Honors & Awards

  • Stanford Interdisciplinary Graduate Fellowship, Stanford University (2020)
  • Young Investigator Bursary, EASL 2018 International Liver Congress (2018)
  • Oxford-Kaifeng Graduate Full Scholarship, Oxford University (2016)
  • Rhodes Scholarship Finalist, Oxford University (2016)
  • Excellent Graduate, Tsinghua University (2015)
  • Scholarship for Academic Excellence, Tsinghua University (2014)
  • Scholarship for Leadership, Tsinghua University (2013)

Membership Organizations

  • American Association for the Study of Liver Disease, Trainee Membership
  • American College of Epidemiology, Associate

Education & Certifications

  • Bachelor of Economics, Tsinghua University (2015)
  • B.A in English Literature, Tsinghua University (2015)
  • Master of Public Policy, Oxford University (2016)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

My research has been focusing on the disease and economic burden and risk factors of liver disease in the United States and Asia, with a special focus on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. I'm interested in utilizing advanced statistical methods such as meta-analysis and causal inference to deepen my research.

All Publications

  • The epidemiology of NAFLD and lean NAFLD in Japan: a meta-analysis with individual and forecasting analysis, 1995-2040. Hepatology international Ito, T. n., Ishigami, M. n., Zou, B. n., Tanaka, T. n., Takahashi, H. n., Kurosaki, M. n., Maeda, M. n., Thin, K. N., Tanaka, K. n., Takahashi, Y. n., Itoh, Y. n., Oniki, K. n., Seko, Y. n., Saruwatari, J. n., Kawanaka, M. n., Atsukawa, M. n., Hyogo, H. n., Ono, M. n., Ogawa, E. n., Barnett, S. D., Stave, C. D., Cheung, R. C., Fujishiro, M. n., Eguchi, Y. n., Toyoda, H. n., Nguyen, M. H. 2021


    NAFLD is increasing in Asia including Japan, despite its lower obesity rate than the West. However, NAFLD can occur in lean people, but data are limited. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of NAFLD in Japan with a focus on lean NAFLD.We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society (inception to 5/15/2019) and included 73 eligible full-text original research studies (n = 258,531). We used random-effects model for pooled estimates, Bayesian modeling for trend and forecasting, contacted authors for individual patient data and analyzed 14,887 (7752 NAFLD; 7135 non-NAFLD-8 studies) patients.The overall NAFLD prevalence was 25.5%, higher in males (p < 0.001), varied by regions (p < 0.001), and increased over time (p = 0.015), but not by per-person income or gross prefectural productivity, which increased by 0.64% per year (1983-2012) and is forecasted to reach 39.3% in 2030 and 44.8% in 2040. The incidence of NAFLD, HCC, and overall mortality were 23.5, 7.6 and 5.9 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Individual patient-level data showed a lean NAFLD prevalence of 20.7% among the NAFLD population, with lean NAFLD persons being older and with a higher all-cause mortality rate (8.3 vs. 5.6 per 1000 person-years for non-lean NAFLD, p = 0.02). Older age, male sex, diabetes, and FIB-4 were independent predictors of mortality, but not lean NAFLD.NAFLD prevalence has increased in Japan and may affect half of the population by 2040. Lean NAFLD individuals makeup 20% of the NAFLD population, were older, and had higher mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12072-021-10143-4

    View details for PubMedID 33580453

  • THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF NAFLD AND LEAN NAFLD IN JAPAN: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS WITH INDIVIDUAL PATIENT LEVEL DATA AND FORECASTING, 1995-2040 Ito, T., Ishigami, M., Zou, B., Tanaka, T., Takahashi, H., Kurosaki, M., Maeda, M., Thin, K., Tanaka, K., Takahashi, Y., Itoh, Y., Oniki, K., Seko, Y., Saruwatari, J., Kawanaka, M., Atsukawa, M., Hyogo, H., Ono, M., Ogawa, E., Barnette, S. D., Stave, C., Cheung, R., Fujishiro, M., Eguchi, Y., Toyoda, H., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2020: 999
  • ALT Levels for Asians With Metabolic Diseases: A Meta-analysis of 86 Studies With Individual Patient Data Validation HEPATOLOGY COMMUNICATIONS Huang, D. Q., Yeo, Y., Tan, E., Takahashi, H., Yasuda, S., Saruwatari, J., Tanaka, K., Oniki, K., Kam, L. Y., Muthiah, M. D., Hyogo, H., Ono, M., Barnett, S. D., Li, J., Zou, B., Fung, J., Lee, T., Wong, V., Yuen, M., Dan, Y., Lim, S., Cheung, R., Toyoda, H., Eguchi, Y., Nguyen, M. H. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hep4.1593

