Combined protein and nucleic acid imaging reveals virus-dependent B cell and macrophage immunosuppression of tissue microenvironments.
Understanding the mechanisms of HIV tissue persistence necessitates the ability to visualize tissue microenvironments where infected cells reside; however, technological barriers limit our ability to dissect the cellular components of these HIV reservoirs. Here, we developed protein and nucleic acid in situ imaging (PANINI) to simultaneously quantify DNA, RNA, and protein levels within these tissue compartments. By coupling PANINI with multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI), we measured over 30 parameters simultaneously across archival lymphoid tissues from healthy or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primates. PANINI enabled the spatial dissection of cellular phenotypes, functional markers, and viral events resulting from infection. SIV infection induced IL-10 expression in lymphoid B cells, which correlated with local macrophage M2 polarization. This highlights a potential viral mechanism for conditioning an immunosuppressive tissue environment for virion production. The spatial multimodal framework here can be extended to decipher tissue responses in other infectious diseases and tumor biology.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2022.03.020
View details for PubMedID 35447093
Determinants of SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in airway mucosal tissue and susceptibility in smokers.
Cell reports. Medicine
Understanding viral tropism is an essential step towards reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, decreasing mortality from COVID-19, and limiting opportunities for mutant strains to arise. Currently, little is known about the extent to which distinct tissue sites in the human head & neck region and proximal respiratory tract selectively permit SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication. In this translational study, we discover key variabilities in the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, essential SARS-CoV-2 entry factors, among the mucosal tissues of the human proximal airways. We show that SARS-CoV-2 infection is present in all examined head & neck tissues, with a notable tropism for the nasal cavity and tracheal mucosa. Finally, we uncover an association between smoking and higher SARS-CoV-2 viral infection in the human proximal airway, which may explain the increased susceptibility of smokers to developing severe COVID-19. This is at least partially explained by differences in IFN-beta1 levels between smokers and non-smokers.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100421
View details for PubMedID 34604819
Subcellular localization of biomolecules and drug distribution by high-definition ion beam imaging.
2021; 12 (1): 4628
Simultaneous visualization of the relationship between multiple biomolecules and their ligands or small molecules at the nanometer scale in cells will enable greater understanding of how biological processes operate. We present here high-definition multiplex ion beam imaging (HD-MIBI), a secondary ion mass spectrometry approach capable of high-parameter imaging in 3D of targeted biological entities and exogenously added structurally-unmodified small molecules. With this technology, the atomic constituents of the biomolecules themselves can be used in our system as the "tag" and we demonstrate measurements down to ~30nm lateral resolution. We correlated the subcellular localization of the chemotherapy drug cisplatin simultaneously with five subnuclear structures. Cisplatin was preferentially enriched in nuclear speckles and excluded from closed-chromatin regions, indicative of a role for cisplatin in active regions of chromatin. Unexpectedly, cells surviving multi-drug treatment with cisplatin and the BET inhibitor JQ1 demonstrated near total cisplatin exclusion from the nucleus, suggesting that selective subcellular drug relocalization may modulate resistance to this important chemotherapeutic treatment. Multiplexed high-resolution imaging techniques, such as HD-MIBI, will enable studies of biomolecules and drug distributions in biologically relevant subcellular microenvironments by visualizing the processes themselves in concert, rather than inferring mechanism through surrogate analyses.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-24822-1
View details for PubMedID 34330905
SARS-CoV-2 infects human pancreatic beta cells and elicits beta cell impairment.
