Honors & Awards
Young Investigator Bursary, EASL 2018 International Liver Congress (2018)
Oxford-Kaifeng Graduate Full Scholarship, Oxford University (2016)
Rhodes Scholarship Finalist, Oxford University (2016)
Excellent Graduate, Tsinghua University (2015)
Scholarship for Academic Excellence, Tsinghua University (2014)
Scholarship for Leadership, Tsinghua University (2013)
American Association for the Study of Liver Disease, Trainee Membership
Education & Certifications
Bachelor of Economics, Tsinghua University (2015)
B.A in English Literature, Tsinghua University (2015)
Master of Public Policy, Oxford University (2016)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
My research has been focusing on the disease and economic burden and risk factors of liver disease in the United States and Asia. Currently, I work on identifying causal risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the causal role of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in various diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer using a genetic epidemiology approach.
- Prevalence, incidence, and outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asia, 1999-2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis LANCET GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY 2019; 4 (5): 389–98
Prevalence, incidence, and outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asia, 1999-2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Asia is a large, heterogeneous area with substantial variation in socioeconomic status and prevalence of obesity. We estimated the prevalence, incidence, and outcomes of NAFLD in the Asian population to assist stakeholders in understanding NAFLD disease burden.METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from database inception to Jan 17, 2019, for studies reporting NAFLD prevalence, incidence, or outcome in Asia. We included only cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies of patients with NAFLD diagnosed by imaging, serum-based indices, or liver biopsy. Studies that included patients with overlapping liver disease or that did not screen for excess alcohol consumption were excluded. Two investigators independently screened and extracted data. The main outcomes were pooled NAFLD prevalence, incidence, and hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and overall mortality in patients with NAFLD. Summary estimates were calculated using a random-effects model. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018088468.FINDINGS: Of 4995 records identified, 237 studies (13 044 518 participants) were included for analysis. The overall prevalence of NAFLD regardless of diagnostic method was 29·62% (95% CI 28·13-31·15). NAFLD prevalence increased significantly over time (25·28% [22·42-28·37] between 1999 and 2005, 28·46% [26·70-30·29] between 2006 and 2011, and 33·90% [31·74-36·12] between 2012 and 2017; p<0·0001). The pooled annual NAFLD incidence rate was 50·9 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 44·8-57·4). In patients with NAFLD, the annual incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was 1·8 cases per 1000 person-years (0·8-3·1) and overall mortality rate was 5·3 deaths per 1000 person-years (1·5-11·4).INTERPRETATION: NAFLD prevalence in Asia is increasing and is associated with poor outcomes including hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Targeted public health strategies must be developed in Asia to target the drivers of this rising epidemic and its associated complications, especially in high-risk groups, such as older obese men.FUNDING: None.
View details for PubMedID 30902670
National Estimates of Overall and Liver-Related Inpatient Care Cost in Cirrhotic Patients with Diverse Etiologies and Ethnicities in the United States (US)
WILEY. 2018: 110A
View details for Web of Science ID 000446020500176
Increased Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 164 Studies and 1,704,963 Subjects from 13 Countries
WILEY. 2018: 983A
View details for Web of Science ID 000446020502522
Sex, Time-Period and Birthplace Specific Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Children and Adolescents in the United States during 1999-2016
WILEY. 2018: 1193A
View details for Web of Science ID 000446020503321
Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infection in Ethnically Diverse US Population Including Asian Americans and US-Born Vs Foreign-Born Persons: A Population-Base Study during 2011-2016
WILEY. 2018: 931A–932A
View details for Web of Science ID 000446020502431
Factors Associated with Rates of HBsAg Seroclearance in Adults with Chronic HBV Infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a marker for clearance of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but reported annual incidence rates of HBsAg seroclearance vary. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide more precise estimates of HBsAg seroclearance rates among subgroups and populations.We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library for cohort studies that reported HBsAg seroclearance in adults with chronic HBV infection with more than 1 year of follow up and at least 1 repeat test for HBsAg. Annual and 5-, 10-, and 15-year cumulative incidence rates were pooled using a random effects model.We analyzed 34 published studies (with 42,588 patients; 303,754 person-years of follow-up; and 3194 HBsAg seroclearance events), including additional and updated aggregated data from 19 studies. The pooled annual rate of HBsAg seroclearance was 1.02% (95% CI, 0.79-1.27). Cumulative incidence rates were 4.03% at 5 years (95% CI, 2.49-5.93), 8.16% at 10 years (95% CI, 5.24-11.72), and 17.99% at 15 years (95% CI, 6.18-23.24). There were no significant differences between sexes. A higher proportion of patients negative for HBeAg at baseline had seroclearance (1.33%; 95% CI, 0.76-2.05) than patients positive for HBeAg (0.40%; 95% CI, 0.25-0.59) (P<.01). HBsAg seroclearance was also associated with a lower baseline HBV DNA (6.61 log10IU/mL; 95% CI, 5.94-7.27) than in patients without HBsAg seroclearance (7.71 log10IU/mL; 95% CI, 7.41-8.02) (P<.01) and lower level of HBsAg at baseline (2.74 log10IU/mL; 95% CI, 1.88-3.60) than in patients without HBsAg seroclearance (3.90 log10IU/mL, 95% CI, 3.73-4.06) (P<.01). HBsAg seroclearance was not associated with HBV genotype or treatment history. Heterogeneity was substantial across the studies (I2=97.49%).In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found a low rate of HBsAg seroclearance in untreated and treated patients (pooled annual rate approximately 1%). Seroclearance occurred mainly in patients with less active disease. Patients with chronic HBV infection should therefore be counseled on the need for lifelong treatment, and curative therapies are needed.