    View details for Web of Science ID 000570299500001

  • ALT Levels for Asians With Metabolic Diseases: A Meta-analysis of 86 Studies With Individual Patient Data Validation. Hepatology communications Huang, D. Q., Yeo, Y. H., Tan, E. n., Takahashi, H. n., Yasuda, S. n., Saruwatari, J. n., Tanaka, K. n., Oniki, K. n., Kam, L. Y., Muthiah, M. D., Hyogo, H. n., Ono, M. n., Barnett, S. D., Li, J. n., Zou, B. n., Fung, J. n., Lee, T. Y., Wong, V. W., Yuen, M. F., Dan, Y. Y., Lim, S. G., Cheung, R. n., Toyoda, H. n., Eguchi, Y. n., Nguyen, M. H. 2020; 4 (11): 1624–36


    The current alanine aminotransferase (ALT) upper limit of normal was defined using selected healthy Caucasian blood donors. Given the global rise in obesity and different body habitus in Asians, we aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis combined with bootstrap modeling and individual patient data validation to estimate the ALT upper threshold for Asians, including the overweight and diabetics. We included studies from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database searches that identified individuals without known liver diseases (i.e., viral hepatitis, alcohol, and ultrasound-detected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). The mean ALT (U/L) was estimated using a random-effects mixed model and upper threshold (95th-percentile value, U/L) via a bootstrap model with 10,000 resamples. We screened 4,995 studies and identified 86 studies that reported ALT values for 526,641 individuals without excessive alcohol intake or known liver diseases, yielding a mean ALT of 19 and ALT upper threshold of 32. The ALT upper threshold was 37 in males versus 31 in females, 39 in overweight versus 28 in normal-weight individuals, and 36 for diabetics versus 33 for nondiabetics. We validated our study level data with individual patient level data in 6,058 individuals from five study centers in Japan. Consistent with our study-level data, we found that the ALT upper threshold in our individual patient data analysis was indeed higher in overweight versus normal-weight individuals (39 vs. 32) and in diabetics versus nondiabetics (42 vs. 33). Conclusion: We provide validated reference ranges for ALT upper threshold derived from Asians without known liver disease, including individuals with ultrasound-detected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who are normal weight, overweight, nondiabetic, and diabetic, to inform practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hep4.1593

    View details for PubMedID 33163833

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7603525

  • Global prevalence, incidence, and outcomes of non-obese or lean non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology Ye, Q. n., Zou, B. n., Yeo, Y. H., Li, J. n., Huang, D. Q., Wu, Y. n., Yang, H. n., Liu, C. n., Kam, L. Y., Tan, X. X., Chien, N. n., Trinh, S. n., Henry, L. n., Stave, C. D., Hosaka, T. n., Cheung, R. C., Nguyen, M. H. 2020


