Antonio Gilardi: received a Bachelor's and Master's degree (cum laude) in Electronics Engineering from the University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy, in 2017.
In 2021, he obtained the PhD degree with honor in Information Technology with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology at the University of Naples Federico II, collaborating with the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland.
He was with the Hadron Synchrotron Collective effects in the Beam Department, CERN, where he worked on modeling new devices to dampen parasitic resonances.
During his PhD, he was part of the CERN Accelerator for Research (CLEAR) operation team, in which he was responsible for different research lines.
In particular, he worked on developing advanced beam diagnostic related to the measurements of the bunch length monitoring system in a particle accelerator and direct measurement of wakefield in new technology X-band accelerating structure.
Following, was enrolled as a post-doc at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), California, USA. His main research themes were mainly focused on developing laser combining methodology with the support of AI and consolidating/developing the control feature for laser systems.
Currently Antonio has joined SLAC National Laboratory working as a point of contact for 2 LCSL experiment.

Current Role at Stanford

Staff Engineer

Honors & Awards

  • University Scholarship, Scuola Normale Superiore (2012)
  • University merit grant - High honor student BSc, University of Naples Federico II (2015)
  • University merit grant - High honor student MSc, University of Naples Federico II (2017)
  • Conference grant, ICFA mini-workshop Impedance and beam instabilities in particle accelerators (2017)
  • Course grant - The technology and applications of particle accelerators, Joint Universities Accelerator School (JUAS) (2018)
  • Course grant - The science of particle accelerators, Joint Universities Accelerator School (JUAS) (2018)
  • Conference grant, IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 2019 (I2MTC19) (2019)
  • Conference grant, 11th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC20) (2020)
  • Massimo D’Apuzzo Awards, Group of Electric and Electronic Measurement (GMEE) (2020)
  • Course grant - Optimization and Machine Learning for Accelerators, US Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) (2022)

Education & Certifications

  • Specialization, US Particle Accelerator School (USPAS), Particle accelerator - Machine Learning (2022)
  • Specialization, European Scientific Institute (ESI), Particle accelerator - Technology (2018)
  • Specialization, European Scientific Institute (ESI), Particle accelerator - Science (2018)
  • PhD, University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy - European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), Information Technology (2021)
  • MSc, University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy - European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), Electronics Engineering (2017)
  • BSc, University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy, Electronics Engineering (2015)

Service, Volunteer and Community Work

  • 3rd Advanced material science world congress (March 21, 2022 - 3/22/2022)




  • Metrology for extended reality, artificial intelligence and neural engineering, (October 26, 2022 - October 28, 2022)




Professional Interests

Development of novel instrumentation, diagnostics, and measurement method for the particle accelerator.
Pushing forward the boundary of knowledge.

All Publications

  • Experimental beam combining stabilization using machine learning trained while phases drift OPTICS EXPRESS Du, Q., Wang, D., Zhou, T., Gilardi, A., Kiran, M., Mohammed, B., Li, D., Wilcox, R. 2022; 30 (8): 12639-12653


    An 8-beam, diffractive coherent beam combiner is phase controlled by a learning algorithm trained while optical phases drift, using a differential mapping technique. Combined output power is stable to 0.4% with 95% of theoretical maximum efficiency, limited by the diffractive element.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.450255

    View details for Web of Science ID 000781729800038

    View details for PubMedID 35472897

  • Analysis of the photoneutron field near the THz dump of the CLEAR accelerator at CERN with SEU measurements and simulations IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science Lerner, G., Coronetti, A., Kempf, A., Maël, J., Alía, R., Cerutti, F., Prelipcean, D., Cecchetto, M., Gilardi, A., Farabolini, W., Corsini, R. 2022: 8

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TNS.2022.3157404

  • Diffractive combining and control of femtosecond pulse beam arrays Fiber Lasers XIX: Technology and Systems Wilcox, R., Zhou, T., Qiang, D., Wang, D., Gilardi, A., Chen, S., Li, D. 2022: 110-121

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2614781

  • Electron-Induced Upsets and Stuck Bits in SDRAMs in the Jovian Environment IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE Soderstrom, D., Luza, L., Kettunen, H., Javanainen, A., Farabolini, W., Gilardi, A., Coronetti, A., Poivey, C., Dilillo, L. 2021; 68 (5): 716-723
  • An experimental study of focused very high energy electron beams for radiotherapy COMMUNICATIONS PHYSICS Kokurewicz, K., Brunetti, E., Curcio, A., Gamba, D., Garolfi, L., Gilardi, A., Senes, E., Sjobak, K., Farabolini, W., Corsini, R., Jaroszynski, D. 2021; 4 (1)
  • Evaluating very high energy electron RBE from nanodosimetric pBR322 plasmid DNA damage SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Small, K. L., Henthorn, N. T., Angal-Kalinin, D., Chadwick, A. L., Santina, E., Aitkenhead, A., Kirkby, K. J., Smith, R. J., Surman, M., Jones, J., Farabolini, W., Corsini, R., Gamba, D., Gilardi, A., Merchant, M. J., Jones, R. M. 2021; 11 (1): 3341


