All Publications

  • Collagen-Supplemented Incubation Rapidly Augments Mechanical Property of Fibroblast Cell Sheets. Tissue engineering. Part A Zhu, Y., Thakore, A. D., Farry, J. M., Jung, J., Anilkumar, S., Wang, H., Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Park, M. H., Tran, N. A., Woo, Y. J. 2020


    Cell sheet technology using UpCell plates is a modern tool that enables the rapid creation of a single-layered cells without using extracellular matrix enzymatic digestion. Although this technique has the advantage of maintaining a sheet of cells without needing artificial scaffolds, these cell sheets remain extremely fragile. Collagen, the most abundant extracellular matrix component, is an attractive candidate for modulating tissue mechanical properties given its tunable property. In this study, we demonstrated rapid mechanical property augmentation of human dermal fibroblast cell sheets after incubation with bovine type I collagen for 24 hours on UpCell plates. We showed that treatment with collagen resulted in increased collagen I incorporation within the cell sheet without affecting cell morphology, cell type, or cell sheet quality. Atomic force microscopy measurements for controls, and cell sheets that received 50g/mL and 100g/mL collagen I treatments revealed an average Young's modulus of their respective intercellular regions: 6.6±1.0, 14.4±6.6, and 19.8±3.8 kPa during the loading condition, and 10.3±4.7, 11.7±2.2, and 18.1±3.4 kPa during the unloading condition. This methodology of rapid mechanical property augmentation of a cell sheet has a potential impact on cell sheet technology by improving the ease of construct manipulation, enabling new translational tissue engineering applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.TEA.2020.0128

    View details for PubMedID 32703108

  • Ex Vivo Analysis of a Porcine Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Aneurysm Disease Model. The Annals of thoracic surgery Zhu, Y., Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Park, M. H., Paulsen, M. J., Wang, H., MacArthur, J. W., Woo, Y. J. 2020


    We identified an extremely rare congenital porcine type 0 lateral bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) from a fresh porcine heart. Using a 3D-printed ex vivo left heart simulator, we analyzed valvular hemodynamics at baseline, in an aortic aneurysm disease model, and after valve-sparing root replacement (VSRR). We showed that BAV regurgitation due to aortic aneurysm can be successfully repaired without significant hemodynamic impairment with the VSRR technique in an individualized approach. Our results provide direct hemodynamic evidence supporting the use of VSRR for patients with BAV regurgitation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.05.086

    View details for PubMedID 32663472

  • Novel bicuspid aortic valve model with aortic regurgitation for hemodynamic status analysis using an exvivo simulator. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Zhu, Y., Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Paulsen, M. J., Priromprintr, B., Wang, H., Lucian, H. J., Farry, J. M., Woo, Y. J. 2020


    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to design and evaluate a clinically relevant, novel exvivo bicuspid aortic valve model that mimics the most common human phenotype with associated aortic regurgitation.METHODS: Three bovine aortic valves were mounted asymmetrically in a previously validated 3-dimensional-printed left heart simulator. The non-right commissure and the non-left commissure were both shifted slightly toward the left-right commissure, and the left and right coronary cusps were sewn together. The left-right commissure was then detached and reimplanted 10mm lower than its native height. Free margin shortening was used for valve repair. Hemodynamic status, high-speed videography, and echocardiography data were collected before and after the repair.RESULTS: The bicuspid aortic valve model was successfully produced and repaired. High-speed videography confirmed prolapse of the fused cusp of the baseline bicuspid aortic valve models in diastole. Hemodynamic and pressure data confirmed accurate simulation of diseased conditions with aortic regurgitation and the subsequent repair. Regurgitant fraction postrepair was significantly reduced compared with that at baseline (14.5 ± 4.4% vs 28.6%±3.4%; P=.037). There was no change in peak velocity, peak gradient, or mean gradient across the valve pre- versus postrepair: 293.3±18.3cm/sec versus 325.3±58.2cm/sec (P=.29), 34.3±4.2mm Hg versus 43.3±15.4mm Hg (P=.30), and 11±1mm Hg versus 9.3±2.5mm Hg (P=.34), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: An exvivo bicuspid aortic valve model was designed that recapitulated the most common human phenotype with aortic regurgitation. These valves were successfully repaired, validating its potential for evaluating valve hemodynamics and optimizing surgical repair for bicuspid aortic valves.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.06.028