    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly associated with obesity, it is increasingly being identified in non-obese individuals. We aimed to characterise the prevalence, incidence, and long-term outcomes of non-obese or lean NAFLD at a global level.For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library from inception to May 1, 2019, for relevant original research articles without any language restrictions. The literature search and data extraction were done independently by two investigators. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of non-obese or lean people within the NAFLD group and the prevalence of non-obese or lean NAFLD in the general, non-obese, and lean populations; the incidence of NAFLD among non-obese and lean populations; and long-term outcomes of non-obese people with NAFLD. We also aimed to characterise the demographic, clinical, and histological characteristics of individuals with non-obese NAFLD.We identified 93 studies (n=10 576 383) from 24 countries or areas: 84 studies (n=10 530 308) were used for the prevalence analysis, five (n=9121) were used for the incidence analysis, and eight (n=36 954) were used for the outcomes analysis. Within the NAFLD population, 19·2% (95% CI 15·9-23·0) of people were lean and 40·8% (36·6-45·1) were non-obese. The prevalence of non-obese NAFLD in the general population varied from 25% or lower in some countries (eg, Malaysia and Pakistan) to higher than 50% in others (eg, Austria, Mexico, and Sweden). In the general population (comprising individuals with and without NAFLD), 12·1% (95% CI 9·3-15·6) of people had non-obese NAFLD and 5·1% (3·7-7·0) had lean NAFLD. The incidence of NAFLD in the non-obese population (without NAFLD at baseline) was 24·6 (95% CI 13·4-39·2) per 1000 person-years. Among people with non-obese or lean NALFD, 39·0% (95% CI 24·1-56·3) had non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, 29·2% (21·9-37·9) had significant fibrosis (stage ≥2), and 3·2% (1·5-5·7) had cirrhosis. Among the non-obese or lean NAFLD population, the incidence of all-cause mortality was 12·1 (95% CI 0·5-38·8) per 1000 person-years, that for liver-related mortality was 4·1 (1·9-7·1) per 1000 person-years, cardiovascular-related mortality was 4·0 (0·1-14·9) per 1000 person-years, new-onset diabetes was 12·6 (8·0-18·3) per 1000 person-years, new-onset cardiovascular disease was 18·7 (9·2-31·2) per 1000 person-years, and new-onset hypertension was 56·1 (38·5-77·0) per 1000 person-years. Most analyses were characterised by high heterogeneity.Overall, around 40% of the global NAFLD population was classified as non-obese and almost a fifth was lean. Both non-obese and lean groups had substantial long-term liver and non-liver comorbidities. These findings suggest that obesity should not be the sole criterion for NAFLD screening. Moreover, clinical trials of treatments for NAFLD should include participants across all body-mass index ranges.None.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30077-7

    View details for PubMedID 32413340

  • Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in Hospitalization of Pediatrics with Liver Disease from 2005 to 2015. Digestive diseases and sciences Martin, M. n., Zou, B. n., Hoang, J. n., Jeong, D. n., Bensen, R. n., Nguyen, M. H. 2020


    Adult liver-related hospitalizations have recently increased in the USA, but data are limited for the pediatric population.Utilizing the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development hospital claims database (covering > 98% of all California hospitalizations), we aimed to characterize the demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic factors of liver disease-associated admissions among children between 2005 and 2015.We used ICD-9 codes to identify admissions associated with liver disease in patients up to 21 years of age. Patient characteristics were described as percentages and evaluated using the χ2 test. We used linear regression to examine changes over time.We analyzed 37,372 eligible admissions. Overall, close to one-third (28%) and one-half (48.0%) of admissions occurred in the age group 0-5 years and 16-21 years, respectively, with the remaining 23.1% occurring in the age group between 5 and 15 years. Over half (54.9%) were in males. By race, blacks made up half of the admission (49.7%), while by ethnicity, Hispanic also accounted for half of the admission (49.7%). Medicaid and Medicare payors were also disproportionately represented (54.6%). The most common liver disease was Alagille syndrome (29.2%) in 2005. Between 2005 and 2015, both the number of pediatric liver-associated admissions and the proportion of pediatric liver admissions over total admissions increased from 3130 to 3429 and 1.2% to 1.6%, respectively (both p = 0.001). By 2015, while Alagille syndrome admissions decreased to 26.4% (p = 0.004), NAFLD admission increased to 19.7% (p < 0.001).Major disparities exist in inpatient liver disease burden for blacks and Hispanics with liver disease, while NAFLD emerged as a rapidly rising liver disease in pediatrics.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-020-06530-w

    View details for PubMedID 32797346

  • Epidemiology of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical Characteristics, Risk factors and Outcomes. Journal of medical virology Li, J. n., Huang, D. Q., Zou, B. n., Yang, H. n., Hui, W. Z., Rui, F. n., Yee, N. T., Liu, C. n., Nerurkar, S. N., Kai, J. C., Teng, M. L., Li, X. n., Zeng, H. n., Borghi, J. A., Henry, L. n., Cheung, R. n., Nguyen, M. H. 2020


