Bio


Brent Constantz was trained in biological and geological sciences, and has special interests in biomineralization - mineral formation by organisms. Following his graduate and post-doctoral studies, he founded and led three medical device companies that improved the quality of care for conditions related to mineralization in the human body that are used today in most hospitals around the world. Over the last five years he has directed his attention to global climate change problems with carbon reutilization to sequester carbon dioxide in carbonate minerals and global adaption to drought caused by climate change with fresh water production.

Academic Appointments


  • Consulting Associate Professor, Geological Sciences

Administrative Appointments


  • Advisory Board Member, Stanford Environmental Molecular Science Institute Professional Activities (2005 - 2010)

Honors & Awards


  • Principal Investigator, International Grand Challenge: Innovative Carbon Uses, Change and Emissions Management Corporation (CCEMC) . (2014)
  • Principal Investigator, Carbon Dioxide Beneficial Use Grant, US Department of Energy (2010)
  • Principal Investigator, ETIS Carbon Sequestration Grant, Victorian Government (2009 | 2010)
  • Global Ocean Hero Award, Long Marine Laboratory (2009)
  • Distingushed Alumni, University of California, Santa Cruz (1999)
  • Distinguished Alumni Award, Woodside High School (1997)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Advisory Board Member, Stanford Environmental Molecular Science Institute (2005 - 2010)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D. Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, Earth Sciences (1986)
  • MS Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, Earth Sciences (1984)
  • BA Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, Geological Sciences & Aquatic Biology (1981)

