Doctor of Philosophy, Universite De Lausanne (2017)
Master of Science, Universite de Paris V (Rene Descartes) (2011)
Engineer, Ecole Polytechnique Feminine (2012)
Susan Holmes, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Cytokine profile in plasma of severe COVID-19 does not differ from ARDS and sepsis.
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with poor outcomes among COVID-19 patients. It is unknown, however, how these levels compare to those observed in critically ill patients with ARDS or sepsis due to other causes.METHODS: We used a luminex assay to determine expression of 76 cytokines from plasma of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and banked plasma samples from ARDS and sepsis patients. Our analysis focused on detecting statistical differences in levels of 6 cytokines associated with cytokine storm (IL-1b, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNFalpha) between patients with moderate COVID-19, severe COVID-19, and ARDS or sepsis.RESULTS: 15 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 9 of whom were critically ill, were compared to critically ill patients with ARDS (n = 12) or sepsis (n = 16). There were no statistically significant differences in baseline levels of IL-1b, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNFalpha between patients with COVID-19 and critically ill controls with ARDS or sepsis.CONCLUSIONS: Levels of inflammatory cytokines were not higher in severe COVID-19 patients than in moderate COVID-19 or critically ill patients with ARDS or sepsis in this small cohort. Broad use of immunosuppressive therapies in ARDS has failed in numerous Phase 3 studies; use of these therapies in unselected patients with COVID-19 may be unwarranted.FUNDING: A.J.R.: Stanford ICU Biobank NHLBI K23 HL125663. C.A.B.: Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigators in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases #1016687; NIH/NIAID U19AI057229-16 (PI MM Davis); Stanford Maternal Child Health Research Institute; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub.
View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.140289
View details for PubMedID 32706339
Perspectives on ENCODE.
2020; 583 (7818): 693–98
The Encylopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project launched in 2003 with the long-term goal of developing a comprehensive map of functional elements in the human genome. These included genes, biochemical regions associated with gene regulation (for example, transcription factor binding sites, open chromatin, and histone marks) and transcript isoforms. The marks serve as sites for candidate cis-regulatory elements (cCREs) that may serve functional roles in regulating gene expression1. The project has been extended to model organisms, particularly the mouse. In the third phase of ENCODE, nearly a million and more than 300,000 cCRE annotations have been generated for human and mouse, respectively, and these have provided a valuable resource for the scientific community.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-2449-8
View details for PubMedID 32728248
Expanded encyclopaedias of DNA elements in the human and mouse genomes.
2020; 583 (7818): 699–710
The human and mouse genomes contain instructions that specify RNAs and proteins and govern the timing, magnitude, and cellular context of their production. To better delineate these elements, phase III of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project has expanded analysis of the cell and tissue repertoires of RNA transcription, chromatin structure and modification, DNA methylation, chromatin looping, and occupancy by transcription factors and RNA-binding proteins. Here we summarize these efforts, which have produced 5,992 new experimental datasets, including systematic determinations across mouse fetal development. All data are available through the ENCODE data portal (https://www.encodeproject.org), including phase II ENCODE1 and Roadmap Epigenomics2 data. We have developed a registry of 926,535 human and 339,815 mouse candidate cis-regulatory elements, covering 7.9 and 3.4% of their respective genomes, by integrating selected datatypes associated with gene regulation, and constructed a web-based server (SCREEN; http://screen.encodeproject.org) to provide flexible, user-defined access to this resource. Collectively, the ENCODE data and registry provide an expansive resource for the scientific community to build a better understanding of the organization and function of the human and mouse genomes.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-2493-4
View details for PubMedID 32728249
Natural killer cell phenotype is altered in HIV-exposed seronegative women.
