Clinical Assistant Professor, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine
Emergency manual peri-crisis use six years following implementation: Sustainment of an intervention for rare crises.
Journal of clinical anesthesia
2023; 87: 111111
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Use of cognitive aids during emergencies increases key actions and decreases omissions, both known to save lives. With little known about emergency manual (EM) clinical use, we aimed to help answer "Will EMs be used peri-crisis at a meaningful frequency?" and to explore clinical sustainment.DESIGN: Prospective, observational study.SETTING: Operating Rooms.PATIENTS: All patients undergoing anesthesia at a major academic medical center during the study periods; 75,000 cases.INTERVENTION & MEASUREMENTS: To understand the initial and sustainment phases of EM implementation, we placed a question regarding EM use at the end of every anesthetic case to prospectively measure EM use at: implementation, one-year later, and six years post-implementation.MAIN RESULTS: For more than twenty-four thousand cases in each approximately 6-month study period, EMs were used peri-crisis (before, during or after a perioperative crisis) in 145 cases initially (0.55%; SE 0.045%), 42 cases one-year later (0.17%; SE 0.026%), and 57 cases (0.21%; SE 0.028%) six years post-implementation. Peri-crisis EM uses dropped 0.38% (97.5% CI: 0.26%, 0.49%) from initial to one-year post-implementation. After that, peri-crisis EM uses did not differ significantly from one-year to six years post-implementation, showing sustainment [increased 0.04% (97.5% CI: -0.05%, 0.12%)]. Among cases with cardiac arrest or CPR, as a subset proxy for relevant crises, EMs were used in 7/13 such cases initially (54%, SE 13.6%), 8/20 one-year later (40%; SE 10.9%) and 7/13 six years later (54%; SE 13.6%).CONCLUSIONS: After an initial expected drop, EM peri-crisis use six years post-implementation was: sustained without intensive additional efforts, averaged 10 times per month at a single institution, and was reported in more than half of cases with cardiac arrest or CPR. Peri-crisis use of EMs is appropriately rare, though for relevant crises can have substantial positive impacts as described in prior literature. The sustained use of EMs may be related to increasing cultural acceptance of EMs, as reflected in survey result trends and broader cognitive aid literature.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2023.111111
View details for PubMedID 37003046
- Brain Mechanisms of Attention Orienting Following Frustration: Associations With Irritability and Age in Youths AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY 2019; 176 (1): 67–76
Brain Mechanisms of Attention Orienting Following Frustration: Associations With Irritability and Age in Youths.
The American journal of psychiatry
OBJECTIVE:: Childhood irritability is a common, impairing problem with changing age-related manifestations that predict long-term adverse outcomes. However, more investigation of overall and age-specific neural correlates is needed. Because youths with irritability exhibit exaggerated responses to frustrating stimuli, the authors used a frustration functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to examine associations between irritability and neural activation and tested the moderating effect of age.METHOD:: The authors studied a transdiagnostic sample of 195 youths with varying levels of irritability (disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, N=52; anxiety disorder, N=42; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, N=40; and healthy volunteers, N=61). Irritability was measured by parent and child reports on the Affective Reactivity Index. The fMRI paradigm was a cued-attention task differentiating neural activity in response to frustration (rigged feedback) from activity during attention orienting in the trial following frustration.RESULTS:: Whole-brain activation analyses revealed associations with irritability during attention orienting following frustration. Irritability was positively associated with frontal-striatal activation, specifically in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and caudate. Age moderated the association between irritability and activation in some frontal and posterior regions (the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, cuneus, precuneus, and superior parietal lobule [F=19.04-28.51, df=1, 189, partial eta squared=0.09-0.13]). Specifically, higher irritability was more strongly related to increased activation in younger youths compared with older youths.CONCLUSIONS:: Following frustration, levels of irritability correlated with activity in neural systems mediating attention orienting, top-down regulation of emotions, and motor execution. Although most associations were independent of age, dysfunction in the anterior cingulate cortex and posterior regions was more pronounced in young children with irritability.
View details for PubMedID 30336704