    This paper presents the first plasmid DNA irradiations carried out with Very High Energy Electrons (VHEE) over 100-200 MeV at the CLEAR user facility at CERN to determine the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of VHEE. DNA damage yields were measured in dry and aqueous environments to determine that ~ 99% of total DNA breaks were caused by indirect effects, consistent with other published measurements for protons and photons. Double-Strand Break (DSB) yield was used as the biological endpoint for RBE calculation, with values found to be consistent with established radiotherapy modalities. Similarities in physical damage between VHEE and conventional modalities gives confidence that biological effects of VHEE will also be similar-key for clinical implementation. Damage yields were used as a baseline for track structure simulations of VHEE plasmid irradiation using GEANT4-DNA. Current models for DSB yield have shown reasonable agreement with experimental values. The growing interest in FLASH radiotherapy motivated a study into DSB yield variation with dose rate following VHEE irradiation. No significant variations were observed between conventional and FLASH dose rate irradiations, indicating that no FLASH effect is seen under these conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-021-82772-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000617647000008

    View details for PubMedID 33558553

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7870938

  • VHEE beam dosimetry at CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research under ultra-high dose rate conditions BIOMEDICAL PHYSICS & ENGINEERING EXPRESS Poppinga, D., Kranzer, R., Farabolini, W., Gilardi, A., Corsini, R., Wyrwoll, V., Looe, H., Delfs, B., Gabrisch, L., Poppe, B. 2021; 7 (1)


    The aim of this work is the dosimetric characterization of a plane parallel ionization chamber under defined beam setups at the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR). A laser driven electron beam with energy of 200 MeV at two different field sizes of approximately 3.5 mm FWHM and approximately 7 mm FWHM were used at different pulse structures. Thereby the dose-per-pulse range varied between approximately 0.2 and 12 Gy per pulse. This range represents approximately conventional dose rate range beam conditions up to ultra-high dose rate (UHDR) beam conditions. The experiment was based on a water phantom which was integrated into the horizontal beamline and radiochromic films and an Advanced Markus ionization chamber was positioned in the water phantom. In addition, the experimental setup were modelled in the Monte Carlo simulation environment FLUKA. In a first step the radiochromic film measurements were used to verify the beamline setup. Depth dose distributions and dose profiles measured by radiochromic film were compared with Monte Carlo simulations to verify the experimental conditions. Second, the radiochromic films were used for reference dosimetry to characterize the ionization chamber. In particular, polarity effects and the ion collection efficiency of the ionization chamber were investigated for both field sizes and the complete dose rate range. As a result of the study, significant polarity effects and recombination loss of the ionization chamber were shown and characterized. However, the work shows that the behavior of the ionization chamber at the laser driven beam line at the CLEAR facility is comparable to classical high dose-per-pulse electron beams. This allows the use of ionization chambers on the CLEAR system and thus enables active dose measurement during the experiment. Compared to passive dose measurement with film, this is an important step forward in the experimental equipment of the facility.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/2057-1976/abcae5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000600091300001

    View details for PubMedID 34037536

  • Development and Testing of a Cherenkov Beam Loss Monitor in CLEAR Facility.” International Particle Accelerator Conference IPAC Benitez Berrocal, S., Effinger, E., Farabolini, W., Gilardi, A., Korysko, P., Lane, P., Lima, E., Salvachua, B., ViganO, W. 2021
  • Status of VHEE Radiotherapy Related Studies at the CLEAR User Facility at CERN IPAC2021 Corsini, R., Dyks, L., Farabolini, W., Gilardi, A., Korysko, P., Sjobak, K. 2021
  • Consolidation and Future Upgrades to the CLEAR User Facility at CERN IPAC Dyks, L. A., Burrows, P. N., Corsini, R., Curt, S., Farabolini, W., Gamba, D., Garolfi, L., Gilardi, A., Granados, E., Korysko, P., McMonagle, G., Panuganti, H., Sjobak, K. N. 2021
  • Beam position detection of a short electron bunch in presence of a longer and more intense proton bunch for the AWAKE Experiment IBIC Senes, E., Burrows, P., Corsini, R., Farabolini, W., Gilardi, A., Krupa, M., Lefevre, T., Mazzoni, S., Pakuza, C., Wendt, M. 2021
  • A Measurement Method Based on RF Deflector for Particle Bunch Longitudinal Parameters in Linear Accelerators IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT Sabato, L., Arpaia, P., Gilardi, A., Mostacci, A., Palumbo, L., Variola, A. 2021; 70
  • Enhancing particle bunch-length measurements based on Radio Frequency Deflector by the use of focusing elements SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Arpaia, P., Corsini, R., Gilardi, A., Mostacci, A., Sabato, L., Sjobak, K. N. 2020; 10 (1): 11457