2020; 15 (9): e0238347
Highly exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals present a unique setting to study mechanisms of protection against HIV acquisition. As natural killer (NK) cell activation and function have been implicated as a correlate of protection in HESN individuals, we sought to better understand the features of NK cells that may confer protection. We used mass cytometry to phenotypically profile NK cells from a cohort of Beninese sex workers and healthy controls. We found that NK cells from HESN women had increased expression of NKG2A, NKp30 and LILRB1, as well as the Fc receptor CD16, and decreased expression of DNAM-1, CD94, Siglec-7, and NKp44. Using functional assessments of NK cells from healthy donors against autologous HIV-infected CD4+ T cells, we observed that NKp30+ and Siglec-7+ cells had improved functional activity. Further, we found that NK cells from HESN women trended towards increased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity; this activity correlated with increased CD16 expression. Overall, we identify features of NK cells in HESN women that may contribute to protection from HIV infection. Follow up studies with larger cohorts are warranted to confirm these findings.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0238347
View details for PubMedID 32870938
Treated HIV Infection Alters Phenotype but Not HIV-Specific Function of Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells.
Frontiers in immunology
2020; 11: 829
Natural killer (NK) cells are the predominant antiviral cells of the innate immune system, and may play an important role in acquisition and disease progression of HIV. While untreated HIV infection is associated with distinct alterations in the peripheral blood NK cell repertoire, less is known about how NK phenotype is altered in the setting of long-term viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as how NK memory can impact functional responses. As such, we sought to identify changes in NK cell phenotype and function using high-dimensional mass cytometry to simultaneously analyze both surface and functional marker expression of peripheral blood NK cells in a cohort of ART-suppressed, HIV+ patients and HIV- healthy controls. We found that the NK cell repertoire following IL-2 treatment was altered in individuals with treated HIV infection compared to healthy controls, with increased expression of markers including NKG2C and CD2, and decreased expression of CD244 and NKp30. Using co-culture assays with autologous, in vitro HIV-infected CD4 T cells, we identified a subset of NK cells with enhanced responsiveness to HIV-1-infected cells, but no differences in the magnitude of anti-HIV NK cell responses between the HIV+ and HIV- groups. In addition, by profiling of NK cell receptors on responding cells, we found similar phenotypes of HIV-responsive NK cell subsets in both groups. Lastly, we identified clusters of NK cells that are altered in individuals with treated HIV infection compared to healthy controls, but found that these clusters are distinct from those that respond to HIV in vitro. As such, we conclude that while chronic, treated HIV infection induces a reshaping of the IL-2-stimulated peripheral blood NK cell repertoire, it does so in a way that does not make the repertoire more HIV-specific.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00829
View details for PubMedID 32477342
Characterization of the Impact of Daclizumab Beta on Circulating Natural Killer Cells by Mass Cytometry.
Frontiers in immunology
2020; 11: 714
Daclizumab beta is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to CD25 and selectively inhibits high-affinity IL-2 receptor signaling. As a former treatment for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS), daclizumab beta induces robust expansion of the CD56bright subpopulation of NK cells that is correlated with the drug's therapeutic effects. As NK cells represent a heterogeneous population of lymphocytes with a range of phenotypes and functions, the goal of this study was to better understand how daclizumab beta altered the NK cell repertoire to provide further insight into the possible mechanism(s) of action in RMS. We used mass cytometry to evaluate expression patterns of NK cell markers and provide a comprehensive assessment of the NK cell repertoire in individuals with RMS treated with daclizumab beta or placebo over the course of 1 year. Treatment with daclizumab beta significantly altered the NK cell repertoire compared to placebo treatment. As previously reported, daclizumab beta significantly increased expression of CD56 on total NK cells. Within the CD56bright NK cells, treatment was associated with multiple phenotypic changes, including increased expression of NKG2A and NKp44, and diminished expression of CD244, CD57, and NKp46. These alterations occurred broadly across the CD56bright population, and were not associated with a specific subset of CD56bright NK cells. While the changes were less dramatic, CD56dim NK cells responded distinctly to daclizumab beta treatment, with higher expression of CD2 and NKG2A, and lower expression of FAS-L, HLA-DR, NTB-A, NKp30, and Perforin. Together, these data indicate that the expanded CD56bright NK cells share features of both immature and mature NK cells. These findings show that daclizumab beta treatment is associated with unique changes in NK cells that may enhance their ability to kill autoreactive T cells or to exert immunomodulatory functions.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00714
View details for PubMedID 32391016
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7194113