    View details for PubMedID 32747120

  • Multiaxial Lenticular Stress-Strain Relationship of Native Myocardium is Preserved by Infarct-Induced Natural Heart Regeneration in Neonatal Mice. Scientific reports Wang, H., Bennett-Kennett, R., Paulsen, M. J., Hironaka, C. E., Thakore, A. D., Farry, J. M., Eskandari, A., Lucian, H. J., Shin, H. S., Wu, M. A., Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Steele, A. N., Stapleton, L. M., Zhu, Y., Dauskardt, R. H., Woo, Y. J. 2020; 10 (1): 7319


    Neonatal mice exhibit natural heart regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI) on postnatal day 1 (P1), but this ability is lost by postnatal day 7 (P7). Cardiac biomechanics intricately affect long-term heart function, but whether regenerated cardiac muscle is biomechanically similar to native myocardium remains unknown. We hypothesized that neonatal heart regeneration preserves native left ventricular (LV) biomechanical properties after MI. C57BL/6J mice underwent sham surgery or left anterior descending coronary artery ligation at age P1 or P7. Echocardiography performed 4 weeks post-MI showed that P1 MI and sham mice (n=22, each) had similar LV wall thickness, diameter, and ejection fraction (59.6% vs 60.7%, p=0.6514). Compared to P7 shams (n=20), P7 MI mice (n=20) had significant LV wall thinning, chamber enlargement, and depressed ejection fraction (32.6% vs 61.8%, p<0.0001). Afterward, the LV was explanted and pressurized ex vivo, and the multiaxial lenticular stress-strain relationship was tracked. While LV tissue modulus for P1 MI and sham mice were similar (341.9 kPa vs 363.4 kPa, p=0.6140), the modulus for P7 MI mice was significantly greater than that for P7 shams (691.6 kPa vs 429.2 kPa, p=0.0194). We conclude that, in neonatal mice, regenerated LV muscle has similar biomechanical properties as native LV myocardium.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-63324-w

    View details for PubMedID 32355240

  • A novel cross-species model of Barlow's disease to biomechanically analyze repair techniques in an exvivo left heart simulator. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Paulsen, M. J., Zhu, Y., Wang, H., Lucian, H. J., Farry, J. M., MacArthur, J. W., Ma, M., Woo, Y. J. 2020


    OBJECTIVE: Barlow's disease remains challenging to repair, given the complex valvular morphology and lack of quantitative data to compare techniques. Although there have been recent strides in exvivo evaluation of cardiac mechanics, to our knowledge, there is no disease model that accurately simulates the morphology and pathophysiology of Barlow's disease. The purpose of this study was to design such a model.METHODS: To simulate Barlow's disease, a cross-species exvivo model was developed. Bovine mitral valves (n=4) were sewn into a porcine annulus mount to create excess leaflet tissue and elongated chordae. A heart simulator generated physiologic conditions while hemodynamic data, high-speed videography, and chordal force measurements were collected. The regurgitant valves were repaired using nonresectional repair techniques such as neochord placement.RESULTS: The model successfully imitated the complexities of Barlow's disease, including redundant, billowing bileaflet tissues with notable regurgitation. After repair, hemodynamic data confirmed reduction of mitral leakage volume (25.9±2.9 vs 2.1±1.8mL, P<.001) and strain gauge analysis revealed lower primary chordae forces (0.51±0.17 vs 0.10±0.05N, P<.001). In addition, the maximum rate of change of force was significantly lower postrepair for both primary (30.80±11.38 vs 8.59±4.83N/s, P<.001) and secondary chordae (33.52±10.59 vs 19.07±7.00N/s, P=.006).CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the biomechanics of Barlow's disease, including sharply fluctuating force profiles experienced by elongated chordae prerepair, as well as restoration of primary chordae forces postrepair. Our disease model facilitates further in-depth analyses to optimize the repair of Barlow's disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.01.086

