Human SLC46A2 Is the Dominant cGAMP Importer in Extracellular cGAMP-Sensing Macrophages and Monocytes.
ACS central science
2021; 7 (6): 1073-1088
Administration of exogenous CDNs to activate the cGAMP-STING pathway is a promising therapeutic strategy to unleash the full potential of cancer immunotherapy. This strategy mirrors the role of endogenous extracellular cGAMP, an immunotransmitter that is transferred from cancer cells to cGAMP-sensing cells in the host, promoting immunity. However, the CDN import mechanisms used by host cells within tumors remain unknown. Here we identified the protein SLC46A2 as the dominant cGAMP importer in primary human monocytes. Furthermore, we discovered that monocytes and M1-polarized macrophages directly sense tumor-derived extracellular cGAMP in murine tumors. Finally, we demonstrated that SLC46A2 is the dominant cGAMP importer in monocyte-derived macrophages. Together, we provide the first cellular and molecular mechanisms of cGAMP as an immunotransmitter, paving the way for effective STING pathway therapeutics.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acscentsci.1c00440
View details for PubMedID 34235268
SLC19A1 Is an Importer of the Immunotransmitter cGAMP.
2'3'-cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) is a second messenger that activates the antiviral stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway. We recently identified a novel role for cGAMP as a soluble, extracellular immunotransmitter that is produced and secreted by cancer cells. Secreted cGAMP is then sensed by host cells, eliciting an antitumoral immune response. Due to the antitumoral effects of cGAMP, other CDN-based STING agonists are currently under investigation in clinical trials for metastatic solid tumors. However, it is unknown how cGAMP and other CDNs cross the cell membrane to activateintracellular STING. Using a genome-wide CRISPRscreen, we identified SLC19A1 as the first knownimporter of cGAMP and other CDNs, including theinvestigational new drug 2'3'-bisphosphosphothioate-cyclic-di-AMP (2'3'-CDAS). These discoveries will provide insight into cGAMP's role as an immunotransmitter and aid in the development of more targeted CDN-based cancer therapeutics.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2019.05.006
View details for PubMedID 31126740