Peroxiredoxin-2 nitrosylation facilitates cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells via XBP-1s/PI3K pathway.
Free radical biology and medicine
2016; 97: 179-191
Protein nitrosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification in almost all biological systems. However, its function on stem cell biology is so far incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrated that peroxiredoxin 2 (Prdx-2) nitrosylation was involved in cardiomyocyte differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). We found that temporary GSNO exposure could promote ES cell-derived cardiomyogenesis. Using a stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics approach, coupled with biotin switch technique, a total of 104 nitrosylated proteins were identified. Specifically, one of the antioxidant enzymes, Prdx-2, was abundantly nitrosylated and temporarily reduced in antioxidant activity, causing transient endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and subsequent X-box binding protein-1s/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway activation. The present study reveals the mechanism in which GSNO favors cardiomyocyte differentiation. Prdx-2 nitrosylation could be a potent strategy to affect the pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.05.025
View details for PubMedID 27261193
Hepatic Premalignant Alterations Triggered by Human Nephrotoxin Aristolochic Acid I in Canines
CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH
2016; 9 (4): 324-334
Aristolochic acid I (AAI) existing in plant drugs from Aristolochia species is an environmental human carcinogen associated with urothelial cancer. Although gene association network analysis demonstrated gene expression profile changes in the liver of human TP53 knock-in mice after acute AAI exposure, to date, whether AAI causes hepatic tumorigenesis is still not confirmed. Here, we show that hepatic premalignant alterations appeared in canines after a 10-day AAI oral administration (3 mg/kg/day). We observed c-Myc oncoprotein and oncofetal RNA-binding protein Lin28B overexpressions accompanied by cancer progenitor-like cell formation in the liver by AAI exposure. Meanwhile, we found that forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) was robustly phosphorylated, thereby shuttling into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Furthermore, utilizing microarray and qRT-PCR analysis, we confirmed that microRNA expression significantly dysregulated in the liver treated with AAI. Among them, we particularly focused on the members in let-7 miRNAs and miR-23a clusters, the downstream of c-Myc and IL6 receptor (IL6R) signaling pathway linking the premalignant alteration. Strikingly, when IL6 was added in vitro, IL6R/NF-κB signaling activation contributed to the increase of FOXO1 phosphorylation by the let-7b inhibitor. Therefore, it highlights the new insight into the interplay of the network in hepatic tumorigenesis by AAI exposure, and also suggests that anti-premalignant therapy may be crucial for preventing AAI-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-15-0339
View details for Web of Science ID 000373446500007
View details for PubMedID 26851235
Junctophilin 3 expresses in pancreatic beta cells and is required for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
Cell death & disease
2016; 7 (6)
It is well accepted that junctophilin (JPHs) isoforms act as a physical bridge linking plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for channel crosstalk in excitable cells. Our purpose is to investigate whether JPHs are involved in the proper communication between Ca(2+) influx and subsequent Ca(2+) amplification in pancreatic beta cells, thereby participating in regulating insulin secretion. The expression of JPH isoforms was examined in human and mouse pancreatic tissues, and JPH3 expression was found in both the beta cells. In mice, knockdown of Jph3 (si-Jph3) in islets decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) accompanied by mitochondrial function impairment. Si-Jph3 lowered the insulin secretory response to Ca(2+) signaling in the presence of glucose, and reduced [Ca(2+)]c transient amplitude triggered by caffeine. Si-Jph3 also attenuated mitofusin 2 expression, thereby disturbing the spatial organization of ER-mitochondria contact in islets. These results suggest that the regulation of GSIS by the KATP channel-independent pathways is partly impaired due to decrease of JPH3 expression in mouse islets. JPH3 also binds to type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) in mouse and human pancreatic tissues, which might contribute to Ca(2+) release amplification in GSIS. This study demonstrates some previously unrecognized findings in pancreatic tissues: (1) JPH3 expresses in mouse and human beta cells; (2) si-Jph3 in mouse primary islets impairs GSIS in vitro; (3) impairment in GSIS in si-Jph3 islets is due to changes in RyR2-[Ca(2+)]c transient amplitude and ER-mitochondria contact.
View details for DOI 10.1038/cddis.2016.179
View details for PubMedID 27336719
Premalignant alteration assessment in liver-like tissue derived from embryonic stem cells by aristolochic acid I exposure.
The in vitro predictive evaluation of chemical carcinogenicity based on hepatic premalignance has so far not been established. Here, we report a novel approach to investigate the premalignant events triggered by human carcinogen aristolochic acid I (AAI) in the liver-like tissue derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. By AAI exposure, the liver-like tissue exhibited the paracrine interleukin-6 phenotypic characteristics. Hepatocytes expressed STAT3/p-STAT3, c-Myc and Lin28B in parallel. Some of them displayed the dedifferentiation characteristics, such as full of α-fetoprotein granules, increase in size, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttle of Oct4. When these cells were injected into mice, the xenografts mostly displayed the uniform area of hepatic-like tissue with malignant nuclei. The hepatic malignant markers, α-fetoprotein, cytokeratin 7 and cytokeratin 19, were co-expressed in albumin-positive areas, respectively. In conclusion, we established an approach to predict the hepatic premalignance triggered by carcinogen AAI. This premalignant assay system might aid to evaluate the effects of potential carcinogens in liver, and probably to screen the protecting against hepatocarcinogenic efficacy of pharmaceuticals in vitro.
View details for DOI 10.18632/oncotarget.12424
View details for PubMedID 27713163