Honors & Awards

  • Gina Finzi Fellow, Lupus Foundation of America (2017)
  • Goldwater Scholar, Barry M. Goldwater Foundation (2015-2016)
  • Rose Hills Scholar, Rose Hills Foundation (2014-2016)
  • Wasserman Scholar, Edith & Lew Wasserman Foundation (2016)

Education & Certifications

  • Bachelor of Science, University of California Los Angeles, Microbio., Immuno., & Mol. Gen (2017)


  • 2020 Winter - NENS 301A Neurology Core Clerkship
  • 2020 Winter - OBGYN 300A Obstetrics and Gynecology Core Clerkship
  • 2020 Winter - OPHT 398A Elective in Ophthalmology
  • 2019 Autumn - MED 300A Internal Medicine Core Clerkship
  • 2019 Autumn - PEDS 300A Pediatrics Core Clerkship
  • 2019 Summer - PSYC 300A Psychiatry Core Clerkship

All Publications

  • Bilateral preretinal hemorrhage associated with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. American journal of ophthalmology case reports Akhavanrezayat, A., Cooper, J. D., Hassan, M., Pham, B. H., Nguyen, Q. D., Farr, A. K. 2021; 22: 101041


    Purpose: To present a case of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) who presented with a unique pattern of retinopathy.Observations: A 7-year-old Taiwanese girl with HIV disease who was recently diagnosed with KFD had a sudden onset of blurry vision in both eyes one month after her KFD systemic symptoms had relatively resolved. Ophthalmic examination showed decreased visual acuity in both eyes (OU). On fundus examination, she had bilateral preretinal, subhyaloid, and vitreous hemorrhage that was more severe than anemic retinopathy.Conclusion: Ocular manifestations in Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease are rare; however, if they occur, presentations may vary. The exact etiology of the disease has remained elusive and controversial. This case is the first report of a patient with HIV disease and KFD presenting with ocular involvement. Furthermore, bilateral preretinal, subhyaloid, and vitreous hemorrhage, which was beyond anemic retinopathy, is an unprecedented manifestation of KFD that has not been previously reported. This case highlights the necessity for clinicians to consider all possible differential diagnoses when evaluating patients with similar findings to identify the best therapeutic approach and avoid unnecessary treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajoc.2021.101041

    View details for PubMedID 33732946

  • Reperfusion of retinal ischemia in retinal occlusive vasculitis with nicotinic acid and infliximab in Adamantiades-Behcet's disease. American journal of ophthalmology case reports Al-Moujahed, A., Hien, D. L., Akhavanrezayat, A., Pham, B. H., Tuong Ngoc, T. T., Doan, H. L., Yasar, C., Lajevardi, S., Nguyen, H. V., Nguyen, Q. D. 2021; 21: 101027


    To describe a case of ischemic retinal vasculitis in Adamantiades-Behcet disease (ABD) that demonstrated significant resolution of retinal ischemia following treatment with nicotinic acid and infliximab.Observations: A 12-year-old male with a history of recurrent oral ulcers, fevers, and failure to thrive was admitted to the hospital with fever, oral and perirectal mucositis, and poor oral intake one month before presentation to uveitis clinic. He was suspected to have ABD and was treated with three doses of intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/day) which led to improvement in his systemic symptoms. One week after admission, he complained of decreased vision in both eyes (OU), during which he was found to have anterior uveitis in OU and was referred to the Uveitis Clinic. Upon examination, his visual acuity was 20/80 in OU. Intraocular pressures were within normal limits. Anterior chamber evaluation revealed 0.5+ cells and 1.5+ flare in OU. Posterior examination revealed pale optic nerve, sclerosis and vascular sheathing of retinal arteries, and collateral vessels in OU. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed optic disc leakage and widespread retinal ischemia in OU. The patient was diagnosed with retinal occlusive vasculitis associated with ABD. He was initially treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg), systemic methylprednisolone, and mycophenolate mofetil. Three months later, his BCVA improved to 20/70 OU with slight improvement of retinal ischemia on FA. Nicotinic acid was added to his treatment regimen. Due to logistic challenges, he did not receive infliximab treatment during the subsequent three months. However, three months after beginning nicotinic acid therapy, FA revealed significant improvement of his retinal ischemia OU. Conclusion: To our knowledge, the index report is the first to show that nicotinic acid may improve retinal ischemia in vaso-occlusive retinal vasculitis and be an integral part of the treatment regimen of this sight-threatening condition.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajoc.2021.101027