Emerging evidence points toward an intricate relationship between the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and diabetes. While preexisting diabetes is associated with severe COVID-19, it is unclear whether COVID-19 severity is a cause or consequence of diabetes. To mechanistically link COVID-19 to diabetes, we tested whether insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells can be infected by SARS-CoV-2 and cause beta cell depletion. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2, and related entry factors (TMPRSS2, NRP1, and TRFC) are expressed in beta cells, with selectively high expression of NRP1. We discovered that SARS-CoV-2 infects human pancreatic beta cells in patients who succumbed to COVID-19 and selectively infects human islet beta cells invitro. We demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection attenuates pancreatic insulin levels and secretion and induces beta cell apoptosis, each rescued by NRP1 inhibition. Phosphoproteomic pathway analysis of infected islets indicates apoptotic beta cell signaling, similar to that observed in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In summary, our study shows SARS-CoV-2 can directly induce beta cell killing.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2021.05.013
View details for PubMedID 34081912
SARS-CoV-2 entry factors are expressed in nasal, ocular, and oral tissues: implications for COVID-19 prophylaxes/therapeutics
MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: AB2
View details for Web of Science ID 000629158000005
Adjacent Cell Marker Lateral Spillover Compensation and Reinforcement for Multiplexed Images.
Frontiers in immunology
2021; 12: 652631
Multiplex imaging technologies are now routinely capable of measuring more than 40 antibody-labeled parameters in single cells. However, lateral spillage of signals in densely packed tissues presents an obstacle to the assignment of high-dimensional spatial features to individual cells for accurate cell-type annotation. We devised a method to correct for lateral spillage of cell surface markers between adjacent cells termed REinforcement Dynamic Spillover EliminAtion (REDSEA). The use of REDSEA decreased contaminating signals from neighboring cells. It improved the recovery of marker signals across both isotopic (i.e., Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging) and immunofluorescent (i.e., Cyclic Immunofluorescence) multiplexed images resulting in a marked improvement in cell-type classification.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2021.652631
View details for PubMedID 34295327
Multimodal Analysis of Composition and Spatial Architecture in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
To define the cellular composition and architecture of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), we combined single-cell RNA sequencing with spatial transcriptomics and multiplexed ion beam imaging from a series of human cSCCs and matched normal skin. cSCC exhibited four tumor subpopulations, three recapitulating normal epidermal states, and a tumor-specific keratinocyte (TSK) population unique to cancer, which localized to a fibrovascular niche. Integration of single-cell and spatial data mapped ligand-receptor networks to specific cell types, revealing TSK cells as a hub for intercellular communication. Multiple features of potential immunosuppression were observed, including T regulatory cell (Treg) co-localization with CD8 T cells in compartmentalized tumor stroma. Finally, single-cell characterization of human tumor xenografts and in vivo CRISPR screens identified essential roles for specific tumor subpopulation-enriched gene networks in tumorigenesis. These data define cSCC tumor and stromal cell subpopulations, the spatial niches where they interact, and the communicating gene networks that they engage in cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.039
View details for PubMedID 32579974
Mass spectroscopy-based highly multiplexed super-resolution imaging method for fine details of tumor microenvironment monitoring and tumor-immune cell interactions
View details for Web of Science ID 000496473200452
Mapping the spatial architecture of acute myeloid leukemia in the bone marrow microenvironment by multiplexed ion beam imaging
View details for Web of Science ID 000496473200424
Multiplexed Imaging for the simultaneous detection of nucleic acids and proteins to dissect the tissue immune landscape and microenvironment of viral diseases
View details for Web of Science ID 000496473200465
Microbiome spatial patterns as markers of cancer immune therapy response
View details for Web of Science ID 000496473200251
Exposure to nanoplastics disturbs the gut microbiome in the soil oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus
2018; 239: 408–15
Microplastics are emerging pollutants that have recently aroused considerable concern but most toxicological studies have focused on marine biota, with little investigation of the influence of microplastics on terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we fed the soil oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus with oatmeal containing 0, 0.025, 0.5, and 10% (dry weight basis) nano-polystyrene (0.05-0.1 μm particle size) to elucidate the impact of microplastics on the growth and gut microbiome of Enchytraeus crypticus. We observed a significant reduction of weight in the animals fed 10% polystyrene and an increase in the reproduction of those fed 0.025%. More importantly, using 16S rRNA amplification and high-throughput sequencing we found a significant shift in the microbiome of those fed 10% microplastics with significant decreases in the relative abundance of the families Rhizobiaceae, Xanthobacteraceae and Isosphaeraceae. These families contain key microbes that contribute to nitrogen cycling and organic matter decomposition.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000434744800042
View details for PubMedID 29679938