Patents


  • Constantz; Brent (Portola Valley, CA), Khosla; Vinod (Menlo Park, CA) Seeker; William Randall (San Clemente, CA),. "United States Patent 8,883,104 Gas stream multi-pollutants control systems and methods", Nov 11, 2014
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Ryan; Cecily (San Jose, CA), Clodic; Laurence (Sunnyvale, CA). "United States Patent 8,857,118 Hydraulic cements comprising carbonate compound compositions", Oct 14, 2014
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Cupertino, CA), Delaney; David (Scotts Valley, CA), Yetkinler; Duran (Cupertino, CA). "United States Patent 8,771,748 Rapid setting calcium phosphate cements", Jul 8, 2014
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA), Johansson; Peter K. (Campbell, CA). "United States Patent 8,728,026 Devices and methods for treating aortic valve stenosis", May 20, 2014
  • Constantz; Brent R (Portola Valley, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Los Gatos, CA), Holland; Terence C (Auburn Township, OH). "United States Patent 8,603,424 CO2-sequestering formed building materials", Dec 10, 2013
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA), Johansson; Peter K. (Campbell, CA), McGurk; Erin (Palo Alto, CA). "United States Patent 8,500,683 Catheter systems and methods for their use in the treatment of calcified vascular occlusions", Aug 13, 2013
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA), Johansson; Peter K. (Campbell, CA). "United States Patent 8,496,620 Fluid delivery systems for delivering fluids to multi-lumen catheters", Jul 30, 2013
  • Constantz; Brent (Portola Valley, CA), Khosla; Vinod (Menlo Park, CA) ,Seeker; William Randall (San Clemente, CA),. "United States Patent 8,491,858 Gas stream multi-pollutants control systems and methods", Jul 23, 2013
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Los Gatos, CA), Holland; Terence C. (Auburn Township, OH). "United States Patent 8,431,100 CO.sub.2-sequestering formed building materials", Jun 30, 2013
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Los Gatos, CA), Holland; Terence C. (Auburn Township, OH). "United States Patent 8,470,275 Reduced-carbon footprint concrete compositions", Jun 25, 2013
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Cupertino, CA), Delaney; David (Scotts Valley, CA), Yetkinler; Duran (Cupertino, CA). "United States Patent 8,419,803 Calcium phosphate cements and methods for using the same", Apr 16, 2013
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Antelope, CA), Tuet; Philip Brian (Milpitas, CA), Omelon; Sidney (Willowdale, CA), Farsad; Kasra (San Jose, CA), Gilliam; Ryan J. (San Jose, CA), Decker; Valentin (San Jose, CA), Kirk; Donald W. (Caledon, CA), Way; J. Douglas (Boulder, CO), Bard; Allen J. (Austin, TX), Danziger; Robert (Carmel, CA), Fernandez; Miguel (San Jose, CA), Ryan; Cecily (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 8,333,944 Methods of sequestering CO2", Dec 18, 2012
  • Constantz, Brent. "United States Patent 8,177,909 Methods and compositions using calcium carbonate", May 15, 2012
  • Constantz, Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA)Yetkinler; Duran (Cupertino, CA), Delaney; David (Scotts Valley, CA);. "United States Patent 8,167,889 Use of vibration with orthopedic cements", May 1, 2012
  • Constantz, Brent;Yetkinler; Duran (Cupertino, CA), Delaney; David (Scotts Valley, CA);. "United States Patent 8,167,889 Use of vibration with orthopedic cements", May 1, 2012
  • Constantz, Brent (Portola Valley, CA), Farsad; Kasra (San Jose, CA), Camire; Chris (San Jose, CA), Patterson; Joshua(Freedom, CA), Fernandez; Miguel (San Jose, CA), Yaccato; Karin (San Jose, CA), Thatcher; Ryan (Sunnyvale, CA), Stagnaro; John (Santa Clara, CA), Chen; Irvin (Santa Clara, CA), Omelon; Sidney (Willowdale, CA), Hodson; Keith (Palo Alto, CA), Clodic; Laurence (Sunnyvale, CA), Geramita; Katharine (Seattle, CA), Holland; Terence C. (Auburn Township, OH), Ries; Justin (Chapel Hill, NC),. "United States Patent 8,114,214 Methods and compositions using calcium carbonate", Feb 14, 2012
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Farsad; Kasra (San Jose, CA), Camire; Chris (San Jose, CA), Patterson; Joshua(Freedom, CA), Ginder-Vogel; Matthew (Los Gatos, CA), Yaccato; Karin (San Jose, CA), Stagnaro; John (Santa Clara, CA), Devenney; Martin (Mountain View, CA), Ries; Justin (Chapel Hill, NC). "United States Patent Patent 8,137,455. Methods and compositions using calcium carbonate.", Feb 1, 2012
  • Constantz, Brent . (Portola Valley, CA), Farsad; Kasra (San Jose, CA), Camire; Chris (San Jose, CA), Patterson; Joshua (Freedom, CA), Ginder-Vogel; Matthew (Los Gatos, CA), Yaccato; Karin (San Jose, CA), Stagnaro; John (Santa Clara, CA), Devenney; Martin (Mountain View, CA), Ries; Justin (Chapel Hill, NC). "United States Patent 8,062,418 Methods and compositions using calcium carbonate", Nov 22, 2011
  • Constantz, Brent (Portola Valley, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Los Gatos, CA), Holland; Terence C. (Auburn Township, OH). "United StatesCO2-sequestering formed building materials", Aug 30, 2011
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Khosla; Vinod (Menlo Park, CA), Setton; Aurelia (Palo Alto, CA), Danziger; Robert (Carmel, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Antelope, CA), O'Neil; James R. (Palo Alto, CA), Camire; Chris (San Jose, CA), Ryan; Cecily (San Jose, CA), Concha Soler; Manuel Jose (Providencia, CL). "United States Patent 7,966,250 CO.sub.2 commodity trading system and method", Jun 21, 2011
  • Constantz; Brent (Portola Valley, CA), O'Neil; James R. (Palo Alto, CA), Omelon; Sidney (Los Gatos, CA). "United States Patent 7,939,336 Compositions and methods using substances containing carbon", May 10, 2011
  • Constantz; Brent (Portola Valley, CA), O'Neil; James R. (Palo Alto, CA), Omelon; Sidney (Los Gatos, CA). "United States Patent 7,939,336 Compositions and methods using substances containing carbon", May 10, 2011
