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Surveillance for Healthcare-Associated Infections: Hospital-Onset Adult Sepsis Events Versus Current Reportable Conditions.
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
2021; 73 (6): 1013-1019
US hospitals are required by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to publicly report central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), Clostridioidesdiffficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, and selected surgical site infections for benchmarking and pay-for-performance programs. It is unclear, however, to what extent these conditions capture the full breadth of serious healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) hospital-onset Adult Sepsis Event (HO-ASE) definition could facilitate more comprehensive and efficient surveillance for serious HAIs, but the overlap between HO-ASE and currently reportable HAIs is unknown.We retrospectively assessed the overlap between HO-ASEs and reportable HAIs among adults hospitalized between June 2015-June 2018 in 3 hospitals. Medical record reviews were conducted for 110 randomly selected HO-ASE cases to determine clinical correlates.Among 282 441 hospitalized patients, 2301 (0.8%) met HO-ASE criteria and 1260 (0.4%) had reportable HAIs. In-hospital mortality rates were higher with HO-ASEs than reportable HAIs (28.6% vs 12.9%). Mortality rates for HO-ASE missed by reportable HAIs were substantially higher than mortality rates for reportable HAIs missed by HO-ASE (28.1% vs 6.3%). Reportable HAIs were only present in 334/2301 (14.5%) HO-ASEs, most commonly CLABSIs (6.0% of HO-ASEs), C. difficile (5.0%), and CAUTIs (3.0%). On medical record review, most HO-ASEs were caused by pneumonia (39.1%, of which only 34.9% were ventilator-associated), bloodstream infections (17.4%, of which only 10.5% were central line-associated), non-C. difficile intra-abdominal infections (14.5%), urinary infections (7.3%, of which 87.5% were catheter-associated), and skin/soft tissue infections (6.4%).CDC's HO-ASE definition detects many serious nosocomial infections missed by currently reportable HAIs. HO-ASE surveillance could increase the efficiency and clinical significance of surveillance while identifying new targets for prevention.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciab217
View details for PubMedID 33780544
Influence of Intestinal Helminth Burden on Clinical Manifestations, Therapeutic Response, and Leishmania braziliensis Load in Patients with New World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
2021; 105 (4): 1060-1066
Leishmania braziliensis is the most important cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Americas. A Th1-type immune response is required to control Leishmania infection, but an exaggerated inflammatory response leads to the development of ulcers seen in CL. Infection with intestinal helminths has the potential to inhibit the Th1 response in a manner that depends both on the species of helminth present as well as the burden of helminthiasis. We conducted a prospective cohort study of CL patients from an endemic area between January and December 2017 with either negative or high intestinal helminth burden to characterize relationships between helminth burden, L. braziliensis quantification within CL lesions, clinical aspects of CL, and therapeutic response. Of 234 participants with leishmaniasis who underwent stool examination at the time of diagnosis, 45% had detectable helminth infection. The overall cure rate after 90 days was 66%, with a median time to resolution of disease of 40 days (interquartile range: 30-65 days). There was no significant association between the type of helminth infection or the magnitude of intestinal helminth burden at the time of diagnosis and L. braziliensis genomic DNA (gDNA) detected in biopsies from CL lesions. Likewise, there was no association between helminth burden and response to treatment after 90 days. Considering quantification of parasite DNA in CL lesions, participants who were cured at 90 days had a median of 0.017 ng/mg gDNA, and participants who failed therapy had a median of 0.091 ng/mg gDNA (P = 0.03). The results indicate that cutaneous Leishmania load may influence therapeutic response in CL.
View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1664
View details for PubMedID 34398812
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8592135
Phenotypic Characterization of CD4+ T Lymphocytes in Periportal Fibrosis Secondary to Schistosomiasis.
