregulated on aged microglia. CD22 mediates the anti-phagocytic effect of alpha2,6-linked sialic acid, and inhibition of CD22 promotes the clearance of myelin debris, amyloid-beta oligomers and alpha-synuclein fibrils in vivo. Long-term central nervous system delivery of an antibody that blocks CD22 function reprograms microglia towards a homeostatic transcriptional state and improves cognitive function in aged mice. These findings elucidate a mechanism of age-related microglial impairment and a strategy to restore homeostasis in the ageing brain.
View details for PubMedID 30944478
Aged blood impairs hippocampal neural precursor activity and activates microglia via brain endothelial cell VCAM1.
An aged circulatory environment can activate microglia, reduce neural precursor cell activity and impair cognition in mice. We hypothesized that brain endothelial cells (BECs) mediate at least some of these effects. We observe that BECs in the aged mouse hippocampus express an inflammatory transcriptional profile with focal upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), a protein that facilitates vascular-immune cell interactions. Concomitantly, levels of the shed, soluble form of VCAM1 are prominently increased in the plasma of aged humans and mice, and their plasma is sufficient to increase VCAM1 expression in cultured BECs and the hippocampi of young mice. Systemic administration of anti-VCAM1 antibody or genetic ablation of Vcam1 in BECs counteracts the detrimental effects of plasma from aged individuals on young brains and reverses aging aspects, including microglial reactivity and cognitive deficits, in the brains of aged mice. Together, these findings establish brain endothelial VCAM1 at the blood-brain barrier as a possible target to treat age-related neurodegeneration.
View details for PubMedID 31086348
Engineering Phage Host-Range and Suppressing Bacterial Resistance through Phage Tail Fiber Mutagenesis.
2019; 179 (2): 459–69.e9
The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant infections is prompting increased interest in phage-based antimicrobials. However, acquisition of resistance by bacteria is a major issue in the successful development of phage therapies. Through natural evolution and structural modeling, we identified host-range-determining regions (HRDRs) in the T3 phage tail fiber protein and developed a high-throughput strategy to genetically engineer these regions through site-directed mutagenesis. Inspired by antibody specificity engineering, this approach generates deep functional diversity while minimizing disruptions to the overall tail fiber structure, resulting in synthetic "phagebodies." We showed that mutating HRDRs yields phagebodies with altered host-ranges, and select phagebodies enable long-term suppression of bacterial growth in vitro, by preventing resistance appearance, and are functional in vivo using a murine model. We anticipate that this approach may facilitate the creation of next-generation antimicrobials that slow resistance development and could be extended to other viral scaffolds for a broad range of applications.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2019.09.015
View details for PubMedID 31585083
Multiple Click-Selective tRNA Synthetases Expand Mammalian Cell-Specific Proteomics
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2018; 140 (23): 7046–51
Bioorthogonal tools enable cell-type-specific proteomics, a prerequisite to understanding biological processes in multicellular organisms. Here we report two engineered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for mammalian bioorthogonal labeling: a tyrosyl ( ScTyrY43G) and a phenylalanyl ( MmPheT413G) tRNA synthetase that incorporate azide-bearing noncanonical amino acids specifically into the nascent proteomes of host cells. Azide-labeled proteins are chemoselectively tagged via azide-alkyne cycloadditions with fluorophores for imaging or affinity resins for mass spectrometric characterization. Both mutant synthetases label human, hamster, and mouse cell line proteins and selectively activate their azido-bearing amino acids over 10-fold above the canonical. ScTyrY43G and MmPheT413G label overlapping but distinct proteomes in human cell lines, with broader proteome coverage upon their coexpression. In mice, ScTyrY43G and MmPheT413G label the melanoma tumor proteome and plasma secretome. This work furnishes new tools for mammalian residue-specific bioorthogonal chemistry, and enables more robust and comprehensive cell-type-specific proteomics in live mammals.
View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.8b03074
View details for Web of Science ID 000435525500001
View details for PubMedID 29775058