  • Constantz, Brent. "United States Patent 7,931,809 Desalination methods and systems that include carbonate compound precipitation", Apr 26, 2011
  • Constantz, Brent (Portola Valley, CA), Farsad; Kasra (San Jose, CA), Camire; Chris (San Jose, CA), Chen; Irvin (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 7,922,809 Methods and compositions using calcium carbonate", Apr 12, 2011
  • Constantz, Brent. "United States Patent 7,914,685 Rocks and aggregate, and methods of making and using the same", Mar 29, 2011
  • Constantz; Brent R (Portola Valley, CA), Ryan; Cecily (San Jose, CA), Clodic; Laurence (Sunnyvale, CA). "United States Patent 7,906,028 Hydraulic cements comprising carbonate compound compositions", Mar 15, 2011
  • Constantz, Brent. "United States Patent 7,906,152 Methods and devices for the in situ dissolution of renal calculi", Mar 15, 2011
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Los Gatos, CA), Tuet; Philip Brian (Milpitas, CA), Omelon; Sidney (Los Gatos, CA), Farsad; Kasra (San Jose, CA), Gilliam; Ryan J. (Campbell, CA), Decker; Valentin (San Francisco, CA), Kirk; Donald W. (Caledon, CA), Way; J. Douglas (Boulder, CO), Bard; Allen J. (Austin, TX), Danziger; Robert (Carmel, CA), Fernandez; Miguel (San Jose, CA), Ryan; Cecily (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 7,887,694 Methods of sequestering CO.sub.2", Feb 15, 2011
  • Constantz; Brent (Portola Valley, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Los Gatos, CA), Patterson; Joshua (Freedom, CA). "United States Patent 7,829,053 Non-cementitious compositions comprising CO.sub.2 sequestering additives", Nov 9, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Cupertino, CA). "United States Patent 7,820,191 Calcium phosphate cements prepared from silicate solutions", Oct 26, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA), Riebman; Jerome B. (Sunnyvale, CA), Houle; Philip R (Menlo Park, CA). "United States Patent 7,815,596 Localized fluid delivery having a porous applicator and methods for using the same", Oct 19, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Los Gatos, CA), Holland; Terence C. (Auburn Township, OH). "United States Patent 7,815,880 Reduced-carbon footprint concrete compositions", Oct 19, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA), Ross; John (Stanford, CA). "United States Patent 7,778,701 Proton generating catheters and methods for their use in enhancing fluid flow through a vascular site occupied by a calcified vascular occlusion", Aug 17, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA), Ross; John (Stanford, CA). "United States Patent 7,778,701 Proton generating catheters and methods for their use in enhancing fluid flow through a vascular site occupied by a calcified vascular occlusion", Aug 17, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Los Gatos, CA), Holland; Terence C. (Auburn Township, OH). "United States Patent 7,771,684 CO2-sequestering formed building materials", Aug 10, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent (Portola Valley, CA), Youngs; Andrew (Los Gatos, CA), O'Neil; James (Palo Alto, CA), Farsad; Kasra (San Jose, CA), Patterson; Joshua (Freedom, CA), Stagnaro; John (San Jose, CA), Thatcher; Ryan (Sunnyvale, CA), Camire; Chris (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 7,753,618 Rocks and aggregate, and methods of making and using the same", Jul 13, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent (Portola Valley, CA), Monteiro; Paulo J. M. (El Cerrito, CA), Omelon; Sidney (Los Gatos, CA), Fernandez; Miguel (San Jose, CA), Farsad; Kasra (San Jose, CA), Geramita; Katharine (Los Gatos, CA), Yaccato; Karin (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 7,754,169 Methods and systems for utilizing waste sources of metal oxides", Jul 13, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Clodic; Laurence (Sunnyvale, CA), Ryan; Cecily (San Jose, CA), Fernandez; Miguel (San Jose, CA), Farsad; Kasra (San Jose, CA), Omelon; Sidney (Los Gatos, CA), Tuet; Philip (Milpitas, CA), Monteiro; Paulo (El Cerrito, CA), Brown, Jr.; Gordon E. (Palo Alto, CA), Geramita; Katharine (Los Gatos, CA). "United States Patent 7,749,476 Production of carbonate-containing compositions from material comprising metal silicates", Jul 6, 2010
  • Brent Constantz. "United States Patent 7,744,761 Desalination methods and systems that include carbonate compound precipitation", Jun 29, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA), Ryan; Cecily (Los Gatos, CA), Clodic; Laurence (Los Gatos, CA). "United States Patent 7,735,274 Hydraulic cements comprising carbonate compound compositions", Jun 15, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Palo Alto, CA). "United States Patent 7,670,311 Methods and devices for reducing the mineral content of a region of non-intimal vascular tissue", Mar 2, 2010
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Cupertino, CA). "United States Patent 7,658,940 Calcium phosphate cements comprising autologous bone", Feb 9, 2010
  • Constantz, Brent, Delaney; David. "United States Patent 7,306,786 Calcium phosphate cements comprising a water-soluble contrast agent", Dec 11, 2007
  • Constantz, Brent, Yetkinler; Duran (Cupertino, CA), Delaney; David (Scotts Valley, CA). "United States Patent 7,261,717 Methods and devices for delivering orthopedic cements to a target bone site", Aug 28, 2007
  • Constantz, Brent. "United States Patent 7,261,717 Methods and devices for delivering orthopedic cements to a target bone site", Aug 28, 2007
  • Constantz, Brent (Cupertino, CA), Delaney; David (Scotts Valley, CA), Yetkinler; Duran (Cupertino, CA). "United States Patent 7,261,718 Use of vibration with polymeric bone cements", Aug 28, 2007
  • Constantz, Brent, Yetkinler; Duran (Cupertino, CA), Delaney; David (Scotts Valley, CA). "United States Patent 7,252,672 Use of vibration with orthopedic cements", Aug 7, 2007
  • Constantz, Brent. (Menlo Park, CA), Delaney; David (Scotts Valley, CA). "United States Patent 7,252,833 Calcium phosphate cements comprising an osteoclastogenic agent", Aug 7, 2007