    View details for PubMedID 32249088

  • A novel 3D-Printed preferential posterior mitral annular dilation device delineates regurgitation onset threshold in an ex vivo heart simulator. Medical engineering & physics Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Paullin, C. C., Paulsen, M. J., Grady, F., Wang, H., Hironaka, C. E., Farry, J. M., Lucian, H. J., Woo, Y. J. 2020


    Mitral regurgitation (MR) due to annular dilation occurs in a variety of mitral valve diseases and is observed in many patients with heart failure due to mitral regurgitation. To understand the biomechanics of MR and ultimately design an optimized annuloplasty ring, a representative disease model with asymmetric dilation of the mitral annulus is needed. This work shows the design and implementation of a 3D-printed valve dilation device to preferentially dilate the posterior mitral valve annulus. Porcine mitral valves (n=3) were sewn into the device and mounted within a left heart simulator that generates physiologic pressures and flows through the valves, while chordal forces were measured. The valves were incrementally dilated, inducing MR, while hemodynamic and force data were collected. Flow analysis demonstrated that MR increased linearly with respect to percent annular dilation when dilation was greater than a 25.6% dilation threshold (p<0.01). Pre-threshold, dilation did not cause significant increases in regurgitant fraction. Forces on the chordae tendineae increased as dilation increased prior to the identified threshold (p < 0.01); post-threshold, the MR resulted in highly variable forces. Ultimately, this novel dilation device can be used to more accurately model a wide range of MR disease states and their corresponding repair techniques using ex vivo experimentation. In particular, this annular dilation device provides the means to investigate the design and optimization of novel annuloplasty rings.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.medengphy.2020.01.005

    View details for PubMedID 32008935

  • Artificial papillary muscle device for off-pump transapical mitral valve repair. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Zhu, Y., Park, M. H., Paulsen, M. J., Wang, H., Woo, Y. J. 2020


    New transapical minimally invasive artificial chordae implantation devices are a promising alternative to traditional open-heart repair, with the potential for decreased postoperative morbidity and reduced recovery time. However, these devices can place increased stress on the artificial chordae. We designed an artificial papillary muscle to alleviate artificial chordae stresses and thus increase repair durability.The artificial papillary muscle device is a narrow elastic column with an inner core that can be implanted during the minimally invasive transapical procedure via the same ventricular incision site. The device was 3-dimensionally printed in biocompatible silicone for this study. To test efficacy, porcine mitral valves (n = 6) were mounted in a heart simulator, and isolated regurgitation was induced. Each valve was repaired with a polytetrafluoroethylene suture with apical anchoring followed by artificial papillary muscle anchoring. In each case, a high-resolution Fiber Bragg Grating sensor recorded forces on the suture.Hemodynamic data confirmed that both repairs-with and without the artificial papillary muscle device-were successful in eliminating mitral regurgitation. Both the peak artificial chordae force and the rate of change of force at the onset of systole were significantly lower with the device compared with apical anchoring without the device (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively).Our novel artificial papillary muscle could integrate with minimally invasive repairs to shorten the artificial chordae and behave as an elastic damper, thus reducing sharp increases in force. With our device, we have the potential to improve the durability of off-pump transapical mitral valve repair procedures.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.11.105

    View details for PubMedID 33451843

  • In Vivo Validation of Restored Chordal Biomechanics After Mitral Ring Annuloplasty in a Rare Ovine Case of Natural Chronic Functional Mitral Regurgitation. Journal of cardiovascular development and disease Wang, H., Paulsen, M. J., Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Tada, Y., Bergamasco, H., Baker, S. W., Shudo, Y., Ma, M., Woo, J. Y. 2020; 7 (2)


    Mitral valve chordae tendineae forces are elevated in the setting of mitral regurgitation (MR). Ring annuloplasty is an essential component of surgical repair for MR, but whether chordal forces are reduced after mitral annuloplasty has never been validated in vivo. Here, we present an extremely rare ovine case of natural, severe chronic functional MR, in which we used force-sensing fiber Bragg grating neochordae to directly measure chordal forces in the baseline setting of severe MR, as well as after successful mitral ring annuloplasty repair. Overall, our report is the first to confirm in vivo that mitral ring annuloplasty reduces elevated chordae tendineae forces associated with chronic functional MR.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jcdd7020017