    COVID-19 has become a pandemic, but its reported characteristics and outcomes vary greatly amongst studies.We determined pooled estimates for clinical characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients including subgroups by disease severity (based on WHO Interim Guidance Report or IDSA/ATS criteria) and by country/region.We searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, Chinese Medical Journal, and preprint databases from January 1, 2020 to April 6, 2020. Studies of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients with relevant data were included. Two reviewers independently performed study selection and data extraction.From 6,007 articles, 212 studies from 11 countries/regions involving 281,461 individuals were analyzed. Overall, mean age was 46.7 years, 51.8% were male, 22.9% had severe disease, and mortality was 5.6%. Underlying immunosuppression, diabetes, and malignancy were most strongly associated with severe COVID-19 (coefficient=53.9, 23.4, 23.4, respectively, all p<0.0007), while older age, male gender, diabetes, and hypertension were also associated with higher mortality (coefficient=0.05 per year, 5.1, 8.2, 6.99, respectively, p=0.006 to 0.0002). Gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain) and respiratory symptoms (shortness of breath, chest pain) were associated with severe COVID-19, while pneumonia and end organ failure were associated with mortality.COVID-19 is associated with a severe disease course in about 23% and mortality in about 6% of infected persons. Individuals with comorbidities and clinical features associated with severity should be monitored closely, and preventive efforts should especially target those with diabetes, malignancy and immunosuppression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmv.26424

    View details for PubMedID 32790106

  • The epidemiology of NAFLD in Mainland China with analysis by adjusted gross regional domestic product: a meta-analysis. Hepatology international Wu, Y. n., Zheng, Q. n., Zou, B. n., Yeo, Y. H., Li, X. n., Li, J. n., Xie, X. n., Feng, Y. n., Stave, C. D., Zhu, Q. n., Cheung, R. n., Nguyen, M. H. 2020


    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, incidence, and outcome of NAFLD in the large and diverse population of Mainland China.PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify published studies with NAFLD epidemiology data in adult participants (≥ 18 years old) from Mainland China. Random effects models were used to determine pooled estimates.We screened 1,328 studies and included 167 eligible studies (participant n = 1,486,635): 149 studies (n = 1,350,819) for prevalence, 18 studies (n = 147,316) for incidence, 7 studies (n = 5446) for evolution of hepatic steatosis, and 2 studies (n = 647) for mortality analysis. The NAFLD prevalence of the overall populations was 29.88%, with higher rates in males, increasing age and increasing gross regional domestic product (GRDP) per capita (all p ≤ 0.010). The prevalence was the highest in North China (36.41%; higher in Uyghur and Hui Chinese 40.86% and 34.36% vs 28.11% in Han Chinese), higher in diabetics (51.83% vs. 30.76% in non-diabetics) and in obese participants (66.21% vs. 11.72% in lean). The NAFLD incidence was 56.7 (95% CI 47.4-66.8) per 1000 person-years, higher in males and with higher GRDP per capita. The overall mortality was 7.3 (3.3-12.7) per 1000 person-years.The overall prevalence of NAFLD in Mainland China is about 30%. The highest prevalences were found among regions with higher income, North China, the non-Han ethnic minorities, diabetics, and the obese. China's NAFLD prevalence is on par with Western countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12072-020-10023-3

    View details for PubMedID 32130675

  • A Nationwide Study of Inpatient Admissions, Mortality, and Costs for Patients with Cirrhosis from 2005 to 2015 in the USA. Digestive diseases and sciences Zou, B., Yeo, Y. H., Jeong, D., Park, H., Sheen, E., Lee, D. H., Henry, L., Garcia, G., Ingelsson, E., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. 2019