  • Constantz, Brent. "United States Patent 7,252,841 Rapid setting calcium phosphate cements", Aug 7, 2007
  • Constantz, Brent. (Cupertino, CA), Delaney; David (Scotts Valley, CA), Yetkinler; Duran (Cupertino, CA). "United States Patent 7,175,858 Calcium phosphate cements and methods for using the same", Feb 13, 2007
  • Constantz; Brent (Menlo Park, CA) , Johansson; Peter (Campbell, CA), Delaney; David (Los Gatos, CA). "United States Patent 7,141,045 Methods for enhancing fluid flow through an obstructed vascular site, and systems and kits for use in practicing the same", Nov 28, 2006
  • Brent Constantz. "United States Patent 6,866,651 Methods and devices for the in situ dissolution of renal calculi", Mar 15, 2005
  • Constantz, Brent. "United States Patent 6,755,811 Methods and devices for reducing the mineral content of a region of non-intimal vascular tissue", Jun 9, 2004
  • Constantz,Brent, Delaney; Dave (Menlo Park, CA), Johansson; Peter (Menlo Park, CA. "United States Patent 6,730,063 Catheter devices and methods for their use in the treatment of calcified vascular occlusions", May 4, 2004
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Cupertino, CA), Ross; John (La Jolla, CA). "United States Patent 6,719,747 Proton generating catheters and methods for their use in enhancing fluid flow through a vascular site occupied by a calcified vascular occulation", Apr 13, 2004
  • Constantz, Brent. "United States Patent 6,719,993 Calcium phosphate cements prepared from silicate solutions", Apr 13, 2004
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA). "United States Patent 6,712,798 Multilumen catheters and methods for their use", Mar 30, 2004
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Palo Alto, CA). "United States Patent 6,622,732 Methods and devices for reducing the mineral content of vascular calcified lesions", Sep 23, 2003
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA), Johansson; Peter (Menlo Park, CA). "United States Patent 6,562,020 Kits for use in the treatment of vascular calcified lesions", May 13, 2003
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA), Ross; John (Stanford, CA). "United States Patent 6,540,733 Proton generating catheters and methods for their use in enhancing fluid flow through a vascular site occupied by a calcified vascular occlusion", Apr 1, 2003
  • Constantz; Brent (Menlo Park, CA) Johansson; Peter (Campbell, CA), Delaney; David (Los Gatos, CA),. "United States Patent 6,533,767 Methods for enhancing fluid flow through an obstructed vascular site, and systems and kits for use in practicing the same", Mar 18, 2003
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA), Johansson; Peter K. (Campbell, CA), McGurk; Erin (Palo Alto, CA). "United States Patent 6,527,979 Catheter systems and methods for their use in the treatment of calcified vascular occlusions", Mar 4, 2003
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA), Delaney; Dave (Menlo Park, CA), Hankermeyer; Christine (Menlo Park, CA). "United States Patent 6,488,671 Methods for enhancing fluid flow through an obstructed vascular site, and systems and kits for use in practicing the same", Dec 3, 2002
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA). "United States Patent 6,394,096 Method and apparatus for treatment of cardiovascular tissue mineralization", May 28, 2002
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA). "United States Patent 6,387,071 Methods and devices for reducing the mineral content of vascular calcified lesions", May 14, 2002
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Palo Alto, CA). "United States Patent 6,379,345 Methods and devices for reducing the mineral content of vascular calcified lesions", Apr 30, 2002
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA). "United States Patent 6,375,935 Calcium phosphate cements prepared from silicate solutions", Apr 23, 2002
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Palo Alto, CA), Fulmer; Mark (San Jose, CA), Ison; Ira (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 6,334,891 Paste compositions capable of setting into carbonated apatite", Jan 1, 2002
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA) Delaney; Dave (Menlo Park, CA), Johansson; Peter (Menlo Park, CA). "United States Patent 6,290,689 Catheter devices and methods for their use in the treatment of calcified vascular occlusions", Sep 18, 2001
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Menlo Park, CA). "United States Patent 6,156,350 Methods and kits for use in preventing restenosis", Dec 5, 2000
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Clawson; Ben (Soquel, CA). "United States Patent 6,149,655 Methods and devices for the preparation, storage and administration of calcium phosphate cements", Nov 21, 2000
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Clawson; Ben (Soquel, CA). "United States Patent 6,149,655 Methods and devices for the preparation, storage and administration of calcium phosphate cements", Nov 21, 2000
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Clawson; Ben (Soquel, CA). "United States Patent 6,083,229 Methods and devices for the preparation, storage and administration of calcium phosphate cements", Jul 4, 2000
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA)Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Fulmer; Mark T. (Santa Clara, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA),. "United States Patent 6,053,970 Storage stable calcium phosphate cements", Apr 25, 2000
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA). "United States Patent 6,005,162 Methods of repairing bone", Dec 21, 1999
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA), Fulmer; Mark T. (Santa Clara, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (Sunnyvale, CA). "United States Patent 6,002,065 Kits for preparing calcium phosphate minerals", Dec 14, 1999