    View details for PubMedID 32429298

  • A Novel Aortic Regurgitation Model from Cusp Prolapse with Hemodynamic Validation Using an Ex Vivo Left Heart Simulator. Journal of cardiovascular translational research Zhu, Y., Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Paulsen, M. J., Priromprintr, B., Park, M. H., Wang, H., Lucian, H. J., Farry, J. M., Woo, Y. J. 2020


    Although ex vivo simulation is a valuable tool for surgical optimization, a disease model that mimics human aortic regurgitation (AR) from cusp prolapse is needed to accurately examine valve biomechanics. To simulate AR, four porcine aortic valves were explanted, and the commissure between the two largest leaflets was detached and re-implanted 5 mm lower to induce cusp prolapse. Four additional valves were tested in their native state as controls. All valves were tested in a heart simulator while hemodynamics, high-speed videography, and echocardiography data were collected. Our AR model successfully reproduced cusp prolapse with significant increase in regurgitant volume compared with that of the controls (23.2 ± 8.9 versus 2.8 ± 1.6 ml, p = 0.017). Hemodynamics data confirmed the simulation of physiologic disease conditions. Echocardiography and color flow mapping demonstrated the presence of mild to moderate eccentric regurgitation in our AR model. This novel AR model has enormous potential in the evaluation of valve biomechanics and surgical repair techniques. Graphical Abstract.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12265-020-10038-z

    View details for PubMedID 32495264

  • Quadrupling the N95 Supply during the COVID-19 Crisis with an Innovative 3D-Printed Mask Adaptor. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland) Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Park, M. H., Zhu, Y., Paulsen, M. J., Wang, H., Woo, Y. J. 2020; 8 (3)


    The need for personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic is far outstripping our ability to manufacture and distribute these supplies to hospitals. In particular, the medical N95 mask shortage is resulting in healthcare providers reusing masks or utilizing masks with filtration properties that do not meet medical N95 standards. We developed a solution for immediate use: a mask adaptor, outfitted with a quarter section of an N95 respirator that maintains the N95 seal standard, thereby quadrupling the N95 supply. A variety of designs were 3D-printed and optimized based on the following criteria: seal efficacy, filter surface area and N95 respirator multiplicity. The final design is reusable and features a 3D-printed soft silicone base as well as a rigid 3D-printed cartridge to seal one-quarter of a 3M 1860 N95 mask. Our mask passed the computerized N95 fit test for six individuals. All files are publicly available with this publication. Our design can provide immediate support for healthcare professionals in dire need of medical N95 masks by extending the current supply by a factor of four.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/healthcare8030225

    View details for PubMedID 32717841

  • Biomimetic six-axis robots replicate human cardiac papillary muscle motion: pioneering the next generation of biomechanical heart simulator technology. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Park, M. H., Paulsen, M. J., Sellke, M., Kulkami, R., Wang, H., Zhu, Y., Farry, J. M., Bourdillon, A. T., Callinan, C., Lucian, H. J., Hironaka, C. E., Deschamps, D., Joseph Woo, Y. 2020; 17 (173): 20200614


    Papillary muscles serve as attachment points for chordae tendineae which anchor and position mitral valve leaflets for proper coaptation. As the ventricle contracts, the papillary muscles translate and rotate, impacting chordae and leaflet kinematics; this motion can be significantly affected in a diseased heart. In ex vivo heart simulation, an explanted valve is subjected to physiologic conditions and can be adapted to mimic a disease state, thus providing a valuable tool to quantitatively analyse biomechanics and optimize surgical valve repair. However, without the inclusion of papillary muscle motion, current simulators are limited in their ability to accurately replicate cardiac biomechanics. We developed and implemented image-guided papillary muscle (IPM) robots to mimic the precise motion of papillary muscles. The IPM robotic system was designed with six degrees of freedom to fully capture the native motion. Mathematical analysis was used to avoid singularity conditions, and a supercomputing cluster enabled the calculation of the system's reachable workspace. The IPM robots were implemented in our heart simulator with motion prescribed by high-resolution human computed tomography images, revealing that papillary muscle motion significantly impacts the chordae force profile. Our IPM robotic system represents a significant advancement for ex vivo simulation, enabling more reliable cardiac simulations and repair optimizations.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rsif.2020.0614