View details for PubMedID 30342034
First-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies in countries with high and low clarithromycin resistance: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
2018; 67 (1): 20–27
To determine the optimal regimen of different first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies according to the clarithromycin resistance rate.Electronic search for articles published between January 2005 and April 2016. Randomised, controlled trials that reported the effectiveness of first-line eradication therapies in treatment-naïve adults were included. Two independent reviewers performed articles screening and data extraction. Network and traditional meta-analyses were conducted using the random effect model. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine the ranking of regimens in countries with high (>15%) and low (<15%) clarithromycin resistance. Data including adverse events and therapeutic cure rate were also extracted and analysed.117 trials (totally 32 852 patients) for 17 H. pylori eradication regimens were eligible for inclusion. Compared with 7-day clarithromycin-based triple therapy, sequential therapy (ST) for 14 days had the highest effectiveness (OR=3.74, 95% CrI 2.37 to 5.96). ST-14 (OR=6.53, 95% CrI 3.23 to 13.63) and hybrid therapy (HY) for 10 days or more (OR=2.85, 95% CrI 1.58 to 5.37) represented the most effective regimen in areas with high and low clarithromycin resistance, respectively. The effectiveness of standard triple therapy was below therapeutic eradication rate in most of the countries. Longer duration was associated with higher eradication rate, but with a higher risk of events that lead to discontinuation.ST and HY appeared to be the most effective therapies in countries with high and low clarithromycin resistance, respectively. The clinical decision for optimal regimen can be supported by referring to the rank ordering of relative efficacies stratified by local eradication rates, antibiotic resistance and safety profile.CRD42015025445.
View details for DOI 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-311868
View details for Web of Science ID 000417778600005
View details for PubMedID 27670375
Systematic review with meta-analysis: effectiveness and tolerability of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral regimens for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 in routine clinical practice in Asia.
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have shown high efficacy and tolerability for patients with HCV genotype 1/1b (GT1/1b) in clinical trials. However, robust real-world evidence of interferon (IFN)-free DAA treatment for HCV GT1-infected patients in Asia is still lacking.To systematically review and meta-analyse the effectiveness and tolerability of IFN-free DAA therapy for HCV GT1 infection in Asia.We included studies that enrolled adult patients with HCV GT1 infection in routine clinical practice in Asia, using IFN-free DAA regimens, and reported sustained virological response (SVR) after 12/24 weeks end-of-treatment by 31 May 2017. The pooled SVR rates were computed with a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression as previously registered in PROSPERO were performed to determine how pre-planned variables might have affected the pooled estimates.We included 41 studies from eight countries and regions, comprising of 8574 individuals. The pooled SVR rates for GT1 were 89.9% (95% CI 88.6-91.1, I2 = 55.1%) with daclatasvir/asunaprevir (DCV/ASV) and 98.1% (95% CI 97.0-99.0, I2 = 41.0%) with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin (LDV/SOF ± RBV). Baseline cirrhosis but not prior treatment history and age, attenuated the effectiveness of both regimens. Baseline resistance associated substitutions (RASs) severely attenuated SVR of DCV/ASV (65.4% vs 94.3%, P < 0.001) and only minimally with LDV/SOF ± RBV (94.5% vs 99.2%, P = 0.003). Patients with renal dysfunction treated with DCV/ASV showed a higher SVR rate (93.9% vs 89.8%, P = 0.046). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) LDV/SOF ± RBV achieved a lower SVR than those without HCC (94.1% vs 98.7%, P = 0.001).All oral DAA treatment of HCV GT1 resulted in high cure rates in Asian patients in routine clinical practice setting including elderly patients and those with end-stage renal disease.