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA) Poser; Robert (Scotts Valley, CA), Fulmer; Mark (San Jose, CA),. "United States Patent 5,968,253 Calcium phosphate cements comprising antimicrobial agents", Oct 19, 1999
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA) Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Fulmer; Mark T. (Santa Clara, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 5,964,932 Storage stable calcium phosphate cements", Oct 12, 1999
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA). "United States Patent 5,962,028 Carbonated hydroxyapatite compositions and uses", Oct 5, 1999
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA). "United States Patent 5,952,010 Paste compositions capable of setting into carbonated apatite", Sep 14, 1999
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA). "United States Patent 5,900,254 Carbonated hydroxyapatite compositions and uses", May 4, 1999
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA), Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, C)Fulmer; Mark (San Jose, CA)A). "United States Patent 5,885,540 Reactive tricalcium phosphate compositions", Mar 23, 1999
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA) Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Fulmer; Mark T. (San Jose, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA),. "United States Patent 5,846,312 Storage stable calcium phosphate cements", Dec 8, 1998
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA), Fulmer; Mark T. (Santa Clara, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (Sunnyvale, CA). "United States Patent 5,820,632 Prepared calcium phosphate composition and method", Oct 13, 1998
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Portola Valley, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 5,782,971 Calcium phosphate cements comprising amorophous calcium phosphate", Jul 21, 1998
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA), Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA) Fulmer; Mark (San Jose, CA),. "United States Patent 5,709,742 Reactive tricalcium phosphate compositions", Jan 20, 1998
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA), Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA) Fulmer; Mark (San Jose, CA),. "United States Patent 5,709,742 Reactive tricalcium phosphate compositions", Jan 20, 1998
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA) Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Fulmer; Mark T. (San Jose, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA),. "United States Patent 5,697,981 Method for repairing bone", Dec 16, 1997
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA) Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Fulmer; Mark T. (San Jose, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 5,683,496 Storage stable calcium phosphate cements", Nov 4, 1997
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA), Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA) Fulmer; Mark (San Jose, CA),. "United States Patent 5,683,667 Reactive tricalcium phosphate compositions", Nov 4, 1997
  • Constantz; Brent (Scotts Valley, CA) Fulmer; Mark (Santa Clara, CA), Ross; John (Stanford, CA),. "United States Patent 5,580,623 Storage stable partially neutralized acid compositions and uses", Dec 3, 1996
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA), Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA) Fulmer; Mark (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 5,571,493 Reactive tricalcium phosphate compositions and uses", Nov 5, 1996
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA), Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA). "United States Patent 5,569,442 Reactive tricalcium phosphate compositions and uses", Fulmer; Mark (San Jose, CA),, Oct 29, 1996
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Los Gatos, CA) Ison; Ira C. (Campbell, CA), Fulmer; Mark T. (San Jose, CA), Barr; Bryan M. (San Jose, CA),. "United States Patent 5,496,399 Storage stable calcium phosphate cements", Mar 5, 1996
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Scotts Valley, CA), Gunasekaran; Subramanian (Newark, CA). "United States Patent 5,455,231 Mineralized collagen", Oct 3, 1995
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Scotts Valley, CA), Osaka; Gary C. (Mountain View, CA). "United States Patent 5,279,831 Hydroxyapatite prosthesis coatings", Jan 18, 1994
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Scotts Valley, CA), Gunasekaran; Subramanian (Newark, CA). "United States Patent 5,231,169 Mineralized collagen", Jul 23, 1993
  • Constantz; Brent (Scotts Valley, CA). "United States Patent 5,188,670 Apparatus for hydroxyapatite coatings of substrates", Feb 23, 1993
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Scott Valley, CA), Barr; Bryan (Mountain View, CA), McVicker; Kevin (Fremont, CA). "United States Patent 5,178,845 Intimate mixture of calcium and phosphate sources as precursor to hydroxyapatite", Jan 12, 1993
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Scotts Valley, CA), Osaka; Gary C. (Mountain View, CA). "United States Patent 5,164,187 Hydroxyapatite prosthesis coatings", Nov 17, 1992
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Woodside, CA). "United States Patent 5,129,905 Methods for in situ prepared calcium phosphate minerals", Jul 14, 1992
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Scott Valley, CA), Barr; Bryan (Mountain View, CA), McVicker; Kevin (Fremont, CA). "United States Patent 5,053,212 Intimate mixture of calcium and phosphate sources as precursor to hydroxyapatite", Oct 1, 1991
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Woodside, CA). "United States Patent 5,047,031 In situ calcium phosphate minerals method", Sep 10, 1991
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Woodside, CA). "United States Patent 5,034,059 Composition comprising octacalcium phosphate crystals and polypeptide", Jul 23, 1991
  • Constantz; Brent R. (Woodside, CA). "United States Patent 4,880,610 In situ calcium phosphate minerals--method and composition", Nov 14, 1989