    View details for PubMedID 33259750

  • Comprehensive Ex Vivo Comparison of 5 Clinically Used Conduit Configurations for Valve-Sparing Aortic Root Replacement Using a 3-Dimensional-Printed Heart Simulator. Circulation Paulsen, M. J., Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Baiocchi, M., Wang, H., Hironaka, C. E., Lucian, H. J., Farry, J. M., Thakore, A. D., Zhu, Y., Ma, M., MacArthur, J. W., Woo, Y. J. 2020; 142 (14): 1361–73


    Many graft configurations are clinically used for valve-sparing aortic root replacement, some specifically focused on recapitulating neosinus geometry. However, the specific impact of such neosinuses on valvular and root biomechanics and the potential influence on long-term durability are unknown.Using a custom 3-dimenstional-printed heart simulator with porcine aortic roots (n=5), the anticommissural plication, Stanford modification, straight graft (SG), Uni-Graft, and Valsalva graft configurations were tested in series using an incomplete counterbalanced measures design, with the native root as a control, to mitigate ordering effects. Hemodynamic and videometric data were analyzed using linear models with conduit as the fixed effect of interest and valve as a fixed nuisance effect with post hoc pairwise testing using Tukey's correction.Hemodynamics were clinically similar between grafts and control aortic roots. Regurgitant fraction varied between grafts, with SG and Uni-Graft groups having the lowest regurgitant fractions and anticommissural plication having the highest. Root distensibility was significantly lower in SG versus both control roots and all other grafts aside from the Stanford modification (P≤0.01 for each). All grafts except SG had significantly higher cusp opening velocities versus native roots (P<0.01 for each). Relative cusp opening forces were similar between SG, Uni-Graft, and control groups, whereas anticommissural plication, Stanford modification, and Valsalva grafts had significantly higher opening forces versus controls (P<0.01). Cusp closing velocities were similar between native roots and the SG group, and were significantly lower than observed in the other conduits (P≤0.01 for each). Only SG and Uni-Graft groups experienced relative cusp closing forces approaching that of the native root, whereas relative forces were >5-fold higher in the anticommissural plication, Stanford modification, and Valsalva graft groups.In this ex vivo modeling system, clinically used valve-sparing aortic root replacement conduit configurations have comparable hemodynamics but differ in biomechanical performance, with the straight graft most closely recapitulating native aortic root biomechanics.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.046612

    View details for PubMedID 33017215

  • Mitral chordae tendineae force profile characterization using a posterior ventricular anchoring neochordal repair model for mitral regurgitation in a three-dimensional-printed ex vivo left heart simulator. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery Paulsen, M. J., Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Wang, H., Bae, J. H., Hironaka, C. E., Farry, J. M., Lucian, H. J., Thakore, A. D., MacArthur, J. W., Cutkosky, M. R., Woo, Y. J. 2019