    View details for PubMedID 33615039

  • Anti-interleukin-6 receptor therapy with tocilizumab for refractory pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. American journal of ophthalmology case reports Pham, B. H., Hien, D. L., Matsumiya, W., Tuong Ngoc, T. T., Doan, H. L., Akhavanrezayat, A., Yasar, C., Nguyen, H. V., Halim, M. S., Nguyen, Q. D. 2020; 20: 100881


    Purpose: To describe the clinical course of a patient with refractory pseudophakic cystoid macular edema treated with interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab.Observations: An 80-year-old Caucasian man with past ocular history significant for glaucoma (right eye) and iritis presented with cystoid macular edema (CME) in the right eye (OD). His ocular surgery history was significant for cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lenses in 1999 and YAG laser capsulotomy in 2014 in both eyes (OU). His medications at time of presentation included latanoprost and dorzolamide-timolol in OD for glaucoma, as well as prednisolone in OD for iritis. Upon examination, his visual acuity was 20/250 in OD and 20/20 in the left eye (OS). Intraocular pressure was 20mmHg in OD and 10mmHg in OS. Slit-lamp examination revealed no cells or flare in OU. Dilated fundus exam showed CME and a cup-to-disk ratio of 0.9 in OD and normal findings in OS. Initial spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) demonstrated intraretinal fluid in both outer and inner layers as well as mild subretinal fluid with an intact ellipsoid zone in OD. Fluorescein angiography revealed perifoveal leakage in OD. Laboratory evaluations, including infectious work-up, were unremarkable. While the patient's CME initially improved after initiation of therapy with topical prednisolone and oral acetazolamide, the CME later recurred after systemic acetazolamide was stopped due to intolerable side effects. Despite multiple therapeutic approaches, including topical and systemic corticosteroids (both oral and intravenous) and topical interferon alpha2b over the course of more than one year, the patient's visual acuity continued to worsen with increasing intra- and subretinal fluid in the macula. Due to the refractory CME, the patient was started on monthly infusions of anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor tocilizumab (8 mg/kg) with three days of methylprednisolone infusions (500 mg/day). After nine cycles of treatment, SD-OCT demonstrated restoration of normal foveal contour with complete resolution of CME.Conclusions and Importance: IL-6 inhibition with tocilizumab may be a safe and effective treatment for refractory CME. Further studies are needed to elucidate the nature and extent of therapeutic IL-6 inhibition in CME.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajoc.2020.100881

    View details for PubMedID 32875161

  • How Do We Manage HLA-B27-associated Ocular Inflammation Refractory or Intolerant to Conventional Immunomodulatory Therapy? Journal of ophthalmic & vision research Hien, D. L., Pham, B. H., Nguyen, Q. D. 2020; 15 (4): 442–45

    View details for DOI 10.18502/jovr.v15i4.7777

    View details for PubMedID 33133433

  • Yet another case of ocular sarcoidosis. American journal of ophthalmology case reports Hien, D. L., Onghanseng, N., Ngoc, T. T., Hwang, J. J., Pham, B. H., Doan, H. L., Nguyen, H. V., Halim, M. S., Uludag, G., Sepah, Y. J., Do, D. V., Nguyen, Q. D. 2020; 19: 100825


    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral pan-uveitis resembling fungal and viral endophthalmitis in a patient who was ultimately diagnosed with sarcoidosis.Observation: A 64-year-old female presented with a four-day history of painless vision loss in the right eye. She presented with multiple concurrent systemic complaints, including a history of oral and genital sores, patches of hypopigmented skin on her forearms, and occasional shortness of breath. Upon further examination, she was noted to have bilateral pan-uveitis, which was more severe in the right than left eye. Posterior pole examination of the right eye revealed dense vitritis with multiple large whitish round balls that seemed suggestive of fungal or viral endophthalmitis. Initial therapies included intravitreal (IVT) foscarnet and intravenous (IV) acyclovir, followed by IV amphotericin B and oral voriconazole, which did not improve ocular signs and symptoms. Further evaluations ruled out infectious etiologies and lymphoma. Chest computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed findings suggestive of sarcoidosis, which was confirmed with lung biopsy. Anti-viral and -fungal treatments were discontinued, and the patient was started on IV methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil. Ocular symptoms improved, and the patient remained stable after treatment.Conclusion and Importance: The index report illustrates a case of ocular sarcoidosis that imitated the presentation of infectious endophthalmitis. Though ocular sarcoidosis is known to masquerade as a range of disorders and constitutes part of the differential diagnosis for infectious endophthalmitis, sarcoidosis has not been reported in recent literature to imitate the presentation of fungal endophthalmitis. The index case suggests that ocular sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnoses of fungal endophthalmitis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajoc.2020.100825