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Evolutionary paleobiology and paleoecology. Evolutionary and paleoecological aspects of biomineralization and well-skeletonized organisms. Phanerozic macroeveolutionary patterns in skeletonized phyla. Community structure evolution and the development of the marine biosphere. Marine ecology of the Monterey Submarine Canyon. Processes and regulation of biomineral nucleation and growth. Characterization of biominerals. Biomechanical aspects of mineralized skeletons. Formation of biological sediments. The Calera limestone and the history of the Pacific Ocean Basin. Rocks formed from calcium carbonate skeletons, especially reef-building calcium carbonate producers. The sedimentology of coral reefs and their ancient analogs. Stocastic changes in atmospheric and oceanographic parameters with respect to carbonate deposits. Cement formulation and performance, and carbon dioxide sequestration. Synthetic carbonate rock formulation.

2013-14 Courses


Journal Articles


  • Biological forcing controls the chemistry of reef-building coral skeleton GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Meibom, A., Mostefaoui, S., Cuif, J., Dauphin, Y., Houlbreque, F., Dunbar, R., Constantz, B. 2007; 34 (2)
  • Vital effects in coral skeletal composition display strict three-dimensional control GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Meibom, A., Yurimoto, H., Cuif, J., Domart-Coulon, I., Houlbreque, F., Constantz, B., Dauphin, Y., Tambutte, E., Tambutte, S., Allemand, D., Wooden, J., Dunbar, R. 2006; 33 (11)
  • Distribution of magnesium in coral skeleton GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Meibom, A., Cuif, J. P., Hillion, F. O., Constantz, B. R., Juillet-Leclerc, A., Dauphin, Y., Watanabe, T., Dunbar, R. B. 2004; 31 (23)
  • Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy study of microbial calcification GEOBIOLOGY Benzerara, K., Yoon, T. H., Tyliszczak, T., Constantz, B., Spormann, A. M., Brown, G. E. 2004; 2 (4): 249-259
  • Hemodynamic characterization of calcified stenotic human aortic valves before and after treatment with a novel aortic valve repair system JOURNAL OF HEART VALVE DISEASE Ohashi, K. L., Culkar, J., Riebman, J. B., Estes, M., Constantz, B. R., Yoganathan, A. P. 2004; 13 (4): 582-592

    Abstract

    The repair of calcified stenotic aortic valves may be a viable alternative to current valve treatments for early-stage aortic valve disease. To date, evaluation of valve repair feasibility on the benchtop has not been performed. A pulsatile flow system for testing intact human aortic valves was developed to perform quantitative hemodynamic and mechanical assessment of a new aortic valve repair approach.Intact calcified human aortic valves were divided into two groups with effective orifice area (EOA) > or =2.0 cm2 (group I, n = 6) or <2.0 cm2 (group II, n = 6). All valves were chemically debrided in stages for up to 60 min. A subset of valves in each group was also surgically debrided. At each stage, pre- and post-treatment hemodynamic assessment and video motion analysis were performed in the pulsatile flow system at multiple levels of physiological loading. Mineral removed was quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy.Progressive removal of mineral with both mechanical and chemical debridement was associated with improved hemodynamic function of calcified human aortic valves. Improvements in EOA of up to 40% and decreases in transvalvular pressure gradient (deltaP) of up to 46% were seen. No clinically relevant increases in regurgitation were observed.Repair of stenotic calcified aortic valves using surgical and chemical debridement showed that removal of calcific deposits was directly associated with improvements in valve hemodynamic function. The level of improvement was proportional to the degree of aortic valve stenosis, to the use of surgical debridement, and to the duration of chemical debridement treatment. The study results suggested that aortic valve repair warrants further investigation as an alternative to current valve treatments in patients with early to mid-stage calcific aortic valve disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222883200009

    View details for PubMedID 15311864

  • Monthly Strontium/Calcium oscillations in symbiotic coral aragonite: Biological effects limiting the precision of the paleotemperature proxy GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Meibom, A., Stage, M., Wooden, J., Constantz, B. R., Dunbar, R. B., Owen, A., Grumet, N., Bacon, C. R., CHAMBERLAIN, C. P. 2003; 30 (7)
  • Mechanical evaluation of a carbonated apatite cement in the fixation of unstable intertrochanteric fractures ACTA ORTHOPAEDICA SCANDINAVICA Yetkinler, D. N., Goodman, S. B., Reindel, E. S., Carter, D., Poser, R. D., Constantz, B. R. 2002; 73 (2): 157-164

    Abstract

    We created three-part unstable intertrochanteric fractures in 6 pairs of aged, osteopenic, human, cadaveric femora. Fractures were reduced and fixed with a Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) (Synthes, Paoli, PA). Two test groups were evaluated: 1. Fixation with DHS, and 2. Fixation with a DHS and calcium phosphate bone cement (Norian SRS (Skeletal Repair System)) augmentation of the fracture line and posteromedial calcar region of the proximal femur. Each femur was loaded to 1,650 N (2.5 body weight) for 10,000 cycles to simulate postoperative load transmission across the fracture construct during normal gait. The load was further increased successively by one body weight for another 10,000 cycles until failure. We evaluated fixation by measuring the amount of sliding of the lag screw of the DHS (shortening) and stiffness of the overall fracture construct (stability). SRS cement-augmented specimens had less shortening (1 mm versus 17 mm) and twice the initial construct stiffness compared to control specimens.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175929300007

    View details for PubMedID 12079012

  • Measurements of the solubilities and dissolution rates of several hydroxyapatites BIOMATERIALS Fulmer, M. T., Ison, I. C., Hankermayer, C. R., Constantz, B. R., Ross, J. 2002; 23 (3): 751-755

