Doctor of Philosophy, Harvard University (2019)
Master of Science, Harvard University (2016)
Bachelor of Science, Northwestern University (2014)
Gerald Grant, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Concussion and the severity of head impacts in mixed martial arts.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of engineering in medicine
Concern about the consequences of head impacts in US football has motivated researchers to investigate and develop instrumentation to measure the severity of these impacts. However, the severity of head impacts in unhelmeted sports is largely unknown as miniaturised sensor technology has only recently made it possible to measure these impacts in vivo. The objective of this study was to measure the linear and angular head accelerations in impacts in mixed martial arts, and correlate these with concussive injuries. Thirteen mixed martial arts fighters were fitted with the Stanford instrumented mouthguard (MiG2.0) participated in this study. The mouthguard recorded linear acceleration and angular velocity in 6 degrees of freedom. Angular acceleration was calculated by differentiation. All events were video recorded, time stamped and reported impacts confirmed. A total of 451 verified head impacts above 10g were recorded during 19 sparring events (n = 298) and 11 competitive events (n = 153). The average resultant linear acceleration was 38.0624.3g while the average resultant angular acceleration was 256761739 rad/s2. The competitive bouts resulted in five concussions being diagnosed by a medical doctor. The average resultant acceleration (of the impact with the highest angular acceleration) in these bouts was 86.7618.7g and 756163438 rad/s2. The average maximum Head Impact Power was 20.6kW in the case of concussion and 7.15kW for the uninjured athletes. In conclusion, the study recorded novel data for sub-concussive and concussive impacts. Events that resulted in a concussion had an average maximum angular acceleration that was 24.7% higher and an average maximum Head Impact Power that was 189% higher than events where there was no injury. The findings are significant in understanding the human tolerance to short-duration, high linear and angular accelerations.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0954411920947850
View details for PubMedID 32799750
- Variable area, constant force shock absorption motivated by traumatic brain injury prevention SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES 2020; 29 (8)
Validation and Comparison of Instrumented Mouthguards for Measuring Head Kinematics and Assessing Brain Deformation in Football Impacts.
Annals of biomedical engineering
Because of the rigid coupling between the upper dentition and the skull, instrumented mouthguards have been shown to be a viable way of measuring head impact kinematics for assisting in understanding the underlying biomechanics of concussions. This has led various companies and institutions to further develop instrumented mouthguards. However, their use as a research tool for understanding concussive impacts makes quantification of their accuracy critical, especially given the conflicting results from various recent studies. Here we present a study that uses a pneumatic impactor to deliver impacts characteristic to football to a Hybrid III headform, in order to validate and compare five of the most commonly used instrumented mouthguards. We found that all tested mouthguards gave accurate measurements for the peak angular acceleration, the peak angular velocity, brain injury criteria values (mean average errors < 13, 8, 13%, respectively), and the mouthguards with long enough sampling time windows are suitable for a convolutional neural network-based brain model to calculate the brain strain (mean average errors < 9%). Finally, we found that the accuracy of the measurement varies with the impact locations yet is not sensitive to the impact velocity for the most part.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10439-020-02629-3
View details for PubMedID 32989591