    View details for PubMedID 32715157

  • Effectiveness of OCT measurement techniques in detecting hydroxychloroquine retinopathy up to the time of conversion to toxicity De Sisternes, L., Pham, B., Durbin, M. K., Marmor, M. F. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. 2020


    PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) cross-sections have shown limited ellipsoid zone (EZ) improvement in mild hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy within a few years after drug cessation. However, the extent, functional significance, and stability of such changes over time remain unclear.METHODS: We created en face EZ maps using automated pixel-by-pixel segmentation for four patients with early-moderate HCQ toxicity followed for 6-8 years after drug cessation. These maps were compared with OCT cross-sections, fundus autofluorescence, and automated 10-2 visual fields.RESULTS: One patient had no EZ line loss; one had stable EZ loss throughout follow-up; two showed 30 to 40% reduction in the area of loss, largely in the first 2 years. This limited recovery mostly occurred in regions where the EZ line was only thinned or fragmented; other similar areas did not improve. Fundus autofluorescence hyperfluorescence and visual fields did not show consistent correlation with topography.CONCLUSION: Anatomic EZ recovery, when present, was restricted to regions of mild damage and did not correlate with fundus autofluorescence or improvement in visual fields. Topographic mapping seemed no more sensitive locally than cross-sectional OCT but may aid detection and longitudinal follow-up of toxicity by showing early damage or changes in the macula that could be missed with individual cross-sections.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ICB.0000000000000993

    View details for PubMedID 32150114

  • Impending central retinal vein occlusion in patient with idiopathic cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. American journal of ophthalmology case reports Akhavanrezayat, A. n., Hien, D. L., Pham, B. H., Nguyen, H. V., Tuong Ngoc, T. T., Al-Moujahed, A. n., Uludag, G. n., Karkhur, S. n., Doan, H. L., Nguyen, Q. D. 2020; 20: 100934


    To report a case of impending central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) associated with idiopathic cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) that demonstrated significant resolution following treatment with intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone.A 27-year-old man presented to a tertiary Uveitis Clinic with a five-day history of blurry vision in the right eye (OD). He had a history of a purpuric rash and arthralgias five years ago and a biopsy-confirmed diagnosis of LCV controlled with colchicine two years ago in India. Recently, he presented with a recurrent rash and severe abdominal pain. After being evaluated by rheumatology and gastroenterology, he was placed on Helicobacter pylori treatment and high dose oral prednisone, which improved his skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. At the first ophthalmic exam, his systemic findings included lower extremity purpura. His best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in both eyes (OU). Slit-lamp examination revealed no cells or flare in OU. Dilated fundus exam showed mild enlarged, tortuous veins, optic nerve hemorrhage, and intraretinal hemorrhages temporal to the macula in OD. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) demonstrated multiple hyper-reflective, plaque-like lesions involving the inner nuclear layer, consistent with paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM). The patient was diagnosed with impending central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in OD. Laboratory evaluations were unremarkable. Aspirin was initially started for the patient but was later held due to the worsening of retinal hemorrhage and retinal vein tortuosity at the one-week follow-up. The patient then received three doses of intravenous methylprednisolone, followed by systemic oral prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil. One month later, retinal hemorrhages, venous stasis, and skin manifestations resolved.Ocular involvement in LCV is rare and may present with different manifestations. The index case is the first report of impending CRVO in a patient with idiopathic LCV and without any other known risk factors for CRVO. Our report not only describes the unique course of LCV-related ocular involvement, but also introduces and underscores a potentially effective therapeutic plan.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajoc.2020.100934

    View details for PubMedID 33015410

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7522751

  • The rapid N-wave as a potentially useful measure of the photopic negative response. Documenta ophthalmologica. Advances in ophthalmology Pham, B. H., Goldberg, J. L., Marmor, M. F. 2020