    Abstract

    Calcium phosphate based materials, such as apatites, are increasingly being developed and used in implants for orthopedic and dental applications. Previous investigation of various calcium phosphate ceramics has demonstrated great variability in the solubility characteristics in solution between materials with similar stoichiometric composition. Therefore, in this study, the solubility and rate of dissolution of three apatite sources, BoneSource, Norian cranial repair system (CRS), and a sintered hydroxyapatite (Calcitite) are evaluated in a thermodynamically closed system. The measured solubility under physiological conditions (tris buffer solution, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C) of BoneSource, Norian CRS and Calcitite is 7.5, 7.4 and 1.4 ppm, respectively. Initial dissolution rates at 10 min of BoneSource, CRS, and Calcitite were 0.0465, 0.1589, and essentially 0 mg/min respectively. Solubility product constants at 37 degrees C were calculated to be 1.49 x 10(-35) for CRS, 1.19 x 10(-35) for BoneSource, and 2.92 x 10(-42) for Calcitite. The increased solubility of the BoneSource and Norian CRS materials over that of Calcitite is related to their poor crystallinity compared to sintered hydroxyapatite.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172640000015

    View details for PubMedID 11771695

  • Dissolution rates of carbonated hydroxyapatite in hydrochloric acid BIOMATERIALS Hankermeyer, C. R., Ohashi, K. L., Delaney, D. C., Ross, J., Constantz, B. R. 2002; 23 (3): 743-750

    Abstract

    Osteoclasts have been shown to dissolve efficiently and effectively the mineral phase of bone by locally controlling the environment surrounding the cell. Although this mineral phase has been identified and well characterized as carbonated hydroxyapatite, there is little understanding of the factors that affect the dissolution properties of this mineral phase. Mimicking the mechanism by which osteoclasts dissolve the mineral phase of bone may provide insight into methods for the decalcification of atherosclerotic mineral deposits in the vascular system. Accordingly, a detailed characterization of the effects of various chemical and mechanical parameters on the dissolution of carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral was investigated in this study. Increases in the mineral dissolution rate (2-10 times) were associated with increases in dissolving solution [H+], osmolality, temperature, and flow rate. Mineral dissolution rate increases (5-8 times) were associated with greater surface area of the mineral and mechanical agitation of the dissolving solution.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172640000014

    View details for PubMedID 11771694

  • Histological, chemical, and crystallographic analysis of four calcium phosphate cements in different rabbit osseous sites JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH Constantz, B. R., Barr, B. M., Ison, I. C., Fulmer, M. T., Baker, J., McKinney, L. A., Goodman, S. B., Gunasekaren, S., Delaney, D. C., Ross, J., Poser, R. D. 1998; 43 (4): 451-461

    Abstract

    Four calcium phosphate cement formulations were implanted in the rabbit distal femoral metaphysis and middiaphysis. Chemical, crystallographic, and histological analyses were made at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implantation. When implanted into the metaphysis, part of the brushite cement was converted into carbonated apatite by 2 weeks. Some of the brushite cement was removed by mononuclear macrophages prior to its conversion into apatite. Osteoclastlike cell mediated remodeling was predominant at 8 weeks after brushite had converted to apatite. The same histological results were seen for brushite plus calcite aggregate cement, except with calcite aggregates still present at 8 weeks. However, when implanted in the diaphysis, brushite and brushite plus calcite aggregate did not convert to another calcium phosphate phase by 4 weeks. Carbonated apatite cement implanted in the metaphysis did not transform to another calcium phosphate phase. There was no evidence of adverse foreign body reaction. Osteoclastlike cell mediated remodeling was predominant at 8 weeks. The apatite plus calcite aggregate cement implanted in the metaphysis that was not remodeled remained as poorly crystalline apatite. Calcite aggregates were still present at 8 weeks. There was no evidence of foreign body reaction. Osteoclastlike cell remodeling was predominant at 8 weeks. Response to brushite cements prior to conversion to apatite was macrophage dominated, and response to apatite cements was osteoclast dominated. Mineralogy, chemical composition, and osseous implantation site of these calcium phosphates significantly affected their in vivo host response.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077259500013

    View details for PubMedID 9855204

  • Mechanical properties of carbonated apatite bone mineral substitute: strength, fracture and fatigue behaviour JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN MEDICINE Morgan, E. F., Yetkinler, D. N., Constantz, B. R., Dauskardt, R. H. 1997; 8 (9): 559-570

    Abstract

    The synthesis and properties of carbonated apatite materials have received considerable attention due to their importance for medical and dental applications. Such apatites closely resemble the mineral phase of bone, exhibiting superior osteoconductive and osteogenic properties. When formed at physiological temperature they present significant potential for bone repair and fracture fixation. The present study investigates the mechanical properties of a carbonated apatite cancellous bone cement. Flexural strength was measured in three and four point bending, and the fracture toughness and fatigue crack-growth behaviour was measured using chevron and disc-shaped compact tension specimens. The average flexural strength was found to be approximately 0.468 MPa, and the fracture toughness was approximately 0.14 MPa radical m. Fatigue crack-growth rates exhibited a power law dependence on the applied stress intensity range with a crack growth exponent m=17. The fatigue threshold value was found to be approximately 0.085 MPa radical m. The mechanical properties exhibited by the carbonated apatite were found to be similar to those of other brittle cellular foams. Toughness values and fatigue crack-growth thresholds were compared to other brittle foams, bone and ceramic materials. Implications for structural integrity and longer term reliability are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XV77100006