    OBJECTIVES: Posterior ventricular anchoring neochordal (PVAN) repair is a non-resectional technique for correcting mitral regurgitation (MR) due to posterior leaflet prolapse, utilizing a single suture anchored in the myocardium behind the leaflet. This technique has demonstrated clinical efficacy, although a theoretical limitation is stability of the anchoring suture. We hypothesize that the PVAN suture positions the leaflet for coaptation, after which forces are distributed evenly with low repair suture forces.METHODS: Porcine mitral valves were mounted in a 3-dimensional-printed heart simulator and chordal forces, haemodynamics and echocardiography were collected at baseline, after inducing MR by severing chordae, and after PVAN repair. Repair suture forces were measured with a force-sensing post positioned to mimic in vivo suture placement. Forces required to pull the myocardial suture free were also determined.RESULTS: Relative primary and secondary chordae forces on both leaflets were elevated during prolapse (P<0.05). PVAN repair eliminated MR in all valves and normalized chordae forces to baseline levels on anterior primary (0.37±0.23 to 0.22±0.09 N, P<0.05), posterior primary (0.62±0.37 to 0.14±0.05 N, P=0.001), anterior secondary (1.48±0.52 to 0.85±0.43 N, P<0.001) and posterior secondary chordae (1.42±0.69 to 0.59±0.17 N, P=0.005). Repair suture forces were minimal, even compared to normal primary chordae forces (0.08±0.04 vs 0.19±0.08 N, P=0.002), and were 90 times smaller than maximum forces tolerated by the myocardium (0.08±0.04 vs 6.9±1.3 N, P<0.001).DISCUSSION: PVAN repair eliminates MR by positioning the posterior leaflet for coaptation, distributing forces throughout the valve. Given extremely low measured forces, the strength of the repair suture and the myocardium is not a limitation.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ejcts/ezz258

    View details for PubMedID 31638697

  • Neonatal Heart Regeneration Preserves Native Ventricular Biomechanical Properties After Myocardial Infarction Wang, H., Bennett-Kennett, R., Paulsen, M. J., Hironaka, C. E., Thakore, A. D., Farry, J. M., Eskandari, A., Lucian, H. J., Wu, M. A., Imbrie-Moore, A., Steele, A. N., Stapleton, L. M., Dauskardt, R. H., Woo, Y. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2019
  • Modeling conduit choice for valve-sparing aortic root replacement on biomechanics with a 3-dimensional-printed heart simulator JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Paulsen, M. J., Kasinpila, P., Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Wang, H., Hironaka, C. E., Koyano, T. K., Fong, R., Chiu, P., Goldstone, A. B., Steele, A. N., Stapleton, L. M., Ma, M., Woo, Y. 2019; 158 (2): 392–403
  • Bioengineered analog of stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha preserves the biaxial mechanical properties of native myocardium after infarction JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS Wang, H., Wisneski, A., Paulsen, M. J., Imbrie-Moore, A., Wang, Z., Xuan, Y., Hernandez, H., Lucian, H. J., Eskandari, A., Thakore, A. D., Parry, J. M., Hironaka, C. E., von Bornstaedt, D., Steele, A. N., Stapleton, L. M., Williams, K. M., Wu, M. A., MacArthur, J. W., Woo, Y. 2019; 96: 165–71
  • Ex Vivo Biomechanical Study of Apical Versus Papillary Neochord Anchoring for Mitral Regurgitation Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Paulsen, M. J., Thakore, A. D., Wang, H., Hironaka, C. E., Lucian, H. J., Farry, J. M., Edwards, B. B., Bae, J., Cutkosky, M. R., Woo, Y. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: 90–97
  • Ex vivo biomechanical study of apical versus papillary neochord anchoring for mitral regurgitation. The Annals of thoracic surgery Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Paulsen, M. J., Thakore, A. D., Wang, H., Hironaka, C. E., Lucian, H. J., Farry, J. M., Edwards, B. B., Bae, J. H., Cutkosky, M. R., Woo, Y. J. 2019


    BACKGROUND: Neochordoplasty is an important repair technique, though optimal anchoring position is unknown. While typically anchored at papillary muscles, new percutaneous devices anchor the chordae at or near the ventricular apex, which may have an effect on chordal forces and the long-term durability of the repair.METHODS: Porcine mitral valves (n=6) were mounted in a left heart simulator that generates physiological pressure and flow through the valves while chordal forces were measured using Fiber Bragg Grating strain gauge sensors. Isolated mitral regurgitation was induced by cutting P2 primary chordae and the regurgitant valve was repaired using PTFE neochord with apical anchoring, followed by papillary muscle fixation for comparison. In both cases, the neochord was anchored to a customized force-sensing post positioned to mimic the relevant in vivo placement.RESULTS: Echocardiographic and hemodynamic data confirmed that the repairs restored physiologic hemodynamics. Forces on the chordae and neochord were lower for papillary fixation than the apical (p=0.003). Additionally, the maximum rate of change of force was higher for the chordae and neochord for apical fixation when compared to papillary (p=0.028).CONCLUSIONS: Apical point of anchoring results in higher forces on the chordae and neochord stitch as well as an increased rate of loading on the neochord when compared to the papillary muscle fixation. These results suggest the papillary fixation repair may have superior durability.