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver cirrhosis is a substantial health burden in the USA, but population-based data regarding the trend and medical expenditure are limited and outdated. We investigated the trends of inpatient admissions, costs, and inpatient mortality from 2005 to 2015 among cirrhotic patients.METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample database. We adjusted the costs to 2015 US dollars using a 3% inflation rate. National estimates of admissions were determined using discharge weights.RESULTS: We identified 1,627,348 admissions in cirrhotic patients between 2005 and 2015. From 2005 to 2015, the number of weighted admissions in cirrhotic patients almost doubled (from 505,032 to 961,650) and the total annual hospitalization cost in this population increased three times (from 5.8 to 16.3 billion US dollars). Notably, admission rates varied by liver disease etiology, decreasing from 2005 to 2015 among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis while increasing (almost tripled) among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-related cirrhosis. The annual inpatient mortality rate per 1000 admissions overall decreased from 63.8 to 58.2 between 2005 and 2015 except for NAFLD (27.2 to 35.8) (P<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Rates and costs of admissions in cirrhotic patients have increased substantially between 2005 and 2015 in the USA, but varied by liver disease etiology, with decreasing rate for HCV-associated cirrhosis and for HBV-associated cirrhosis but increasing for NAFLD-associated cirrhosis. Inpatient mortality also increased by one-third for NAFLD, while it decreased for other diseases. Cost also varied by etiology and lower for HCV-associated cirrhosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-019-05869-z

    View details for PubMedID 31598919

  • REDEFINING THE UPPER LIMIT OR NORMAL (ULN) OF ALANINE TRANSAMINASE (ALT) LEVELS FOR ASIANS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF 60 STUDIES AND 335,163 INDIVIDUALS Huang, D., Yeo, Y., Tan, X., Kam, L., Fung, J., Lee, T., Wong, V., Saruwatari, J., Muthiah, M., Barnett, S., Oniki, K., Li, J., Zou, B., Dan, Y., Lim, S., Cheung, R., Yuen, M., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2019: 1055A–1056A
  • INCREASING PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NAFLD IN MAINLAND CHINA: A META-ANALYSIS OF 124 STUDIES AND 1,232,281 PARTICIPANTS Wu, Y., Zheng, Q., Zou, B., Yeo, Y., Li, X., Li, J., Feng, Y., Xie, X., Stave, C., Cheung, R., Zhu, Q., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2019: 742A–743A
  • DISTRIBUTION OF BMI, SERUM ALT, HEPATIC STEATOSIS AND LIVER FIBROSIS IN ASIANS WITH NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE (NAFLD): A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF 108 STUDIES WITH 2,260,207 INDIVIDUALS Kam, L., Yeo, Y., Huang, D., Fung, J., Lee, T., Yasuda, S., Wong, V., Saruwatari, J., Barnett, S., Oniki, K., Li, J., Zou, B., Cheung, R., Kumada, T., Yuen, M., Toyoda, H., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2019: 741A–742A
  • Prevalence, incidence, and outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asia, 1999-2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis LANCET GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY Li, J., Zou, B., Yeo, Y., Feng, Y., Xie, X., Lee, D., Fujii, H., Wu, Y., Kam, L. Y., Ji, F., Li, X., Chien, N., Wei, M., Ogawa, E., Zhao, C., Wu, X., Stave, C. D., Henry, L., Barnett, S., Takahashi, H., Furusyo, N., Eguchi, Y., Hsu, Y., Lee, T., Ren, W., Qin, C., Jun, D., Toyoda, H., Wong, V., Cheung, R., Zhu, Q., Nguyen, M. H. 2019; 4 (5): 389–98
  • Factors Associated With Rates of HBsAg Seroclearance in Adults With Chronic HBV Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis GASTROENTEROLOGY Yeo, Y., Ho, H. J., Yang, H., Tseng, T., Hosaka, T., Trinh, H. N., Kwak, M., Park, Y., Fung, J., Buti, M., Rodriguez, M., Treeprasertsuk, S., Preda, C., Ungtrakul, T., Charatcharoenwitthaya, P., Li, X., Li, J., Zhang, J., Le, M., Wei, B., Zou, B., Le, A., Jeong, D., Chien, N., Kam, L., Lee, C., Riveiro-Barciela, M., Istratescu, D., Sriprayoon, T., Chong, Y., Tanwandee, T., Kobayashi, M., Suzuki, F., Yuen, M., Lee, H., Kao, J., Lok, A. S., Wu, C., Nguyen, M. H. 2019; 156 (3): 635-+
  • Prevalence of viremic HCV infection by age, race/ethnicity, birthplace and disease awareness among viremic persons in the U.S., 1999-2016. The Journal of infectious diseases Zou, B. n., Yeo, Y. H., Le, M. H., Henry, L. n., Chang, E. T., Lok, A. S., Cheung, R. n., Nguyen, M. H. 2019