Frontiers in immunology
2021; 12: 605235
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that affects about 166 million people around the world. It is estimated that 5%-10% of individuals with schistosomiasis develop severe forms of the disease, which are characterized by pulmonary hypertension, ascites, periportal fibrosis, and other significant complications. The chronic phase of the disease is associated with a Th2 type immune response, but evidence also suggests there are roles for Th1 and Th17 in the development of severe disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CD4+ T lymphocyte profile of patients with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. These individuals had been treated for schistosomiasis, but since they live in a S. mansoni endemic area, they are at risk of reinfection. They were evaluated in relation to the degree of periportal fibrosis and classified into three groups: without fibrosis or with incipient fibrosis (WF/IFNE), n=12, possible periportal fibrosis/periportal fibrosis, n=13, and advanced periportal fibrosis/advanced periportal fibrosis with portal hypertension, n=4. We observed in the group without fibrosis a balance between the low expression of Th2 cytokines and high expression of T reg cells. As has already been described in the literature, we found an increase of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the group with periportal fibrosis. In addition, this group showed higher expression of IL-17 and IL-10 but lower IL-10/IL-13 ratio than patients in the WF/IFNE group. Cells from individuals who present any level of fibrosis expressed more TGF-β compared to the WF/IFNE group and a positive correlation with left lobe enlargement and portal vein wall thickness. There was a negative correlation between IL-17 and the thickness of the portal vein wall, but more studies are necessary in order to explore the possible protective role of this cytokine. Despite the fibrosis group having presented a higher expression of pro-fibrotic molecules compared to WF/IFNE patients, it seems there is a regulation through IL-10 and T reg cells that is able to maintain the low morbidity of this group.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2021.605235
View details for PubMedID 33692784
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7937650
Characterization of memory T cells in individuals resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection.
2019; 41 (12): e12671
Schistosomiasis affects about 240 million people worldwide and is estimated that about 700 million people live in areas at risk of infection. In the context of immune response associated with infection by Schistosoma mansoni, the role of memory T cells is not well understood.To evaluate the frequency of memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from individuals resistant and susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni infection.We selected individuals with low (resistant) and high (susceptible) parasite burden using databases generated during previous studies carried out in the same endemic area. The cell surface markers were performed using flow cytometry. In this study, the resistant individuals showed an increase in the CD4+ memory T-cell pool associated with an increase in the central memory cell (TCM) and a decrease in the effector memory cell (TEM ). Individuals susceptible to infection had higher frequencies of effector memory cells compared to resistant individuals.These data suggest that resistance to S mansoni infection may be associated with an increase in the number of CD4+ memory T cells and susceptibility to infection is associated with a decrease in the central memory cell as well as high proportions of effector memory cells.
View details for DOI 10.1111/pim.12671
View details for PubMedID 31532832
Schistosoma mansoni rSm29 Antigen Induces a Regulatory Phenotype on Dendritic Cells and Lymphocytes From Patients With Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
Frontiers in immunology
2018; 9: 3122
The immune response induced by Schistosma mansoni antigens is able to prevent immune-mediated diseases. Conversely, the inflammatory response in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although responsible for controlling the infection, is also associated with the pathogenesis of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the S. mansoni Sm29 antigen to change certain aspects of the profiles of monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) and lymphocytes from subjects with CL in vitro. Expression of surface molecules and intracellular cytokines in the MoDCs and lymphocytes as well as the proliferation of Leishmania braziliensis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Levels of cytokines were evaluated in culture supernatants by ELISA. It was observed that stimulation by rSm29 increased the frequency of expression of CD83, CD80, CD86, and IL-10R in MoDCs compared to non-stimulated cultures. Additionally rSm29 decreased the frequency CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 and increased the frequency of CD4+CD25hi and CD4+CTLA-4+ T lymphocytes. Addition of rSm29 to cultures increased IL-10 levels and decreased levels of IL-12p40 and IFN-γ, while not altering TNF levels compared to non-stimulated cultures. This study showed that rSm29 induced a regulatory profile in MoDCs and lymphocytes and thereby regulated the exaggerated inflammation observed in CL. Considering that there are few therapeutic options for leishmaniasis, the use of rSm29 may be an alternative to current treatment and may be an important strategy to reduce the healing time of lesions in patients with CL.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2018.03122
View details for PubMedID 30687325
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6333737
Susceptibility of dendritic cells from individuals with schistosomiasis to infection by Leishmania braziliensis.