    View details for PubMedID 30836099

  • Development and ex vivo validation of novel force-sensing neochordae for measuring chordae tendineae tension in the mitral valve apparatus using optical fibers with embedded Bragg gratings. Journal of biomechanical engineering Paulsen, M. J., Bae, J. H., Imbrie-Moore, A., Wang, H., Hironaka, C., Farry, J. M., Lucian, H., Thakore, A., Cutkosky, M. R., Woo, Y. J. 2019


    Few technologies exist that can provide quantitative data on forces within the mitral valve apparatus. Marker-based strain measurements can be performed, but chordal geometry and restricted optical access are limitations. Foil-based strain sensors have been described and work well, but the sensor footprint limits the number of chordae that can be measured. We instead utilized Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors-optical strain gauges made of 125µm diameter silica fibers- to overcome some limitations of previous methods of measuring chordae tendineae forces. Using FBG sensors, we created a force-sensing neochord that mimics the natural shape and movement of native chordae. FBG sensors reflect a specific wavelength of light depending on the spatial period of gratings. When force is applied, the gratings move relative to one another, shifting the wavelength of reflected light. This shift is directly proportional to force applied. The FBG sensors were housed in a protective sheath fashioned from a 0.025" flat coil, and attached to the chordae using polytetrafluoroethylene suture. The function of the force-sensing neochordae was validated in a 3D-printed left heart simulator, which demonstrated that FBG sensors provide highly sensitive force measurements of mitral valve chordae at a temporal resolution of 1000 Hz. As ventricular pressures increased, such as in hypertension, chordae forces also increased. Overall, FBG sensors are a viable, durable, and high-fidelity sensing technology that can be effectively used to measure mitral valve chordae forces and overcome some limitations of other such technologies.

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.4044142

    View details for PubMedID 31253992

  • Bioengineered analog of stromal cell-derived factor 1α preserves the biaxial mechanical properties of native myocardium after infarction. Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials Wang, H., Wisneski, A., Paulsen, M. J., Imbrie-Moore, A., Wang, Z., Xuan, Y., Hernandez, H. L., Lucian, H. J., Eskandari, A., Thakore, A. D., Farry, J. M., Hironaka, C. E., von Bornstaedt, D., Steele, A. N., Stapleton, L. M., Williams, K. M., Wu, M. A., MacArthur, J. W., Woo, Y. J. 2019; 96: 165–71


    Adverse remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) after myocardial infarction (MI) results in abnormal tissue biomechanics and impaired cardiac function, often leading to heart failure. We hypothesized that intramyocardial delivery of engineered stromal cell-derived factor 1α analog (ESA), our previously-developed supra-efficient pro-angiogenic chemokine, preserves biaxial LV mechanical properties after MI. Male Wistar rats (n = 45) underwent sham surgery (n = 15) or permanent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Rats sustaining MI were randomized for intramyocardial injections of either saline (100 μL, n = 15) or ESA (6 μg/kg, n = 15), delivered at four standardized borderzone sites. After 4 weeks, echocardiography was performed, and the hearts were explanted. Tensile testing of the anterolateral LV wall was performed using a displacement-controlled biaxial load frame, and modulus was determined after constitutive modeling. At 4 weeks post-MI, compared to saline controls, ESA-treated hearts had greater wall thickness (1.68 ± 0.05 mm vs 1.42 ± 0.08 mm, p = 0.008), smaller end-diastolic LV internal dimension (6.88 ± 0.29 mm vs 7.69 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.044), and improved ejection fraction (62.8 ± 3.0% vs 49.4 ± 4.5%, p = 0.014). Histologic analysis revealed significantly reduced infarct size for ESA-treated hearts compared to saline controls (29.4 ± 2.9% vs 41.6 ± 3.1%, p = 0.021). Infarcted hearts treated with ESA exhibited decreased modulus compared to those treated with saline in both the circumferential (211.5 ± 6.9 kPa vs 264.3 ± 12.5 kPa, p = 0.001) and longitudinal axes (194.5 ± 6.5 kPa vs 258.1 ± 14.4 kPa, p < 0.001). In both principal directions, ESA-treated infarcted hearts possessed similar tissue compliance as sham non-infarcted hearts. Overall, intramyocardial ESA therapy improves post-MI ventricular remodeling and function, reduces infarct size, and preserves native LV biaxial mechanical properties.