    Though curative therapy is now available for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the United States, it is not clear if all affected persons have been diagnosed and/or linked to care.This cross-sectional study utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2016) and included 46,465 non-incarcerated and non-institutionalized participants.Viremic HCV prevalence decreased from 1.32% in 1999-2004 to 0.80% in 2011-2016, though most of the decrease occurred in U.S.-born whites and blacks but not the foreign-born or those born after 1985. In 2011-2016, approximately 1.90 million U.S. adults remained viremic with HCV, and 0.33 million were at higher risk for advanced fibrosis, but only 49.8% were aware of their HCV infection, with higher disease awareness in those with health insurance coverage and US-born persons.The prevalence of viremic HCV has decreased in recent years among U.S. born whites and blacks but not in other race/ethnicities and foreign-born persons and birth cohort born after 1985. Less than half of the viremic population was aware of having HCV infection. Improved HCV screening and linkage to care are needed, especially for the uninsured, foreign-born, birth cohort after 1985 and certain ethnic minorities.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/infdis/jiz479

    View details for PubMedID 31560391

  • National Estimates of Overall and Liver-Related Inpatient Care Cost in Cirrhotic Patients with Diverse Etiologies and Ethnicities in the United States (US) Zou, B., Yeo, Y., Jeong, D., Cheung, R., Sheen, E., Park, H., Lee, D., Garcia, G., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2018: 110A
  • Increased Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 164 Studies and 1,704,963 Subjects from 13 Countries Li, J., Zou, B., Yeo, Y., Fujii, H., Lee, D., Ji, F., Ogawa, E., Feng, Y., Xie, X., Wei, M., Ren, W., Qin, C., Zhu, Q., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2018: 983A
  • Sex, Time-Period and Birthplace Specific Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Children and Adolescents in the United States during 1999-2016 Zou, B., Yeo, Y., Le, M., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2018: 1193A
  • Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infection in Ethnically Diverse US Population Including Asian Americans and US-Born Vs Foreign-Born Persons: A Population-Base Study during 2011-2016 Zou, B., Le, M., Yeo, Y., Cheung, R., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2018: 931A–932A
  • Higher mortality and hospital charges in patients with cirrhosis and acute respiratory illness: a population-based study SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Zou, B., Yeo, Y., Jeong, D., Sheen, E., Park, H., Nguyen, P., Hsu, Y., Garcia, G., Nguyen, M. H. 2018; 8
  • First-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies in countries with high and low clarithromycin resistance: a systematic review and network meta-analysis GUT Yeo, Y., Shiu, S., Ho, H. J., Zou, B., Lin, J., Wu, M., Liou, J., Wu, C., Taiwan Gastrointestinal Dis Helico 2018; 67 (1): 20–27


    To determine the optimal regimen of different first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies according to the clarithromycin resistance rate.Electronic search for articles published between January 2005 and April 2016. Randomised, controlled trials that reported the effectiveness of first-line eradication therapies in treatment-naïve adults were included. Two independent reviewers performed articles screening and data extraction. Network and traditional meta-analyses were conducted using the random effect model. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine the ranking of regimens in countries with high (>15%) and low (<15%) clarithromycin resistance. Data including adverse events and therapeutic cure rate were also extracted and analysed.117 trials (totally 32 852 patients) for 17 H. pylori eradication regimens were eligible for inclusion. Compared with 7-day clarithromycin-based triple therapy, sequential therapy (ST) for 14 days had the highest effectiveness (OR=3.74, 95% CrI 2.37 to 5.96). ST-14 (OR=6.53, 95% CrI 3.23 to 13.63) and hybrid therapy (HY) for 10 days or more (OR=2.85, 95% CrI 1.58 to 5.37) represented the most effective regimen in areas with high and low clarithromycin resistance, respectively. The effectiveness of standard triple therapy was below therapeutic eradication rate in most of the countries. Longer duration was associated with higher eradication rate, but with a higher risk of events that lead to discontinuation.ST and HY appeared to be the most effective therapies in countries with high and low clarithromycin resistance, respectively. The clinical decision for optimal regimen can be supported by referring to the rank ordering of relative efficacies stratified by local eradication rates, antibiotic resistance and safety profile.CRD42015025445.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-311868