    The photopic negative response (PhNR) correlates with ganglion cell function and has previously been examined as an indicator of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. However, it is a prolonged response that is measured against baseline, and its clinical utility has been limited by extensive variability, poor repeatability, and baseline instability. We have observed a distinct brief negative wave ("N-wave") commonly present within the slow PhNR trough, which may provide practical and analytic advantages as a clinical measure.We reviewed data from an interventional trial of 59 glaucoma patients who had 4 exams over an 8-month period. The PhNR was recorded with standard ISCEV stimuli (1 Hz and in some cases 4 Hz stimulation), and N-waves were measured manually, relative to return to baseline.N-waves, when present, could be measured easily despite shifting baselines and a degree of background noise. The PhNR median amplitude centered around 18 μV, while the N-wave median centered around 7 μV, with a distribution of responses skewed toward low or zero amplitudes.The N-wave appears to be a component of the longer PhNR, though its exact origin and significance remain unclear. As a rapid waveform that is independent of baseline, the N-wave is in many ways easier to measure accurately than the slower PhNR, which is highly dependent on baseline stability. The N-wave may prove useful clinically if further studies can optimize its stimulation, show its behavior in normal individuals and find correlation with markers of optic nerve disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10633-020-09769-w

    View details for PubMedID 32507902

  • Systemic immunosuppressive therapies for uveitis in developing countries Indian Journal of Opthalmology Agrawal, H., Hien, D. L., Pham, B. H., Khosla, A., Babu, M., McCluskey, P., Nguyen, Q. D., Sangwan, V., Reddy, S., Sawhney, S., Tyagi, M. 2020; 68 (9): 1852-1862

    View details for DOI 10.4013/ijo.IJO_1548_20

  • Sequential Retinal Thickness Analysis Shows Hydroxychloroquine Damage Before Other Screening Techniques. Retinal cases & brief reports Marmor, M. F., Durbin, M. n., de Sisternes, L. n., Pham, B. H. 2020; Publish Ahead of Print


    We sought to determine the earliest diagnostic signs of HCQ retinopathy up to the point of clinical recognition.Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (sdOCT) cross-sections, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and visual fields were generated clinically. Stored sdOCT data were re-examined later to generate topographic ellipsoid zone (EZ) maps, minimum intensity (MI) analysis and sequential plots of regional retinal thickness.Retrospective series of 6 patients (5 parafoveal disease; 1 pericentral disease) with at least 3 examinations over 3.5 years or more preceding diagnosis of HCQ retinopathy.SdOCT cross-sections and fields showed similar sensitivity; FAF was not helpful. In parafoveal cases, EZ topography and MI analysis were no more reliable. Sequential thickness plots from 4 parafoveal cases showed dramatic retinal thinning across the posterior pole beginning 4-5 years before clinical diagnosis, with parafoveal regions thinning even faster. The pericentral case showed thinning only outside the central macula. Peripheral EZ loss was more dramatic with EZ topography than sdOCT cross-sections.Sequential retinal thickness plots reveal definitive thinning years before current diagnostic procedures. We hope that OCT manufacturers will develop software to display such measurements. EZ topography was not more sensitive than sdOCT cross-sections but important for recognizing pericentral disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ICB.0000000000001108

    View details for PubMedID 33394957

  • Topography Shows Limited Ellipsoid Zone Recovery from Mild Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Pham, B., De Sisternes, L., Durbin, M. K., Marmor, M. F. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. 2019
  • PhNR measurement independent of baseline (N-wave) for the clinical evaluation of glaucoma Marmor, M. F., Pham, B., Goldberg, J. L. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. 2019
  • Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa in children JOURNAL OF AAPOS Mercado, C. L., Pham, B. H., Beres, S., Marmor, M. F., Lambert, S. R. 2018; 22 (6): 457–61
  • Long-term progression of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy off the drug Pham, B., Marmor, M. F. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. 2018
  • Responsiveness to X-Linked Toll-like Receptors Differs Between Mice with XY and XX Sex Chromosome Complement, Regardless of the Gonadal Sex Pham, B., Valera, I., Singh, R. R. WILEY. 2016
  • Investigating mechanisms of sex bias in lung fibrosis using mice with sex chromosome complement Valera, I. C., Kafaja, S., Pham, B., Fishbein, M., Singh, R. R. AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. 2016