    View details for PubMedID 15348708

  • SKELETAL REPAIR BY IN-SITU FORMATION OF THE MINERAL PHASE OF BONE SCIENCE Constantz, B. R., Ison, I. C., Fulmer, M. T., Poser, R. D., Smith, S. T., VANWAGONER, M., Ross, J., Goldstein, S. A., Jupiter, J. B., Rosenthal, D. I. 1995; 267 (5205): 1796-1799

    Abstract

    A process has been developed for the in situ formation of the mineral phase of bone. Inorganic calcium and phosphate sources are combined to form a paste that is surgically implanted by injection. Under physiological conditions, the material hardens in minutes concurrent with the formation of dahllite. After 12 hours, dahllite formation was nearly complete, and an ultimate compressive strength of 55 megapascals was achieved. The composition and crystal morphology of the dahllite formed are similar to those of bone. Animal studies provide evidence that the material is remodeled in vivo. A novel approach to skeletal repair is being tested in human trials for various applications; in one of the trials the new biomaterial is being percutaneously placed into acute fractures. After hardening, it serves as internal fixation to maintain proper alignment while healing occurs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QN70200031

    View details for PubMedID 7892603

  • SOLID-STATE P-31 NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE DIFFERENTIATION OF BONE-MINERAL AND SYNTHETIC APATITE USED TO FILL BONE DEFECTS INVESTIGATIVE RADIOLOGY Dawson, K. L., FARNAN, I. E., Constantz, B. R., Young, S. W. 1991; 26 (11): 946-950

    Abstract

    Bioabsorption of synthetic apatite compounds used to promote bone healing and remodeling has been difficult to evaluate. In this study, solid-state phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to characterize and quantitate bone mineral and a synthetic apatite in order to establish a model for bioabsorption studies. Pulverized solid samples of cortical rabbit bone and a synthetic fluoridated apatite were examined in vitro at variable degrees of hydration. A 9.4 T superconducting spectrometer was used to obtain 31P magic angle spinning NMR spectra and T1 relaxation times. Quantitation was attempted in mixed samples using T1 recovery data. Bone mineral and synthetic apatite could be distinguished by chemical shift and T1 relaxation time in variable hydration states, and were readily differentiated in mixtures by their T1 relaxation time. NMR estimates of relative proportions of components in mixed samples were accurate within 2% of evaluations based on weight. Solid-state 31P NMR therefore provides a suitable method for monitoring the bioabsorption of synthetic apatites.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GP56100005

    View details for PubMedID 1743918

  • INDUCTION OF FRACTURE-HEALING USING FIBROUS CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE COMPOSITE SPHERULITES INVESTIGATIVE RADIOLOGY Young, S. W., Andrews, W. A., Muller, H., Constantz, B. 1991; 26 (5): 470-473

    Abstract

    The healing of large fractural defects is a difficult clinical problem, especially if it occurs in elderly or otherwise debilitated patients. The objective of this study is to determine if a new formulation of fibrous calcium phosphate crystals would induce fracture healing in vivo. Fibrous calcium phosphate (FCP) can be grown with unique size, shape, and surface area characteristics as a resorbable or nonresorbable, osteoconductive or osteoinductive material. In comparison with other conventional calcium phosphate particulates, FCP particles possess approximately x 100 to x 1000 more surface area. One-and-one-half centimeter sections were removed from the ulnas of 12 rabbits. Three groups had fibrous calcium phosphate spherulites (4-8 microns, 150-300 microns, 400-600 microns) mixed with collagen and a growth factor-bonding agent injected into the ulnar defect. One site per group was not treated. X-rays were obtained during the study and the percentage of the ulna defect filled in by callous was measured. The percentage was recorded as the amount of fracture healing for each site. Histologic examination of the ulnas was performed following sacrifice at 12 weeks. Fracture sites treated with fibrous calcium phosphate showed significantly greater healing (0.79 +/- 0.3) than control animals (0.36 +/- 0.1) (P less than .05, unpaired t-test) radiographically. Histologic examination showed that the spherulites remain in situ and become embedded within the new growth of fibrous tissue, collagen and new bone. Radiographically and histologically, FCP preparations appear to accelerate fracture healing by inducing new bone formation, into which they often become embedded.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FH91300014

    View details for PubMedID 2055746

Presentations


  • Stanford Entrepreneurship Corner presentation (http://ecorner.stanford.edu/authorMaterialInfo.html?mid=2617)

    http://ecorner.stanford.edu/authorMaterialInfo.html?mid=2617

    Time Period

    2011 - 2011

    Presented To

    Stanford University

    Location

    Palo Alto, CA

  • Testimony at House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, (http://www.c-span.org/video/?30687-1/new-technologies-whats-around-corner

    Brent Constantz, Ph.D., CEO of Calera Corporation - Testimony at House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming,

    Presented To

    House Select Committee

    Location

    Washington, DC