    View details for Web of Science ID 000417778600005

    View details for PubMedID 27670375

  • Systematic review with meta-analysis: effectiveness and tolerability of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral regimens for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 in routine clinical practice in Asia. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Ji, F. n., Wei, B. n., Yeo, Y. H., Ogawa, E. n., Zou, B. n., Stave, C. D., Li, Z. n., Dang, S. n., Furusyo, N. n., Cheung, R. C., Nguyen, M. H. 2018


    Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have shown high efficacy and tolerability for patients with HCV genotype 1/1b (GT1/1b) in clinical trials. However, robust real-world evidence of interferon (IFN)-free DAA treatment for HCV GT1-infected patients in Asia is still lacking.To systematically review and meta-analyse the effectiveness and tolerability of IFN-free DAA therapy for HCV GT1 infection in Asia.We included studies that enrolled adult patients with HCV GT1 infection in routine clinical practice in Asia, using IFN-free DAA regimens, and reported sustained virological response (SVR) after 12/24 weeks end-of-treatment by 31 May 2017. The pooled SVR rates were computed with a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression as previously registered in PROSPERO were performed to determine how pre-planned variables might have affected the pooled estimates.We included 41 studies from eight countries and regions, comprising of 8574 individuals. The pooled SVR rates for GT1 were 89.9% (95% CI 88.6-91.1, I2  = 55.1%) with daclatasvir/asunaprevir (DCV/ASV) and 98.1% (95% CI 97.0-99.0, I2  = 41.0%) with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin (LDV/SOF ± RBV). Baseline cirrhosis but not prior treatment history and age, attenuated the effectiveness of both regimens. Baseline resistance associated substitutions (RASs) severely attenuated SVR of DCV/ASV (65.4% vs 94.3%, P < 0.001) and only minimally with LDV/SOF ± RBV (94.5% vs 99.2%, P = 0.003). Patients with renal dysfunction treated with DCV/ASV showed a higher SVR rate (93.9% vs 89.8%, P = 0.046). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) LDV/SOF ± RBV achieved a lower SVR than those without HCC (94.1% vs 98.7%, P = 0.001).All oral DAA treatment of HCV GT1 resulted in high cure rates in Asian patients in routine clinical practice setting including elderly patients and those with end-stage renal disease.

    View details for PubMedID 29327780

  • Real-world effectiveness of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C genotype 2 in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ open gastroenterology Wei, B. n., Ji, F. n., Yeo, Y. H., Ogawa, E. n., Zou, B. n., Stave, C. D., Dang, S. n., Li, Z. n., Furusyo, N. n., Cheung, R. C., Nguyen, M. H. 2018; 5 (1): e000207


    Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (SOF+RBV) for 12 weeks is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 2 (GT2) in most of Asia despite availability of new CHC medications. SOF-RBV real-world effectiveness has only been reported in small and/or single-centre studies. Our goal was to determine the real-world effectiveness of 12-week SOF+RBV therapy for CHC GT2 in Asia.A systematic search on PubMed and Embase was conducted through 30 June 2017. We identified full articles and conference proceedings of at least 10 adult patients with CHC GT2 treated with SOF+RBV for 12 weeks under real-world setting in Asia.A total of 2208 patients from 13 studies were included. The pooled sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) was 95.8% (95% CI 94.6% to 96.9%) with non-significant heterogeneity (I2=34.4%). Anaemia (27.9%) was the most common adverse event (AE), with serious AEs in 2.0% and only 0.7% discontinued therapy prematurely. In subgroup analyses, patients with cirrhosis had 8.7% lower SVR12 than non-cirrhotic patients (P<0.0001), and treatment-experienced patients had 7.2% lower SVR12 than treatment-naïve patients (P=0.0002). Cirrhotic treatment-experienced patients had the lowest SVR12 at 84.5%. There were no significant differences in pooled SVR12 among patient subgroups: RBV dose reduction versus no dose reduction (P=0.30); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) versus no HCC (P=0.10); GT 2a versus 2b (P=0.86); and <65 vs ≥65 years of age (P=0.20).SOF+RBV for 12 weeks was safe and effective for patients with CHC GT2 in Asia, although those with cirrhosis and prior treatment failure had a lower pooled SVR12 rate.CRD42017067928.