View details for PubMedID 29327780
Higher mortality and hospital charges in patients with cirrhosis and acute respiratory illness: a population-based study.
2018; 8 (1): 9969
Both cirrhosis and acute respiratory illness (ARI) carry substantial disease and financial burden. To compare hospitalized patients with cirrhosis with ARI to cirrhotic patients without ARI, a retrospective cohort study was conducted using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database. To balance the groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was used. We identified a total of 46,192 cirrhotic patients during the three study periods (14,049, 15,699, and 16,444 patients, respectively). Among patients hospitalized with cirrhosis, the ARI prevalence was higher in older age groups (p < 0.001), the Asian population (p = 0.002), non-Hispanic population (p = 0.001), and among Medicare patients (p < 0.001). Compared to controls, patients with ARI had 53.8% higher adjusted hospital charge ($122,555 vs. $79,685 per patient per admission, p < 0.001) and 35.0% higher adjusted in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001). Older patients, patients with alcoholic liver disease or liver cancer were at particularly higher risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.94 (95% CI: 2.26-3.83), 1.22 (95% CI: 1.02-1.45), and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.76-2.68) respectively, p = 0.028 to <0.001). Mortality rates and hospital charges in hospitalized cirrhotic patients with ARI were higher than in cirrhotic controls without ARI. Preventive efforts such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, especially in older patients and those with liver cancer, or alcoholic liver disease, would be of value.
View details for PubMedID 29967363
Real-world effectiveness of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C genotype 2 in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMJ open gastroenterology
2018; 5 (1): e000207
Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (SOF+RBV) for 12 weeks is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 2 (GT2) in most of Asia despite availability of new CHC medications. SOF-RBV real-world effectiveness has only been reported in small and/or single-centre studies. Our goal was to determine the real-world effectiveness of 12-week SOF+RBV therapy for CHC GT2 in Asia.A systematic search on PubMed and Embase was conducted through 30 June 2017. We identified full articles and conference proceedings of at least 10 adult patients with CHC GT2 treated with SOF+RBV for 12 weeks under real-world setting in Asia.A total of 2208 patients from 13 studies were included. The pooled sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) was 95.8% (95% CI 94.6% to 96.9%) with non-significant heterogeneity (I2=34.4%). Anaemia (27.9%) was the most common adverse event (AE), with serious AEs in 2.0% and only 0.7% discontinued therapy prematurely. In subgroup analyses, patients with cirrhosis had 8.7% lower SVR12 than non-cirrhotic patients (P<0.0001), and treatment-experienced patients had 7.2% lower SVR12 than treatment-naïve patients (P=0.0002). Cirrhotic treatment-experienced patients had the lowest SVR12 at 84.5%. There were no significant differences in pooled SVR12 among patient subgroups: RBV dose reduction versus no dose reduction (P=0.30); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) versus no HCC (P=0.10); GT 2a versus 2b (P=0.86); and <65 vs ≥65 years of age (P=0.20).SOF+RBV for 12 weeks was safe and effective for patients with CHC GT2 in Asia, although those with cirrhosis and prior treatment failure had a lower pooled SVR12 rate.CRD42017067928.
View details for PubMedID 30002863
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6038840
Real-world Effectiveness (RWE) of Sofosbuvir plus Ribavirin (SOF plus RBV) Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 2 (CHC GT 2) in Asia: A Systemic Review and Meta-analysis of Pooled SVR12
WILEY. 2017: 811A
View details for Web of Science ID 000412089801660
Sustained Virological Response 12 Weeks after Therapy (SVR12) with Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAA) in Select Asian Populations with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 (HCV GT 1): A Meta-Analysis of Real-World Effectiveness from Asia
WILEY. 2017: 812A–813A
View details for Web of Science ID 000412089801662
Real Life Effectiveness of Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAAs) in Asian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 33 Published Articles and 7942 patients
WILEY. 2017: 596A–597A
View details for Web of Science ID 000412089801253