    A method to monitor the length of a particle bunch, based on the combination of a Radio Frequency Deflector (RFD) with magnetic focusing elements, is presented. With respect to state-of-the-art bunch length measurement, the additional focusing element allows to measure also the correlations between the longitudinal and transverse planes in terms of both position and divergence. Furthermore, the quadrupole-based focusing increases the input dynamic range of the measurement system (i.e.  allows for a larger range of beam Twiss parameters at the entrance of the RFD). Thus, measurement resolution and precision are enhanced, by simultaneously preserving the accuracy. In this paper, the method is first introduced analytically, and then validated in simulation, by the reference tool ELEctron Generation ANd Tracking, ELEGANT. Finally, a preliminary experimental validation at CLEAR (CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research) is reported.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-67997-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000548307500001

    View details for PubMedID 32651403

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7351755

  • The challenge of ionisation chamber dosimetry in ultra-short pulsed high dose-rate Very High Energy Electron beams SCIENTIFIC REPORTS McManus, M., Romano, F., Lee, N. D., Farabolini, W., Gilardi, A., Royle, G., Palmans, H., Subiel, A. 2020; 10 (1): 9089


    High dose-rate radiotherapy, known as FLASH, has been shown to increase the differential response between healthy and tumour tissue. Moreover, Very High Energy Electrons (VHEEs) provide more favourable dose distributions than conventional radiotherapy electron and photon beams. Plane-parallel ionisation chambers are the recommended secondary standard systems for clinical reference dosimetry of electrons, therefore chamber response to these high energy and high dose-per-pulse beams must be well understood. Graphite calorimetry, the UK primary standard, has been employed to measure the dose delivered from a 200 MeV pulsed electron beam. This was compared to the charge measurements of a plane-parallel ionisation chamber to determine the absolute collection efficiency and infer the ion recombination factor. The dose-per-pulse measured by the calorimeter ranged between 0.03 Gy/pulse and 5.26 Gy/pulse, corresponding to collection efficiencies between 97% and 4%, respectively. Multiple recombination models currently available have been compared with experimental results. This work is directly applicable to the development of standard dosimetry protocols for VHEE radiotherapy, FLASH radiotherapy and other high dose-rate modalities. However, the use of secondary standard ionisation chambers for the dosimetry of high dose-per-pulse VHEEs has been shown to require large corrections for charge collection inefficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-65819-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000543961900027

    View details for PubMedID 32493952

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7270129

  • Noninvasive bunch length measurements exploiting Cherenkov diffraction radiation PHYSICAL REVIEW ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS Curcio, A., Bergamaschi, M., Corsini, R., Farabolini, W., Gamba, D., Garolfi, L., Kieffer, R., Lefevre, T., Mazzoni, S., Fedorov, K., Gardelle, J., Gilardi, A., Karataev, P., Lekomtsev, K., Pacey, T., Saveliev, Y., Potylitsyn, A., Senes, E. 2020; 23 (2)
  • Challenges in dosimetry of particle beams with ultra-high pulse dose rates Journal of Physics: Conference Series Romanio, F. 2020; 1662: 012028
  • A beam profile monitor for high energy proton beams using microfabrication techniques IBIC Mateu, I., Bouvet, D., Farabolini, W., Gilardi, A., Gkotse, B., Mapelli, A., Meskova, V., Pezzullo, G., Ravotti, F., Sallese, J., Sidiropoulou, O. 2020
  • Reducing parasitic resonances in particle accelerators components by broadband Higher-Order-Mode couplers MEASUREMENT Arpaia, P., Berrig, O. E., De Vito, L., Gilardi, A. 2019; 146: 938-947
  • Beam–basedAlignmentoftheCLICHigh-GradientX-BandAc- celerating Structure Using Beam-Screen I2MTC Arpaia, P., Corsini, R., Gilardi, A., Sjobak, K. N. 2019
  • Status of the CLEAR electron beam user facility at CERN IPAC Sjobak, K. N., et al 2019

    View details for DOI 10.18429/JACoW--MOPTS054

  • Experimental Analysis for the Optimal Choice of High-Order Modes Couplers Design Parameters for Resonance Damping I2MTC Arpaia, P., Berrig, O. B., De Vito, L., Gilardi, A. 2018