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    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6038840

  • Factors Associated with Rates of HBsAg Seroclearance in Adults with Chronic HBV Infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology Yeo, Y. H., Ho, H. J., Yang, H. I., Tseng, T. C., Hosaka, T. n., Trinh, H. N., Kwak, M. S., Park, Y. M., Fung, J. Y., Buti, M. n., Rodriguez, M. n., Treeprasertsuk, S. n., Preda, C. M., Ungtrakul, T. n., Charatcharoenwitthaya, P. n., Li, X. n., Li, J. n., Zhang, J. n., Le, M. H., Wei, B. n., Zou, B. n., Le, A. n., Jeong, D. n., Chien, N. n., Kam, L. n., Lee, C. C., Riveiro-Barciela, M. n., Istratescu, D. n., Sriprayoon, T. n., Chong, Y. n., Tanwandee, T. n., Kobayashi, M. n., Suzuki, F. n., Yuen, M. F., Lee, H. S., Kao, J. H., Lok, A. S., Wu, C. Y., Nguyen, M. H. 2018


    Seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a marker for clearance of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but reported annual incidence rates of HBsAg seroclearance vary. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide more precise estimates of HBsAg seroclearance rates among subgroups and populations.We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library for cohort studies that reported HBsAg seroclearance in adults with chronic HBV infection with more than 1 year of follow up and at least 1 repeat test for HBsAg. Annual and 5-, 10-, and 15-year cumulative incidence rates were pooled using a random effects model.We analyzed 34 published studies (with 42,588 patients; 303,754 person-years of follow-up; and 3194 HBsAg seroclearance events), including additional and updated aggregated data from 19 studies. The pooled annual rate of HBsAg seroclearance was 1.02% (95% CI, 0.79-1.27). Cumulative incidence rates were 4.03% at 5 years (95% CI, 2.49-5.93), 8.16% at 10 years (95% CI, 5.24-11.72), and 17.99% at 15 years (95% CI, 6.18-23.24). There were no significant differences between sexes. A higher proportion of patients negative for HBeAg at baseline had seroclearance (1.33%; 95% CI, 0.76-2.05) than patients positive for HBeAg (0.40%; 95% CI, 0.25-0.59) (P<.01). HBsAg seroclearance was also associated with a lower baseline HBV DNA (6.61 log10IU/mL; 95% CI, 5.94-7.27) than in patients without HBsAg seroclearance (7.71 log10IU/mL; 95% CI, 7.41-8.02) (P<.01) and lower level of HBsAg at baseline (2.74 log10IU/mL; 95% CI, 1.88-3.60) than in patients without HBsAg seroclearance (3.90 log10IU/mL, 95% CI, 3.73-4.06) (P<.01). HBsAg seroclearance was not associated with HBV genotype or treatment history. Heterogeneity was substantial across the studies (I2=97.49%).In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found a low rate of HBsAg seroclearance in untreated and treated patients (pooled annual rate approximately 1%). Seroclearance occurred mainly in patients with less active disease. Patients with chronic HBV infection should therefore be counseled on the need for lifelong treatment, and curative therapies are needed.

    View details for PubMedID 30342034

  • Real-world Effectiveness (RWE) of Sofosbuvir plus Ribavirin (SOF plus RBV) Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 2 (CHC GT 2) in Asia: A Systemic Review and Meta-analysis of Pooled SVR12 Wei, B., Ji, F., Yeo, Y., Zou, B., Ogawa, E., Henry, L., Cheung, R., Li, Z., Dang, S., Furusyo, N., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2017: 811A
  • Sustained Virological Response 12 Weeks after Therapy (SVR12) with Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAA) in Select Asian Populations with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 (HCV GT 1): A Meta-Analysis of Real-World Effectiveness from Asia Ji, F., Wei, B., Yeo, Y., Zou, B., Ogawa, E., Henry, L., Dang, S., Cheung, R., Furusyo, N., Li, Z., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2017: 812A–813A
  • Real Life Effectiveness of Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAAs) in Asian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 33 Published Articles and 7942 patients Ji, F., Wei, B., Yeo, Y., Zou, B., Ogawa, E., Henry, L., Li, Z., Cheung, R., Furusyo, N., Dang, S., Nguyen, M. H. WILEY. 2017: 596A–597A