    View details for PubMedID 31035067

  • Rapid and durable photochemical bonding of cartilage using the porphyrin photosensitizer verteporfin. Osteoarthritis and cartilage Arvayo, A. L., Imbrie-Moore, A., Levenston, M. E. 2019


    To evaluate the effectiveness of verteporfin as a photosensitizer to photochemically bond articular cartilage tissues and determine bond durability in vitro.Bond strength induced by verteporfin over a range of concentrations and light exposure conditions was investigated using a disk-annulus model and a pushout test. Exposure was parameterized by varying either irradiance or irradiation time. Bond robustness in a cell-mediated degeneration environment was examined by exposing newly bonded samples to interleukin-1 alpha for the first 4 days of a 7-day culture period, followed by mechanical testing and biochemical and cellular viability assays.Photochemical bonding using verteporfin produced high bonding shear strengths at relatively low photosensitizer concentrations. Low exposures produced by either low irradiance or short irradiation time were sufficient to produce shear strengths comparable to those previously produced with phthalocyanine photosensitizers with substantially higher light exposure. Photochemically produced bonds were resistant to cell-mediated degeneration in vitro with no evident differences in cell viability among treatments.Verteporfin offers distinct advantages as a photosensitizer for photochemical bonding of articular cartilage due to the production of strong, durable bonds at relatively low light exposures. Further exploration may lead to clinically feasible strategies to augment cartilage repair techniques.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2019.05.022

    View details for PubMedID 31229683

  • Modeling conduit choice for valve-sparing aortic root replacement on biomechanics with a 3-dimensional-printed heart simulator. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Paulsen, M. J., Kasinpila, P., Imbrie-Moore, A. M., Wang, H., Hironaka, C. E., Koyano, T. K., Fong, R., Chiu, P., Goldstone, A. B., Steele, A. N., Stapleton, L. M., Ma, M., Woo, Y. J. 2018


    OBJECTIVE: The optimal conduit for valve-sparing aortic root replacement is still debated, with several conduit variations available, ranging from straight tubular grafts to Valsalva grafts. Benefits of neosinus reconstruction include enhanced flow profiles and improved hemodynamics. Curiously, however, some clinical data suggest that straight grafts may have greater long-term durability. In this study, we hypothesized that straight tubular grafts may help maintain the native cylindrical position of the aortic valve commissures radially, resulting in preserved leaflet coaptation, reduced stresses, and potentially improved valve performance.METHODS: Using 3D printing, a left heart simulator with a valve-sparing root replacement model and a physiologic coronary circulation was constructed. Aortic valves were dissected from fresh porcine hearts and reimplanted into either straight tubular grafts (n=6) or Valsalva grafts (n=6). Conduits were mounted into the heart simulator and hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and high-speed videometric data were collected.RESULTS: Hemodynamic parameters and coronary blood flow were similar between straight and Valsalva grafts, although the former were associated with lower regurgitant fractions, less peak intercommissural radial separation, preserved leaflet coaptation, decreased leaflet velocities, and lower relative leaflet forces compared with Valsalva grafts.CONCLUSIONS: Valsalva grafts and straight grafts perform equally well in terms of gross hemodyanics and coronary blood flow. Interestingly, however, the biomechanics of these 2 conduits differ considerably, with straight grafts providing increased radial commissural stability and leaflet coaptation. Further investigation into how these parameters influence clinical outcomes is warranted.

    View details for PubMedID 30745047