2018; 93: 173-183
Coinfection with leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis has been associated with increased time to healing of cutaneous lesions of leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Leishmania braziliensis infection on co-cultures of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) with autologous lymphocytes from patients with schistosomiasis and patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. MoDCs were differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes, isolated by magnetic beads, infected with L. braziliensis, and co-cultured with autologous lymphocytes. Expression of HLA-DR, CD1a, CD83, CD80, CD86, CD40, and the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) on MoDCs as well as CD28, CD40L, CD25, and CTLA-4 on lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. The production of the cytokines IL-10, TNF, IL-12p40, and IFN-γ were evaluated by sandwich ELISA of the culture supernatant. The infectivity evaluation was performed by light microscopy after concentration of cells by cytospin and Giemsa staining. It was observed that the frequency of MoDCs expressing CD83, CD80, and CD86 as well as the MFI of HLA-DR were smaller in the group of patients with schistosomiasis compared to the group of patients with leishmaniasis. On the other hand, the frequency of IL-10R on MoDCs was higher in patients with schistosomiasis than in patients with leishmaniasis. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from patients with schistosomiasis presented a lower frequency of CD28 and a higher frequency of CTLA-4 compared to lymphocytes from patients with leishmaniasis. Levels of IL-10 were higher in the supernatants of co-cultures from individuals with schistosomiasis compared to those with leishmaniasis. However, levels of TNF, IL-12p40, and IFN-γ were lower in the group of individuals with schistosomiasis. Regarding the frequency of MoDCs infected by L. braziliensis after 72h in culture, it was observed that higher frequencies of cells from patients with schistosomiasis were infected compared to cells from patients with leishmaniasis. It was concluded that MoDCs from patients with schistosomiasis are more likely to be infected by L. braziliensis, possibly due to a lower degree of activation and a regulatory profile.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molimm.2017.11.018
View details for PubMedID 29197260
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6203323
Enhanced arbovirus surveillance with deep sequencing: Identification of novel rhabdoviruses and bunyaviruses in Australian mosquitoes
2014; 448: 146-158
Viral metagenomics characterizes known and identifies unknown viruses based on sequence similarities to any previously sequenced viral genomes. A metagenomics approach was used to identify virus sequences in Australian mosquitoes causing cytopathic effects in inoculated mammalian cell cultures. Sequence comparisons revealed strains of Liao Ning virus (Reovirus, Seadornavirus), previously detected only in China, livestock-infecting Stretch Lagoon virus (Reovirus, Orbivirus), two novel dimarhabdoviruses, named Beaumont and North Creek viruses, and two novel orthobunyaviruses, named Murrumbidgee and Salt Ash viruses. The novel virus proteomes diverged by ≥ 50% relative to their closest previously genetically characterized viral relatives. Deep sequencing also generated genomes of Warrego and Wallal viruses, orbiviruses linked to kangaroo blindness, whose genomes had not been fully characterized. This study highlights viral metagenomics in concert with traditional arbovirus surveillance to characterize known and new arboviruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Follow-up epidemiological studies are required to determine whether the novel viruses infect humans.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.virol.2013.09.026
View details for Web of Science ID 000328710800016
View details for PubMedID 24314645
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3870893
Divergent Astrovirus Associated with Neurologic Disease in Cattle
EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2013; 19 (9): 1385-1392
Using viral metagenomics of brain tissue from a young adult crossbreed steer with acute onset of neurologic disease, we sequenced the complete genome of a novel astrovirus (BoAstV-NeuroS1) that was phylogenetically related to an ovine astrovirus. In a retrospective analysis of 32 cases of bovine encephalitides of unknown etiology, 3 other infected animals were detected by using PCR and in situ hybridization for viral RNA. Viral RNA was restricted to the nervous system and detected in the cytoplasm of affected neurons within the spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebellum. Microscopically, the lesions were of widespread neuronal necrosis, microgliosis, and perivascular cuffing preferentially distributed in gray matter and most severe in the cerebellum and brainstem, with increasing intensity caudally down the spinal cord. These results suggest that infection with BoAstV-NeuroS1 is a potential cause of neurologic disease in cattle.
View details for DOI 10.3201/eid1909.130682
View details for Web of Science ID 000328173800004
View details for PubMedID 23965613
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3810933