School of Medicine


Showing 1-50 of 122 Results

  • Kari Nadeau, MD, PhD

    Kari Nadeau, MD, PhD

    Professor - University Medical Line, Medicine

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Kari Nadeau’s laboratory and clinical research is focused on understanding the role of genes and the environment, including climate change, on the rising incidence of allergies and asthma. By understanding the genetic, epigenetic, cellular, and humoral factors that mediate immune tolerance or allergy to foods, aeroallegens, and air pollutants (e.g., diesel emissions and wildfires), her research is laying the groundwork for potential future therapies to prevent and cure allergies and asthma.

  • Helen Nadel

    Helen Nadel

    Clinical Professor, Radiology - Pediatric Radiology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsClinical research and scholarly interests include topics in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine to include AI evaluation for scintigraphic quantitation, PET MR evaluation of optimized techniques for use in pediatric patient management

  • Ronjon Nag

    Ronjon Nag

    Casual - Other Teaching Staff

    BioRonjon Nag first became a Stanford Distinguished Careers Institute Fellow in 2016, is currently a Visiting Fellow at the Stanford Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI) and teaches popular classes at the intersection of AI healthcare through Stanford Continuing Studies. He is a researcher on the future of intelligence and its impact on society as part of the Stanford Boundaries of Humanity Project (boundariesofhumanity.stanford.edu). He has deployed artificial intelligence systems for mobile devices over three decades, working on neural networks at Cambridge, where he received a PhD in engineering; at Stanford, where he was a Harkness Fellow in the Psychology Department; at MIT, where he received an MS, and at the University of Birmingham, UK where he received a BSc. He received the IET Mountbatten Medal at the Royal Institution for his contributions to the modern mobile phone industry. Companies he has co-founded or advised have been sold to Motorola, BlackBerry, where he held Vice-President positions, and Apple. He is currently an advisor, founder and on the boards of numerous high tech companies including Ecrio, Embee Mobile and GTCardio and he is President of the R42 Institute. Via his company Bounce Imaging where he is chairman, he was winner of the $1m Verizon Powerful Answers Award. He has numerous interests in the intersection of AI and Healthcare including advising companies such as HealX, and Oxford Drug Design on computational drug discovery.

    He has many firsts including:

    Firsts:

    • First laptop with speech recognition built-in (with Apricot, 1984)
    • First selling cursive handwriting recognition (with Lexicus, 1991)
    • First speech recognition phones (with Lexicus/Motorola, 1996)
    • First large-vocabulary Chinese speech recognition (with Lexicus/Motorola, 1996)
    • First Chinese predictive text system on a phone (Lexicus/Motorola, 1997)
    • First predictive text systems in 40 languages on Motorola phones, (Lexicus/Motorola, 1997)
    • First touch screen mobile phone with handwriting recognition (Lexicus/Motorola, 1999)
    • First combined mobile search engine and directory (with Cellmania, 2000)
    • First private label downloadable operator billable apps store (Cellmania, 2000)
    • First BlackBerry Operator Billing apps store (Cellmania,2010)
    • First Neural Network Artificial Intelligence System in the Cloud (Ersatz Labs, 2014)
    • First Throwable 360 Ball Camera (Bounce Imaging, 2015)
    • First Android powered smart light switch (Brightswitch 2017)
    • First blood pressure watch with temperature and pulse oximetry add-ons for Back to Work Covid Kit (GTCardio 2019)

  • Claude M. Nagamine, DVM, PhD

    Claude M. Nagamine, DVM, PhD

    Associate Professor of Comparative Medicine

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMouse models to study murine and human infectious diseases. These colloborative studies include dengue virus, zika virus, adeno-associated virus, coxsackie virus, enterovirus 71, enterohepatic helicobacters, campylobacters, and anaplasma.

  • Seema Nagpal, MD

    Seema Nagpal, MD

    Clinical Associate Professor, Neurology & Neurological Sciences
    Clinical Associate Professor (By courtesy), Neurosurgery

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI'm a board certified neuro-oncologist who treats both primary brain tumors as well as metastatic disease to the brain and nervous system. My research concentrates on clinical trials for patients with late-stage central nervous system cancer. I have a special interest in leptomeningeal disease, a devastating complication of lung and breast cancers. I collaborate with Stanford scientists to detect this disease earlier, and with our breast and lung oncologists to improve outcomes for patients.

  • Hetanshi Naik

    Hetanshi Naik

    Associate Professor (Teaching) of Genetics

    BioHetanshi Naik is an Associate Professor in the Department of Genetics and the Research Director of the MS Program in Human Genetics and Genetic Counseling. She is a board certified genetic counselor and clinical researcher with clinical expertise in the inborn errors of heme biosynthesis, the Porphyrias, lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), and pharmacogenomics, and research expertise in clinical trials, patient reported outcomes (PROs), qualitative methods, and study design.

    Her research interests include developing and evaluating PROs for genetic disorders and genomics, in particular assessing PROs as outcomes for clinical trials, pharmacogenomics implementation, and genetic counseling education and processes, as well as utilizing digital health technologies to improve clinical care, genetic counseling, patient reporting, trial efficacy, and outcomes.

  • Hiromitsu (Hiro) Nakauchi

    Hiromitsu (Hiro) Nakauchi

    Professor of Genetics (Stem Cell)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsTranslation of discoveries in basic research into practical medical applications

  • Yusuke Nakauchi

    Yusuke Nakauchi

    Instructor, Stanford Cancer Institute

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsFrom 2005 to 2010, my work as a clinical hematology fellow allowed me to experience first-hand how scientific advances that started in a laboratory can transform the lives of patients. While many of my patients were cured of their disease with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, underscoring the importance of anti-tumor immunotherapy in eradicating leukemia, I witnessed face-to-face their suffering from the long-term consequence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This experience was ultimately what drove me to engage in research to discover novel therapies. For this reason, I embarked on a PhD program in 2010 to design antibody therapy to (i) target GVHD and (ii) target hematological malignancies. Under the mentorship of Professor Hiromitsu Nakauchi at the University of Tokyo, an international leader in hematopoiesis, I developed allele-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) monoclonal antibodies for severe GVHD caused by HLA-mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Nakauchi et al., Exp Hematol, 2015). This study was the first to find that anti-HLA antibodies can be used therapeutically against GVHD. That success gave me the motivation and confidence to further my research beyond targeting GVHD, to targeting leukemic stem cells through my current postdoctoral fellowship in the laboratory of Professor Ravindra Majeti, Department of Hematology at Stanford University.

    Many people suffer from leukemia each year, but we still don’t know how to completely cure it. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have tremendously improved our understanding of the underlying mutations that drive hematologic malignancies, although, the reality is that the majority of the mutations are not easily “druggable” and the discovery of these mutations has not yet made a significant impact in patient outcomes. I view this perhaps the most crucial challenges facing a translational cancer researcher like myself. My current research is a major step toward my long term goal to make personalized medicine a reality for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other hematologic malignancies. Although my research is focused on targeting Ten-Eleven Translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-2 (TET2) mutations, I anticipate it will lead to a better understanding of the cell context requirement for TET2 mutations in AML and help identify the critical cells to target to both prevent the development of de novo leukemia and halt relapse. It may also prove of value to understanding of the biology of a range of other cancers.

  • Shweta S. Namjoshi MD MPH CNSC

    Shweta S. Namjoshi MD MPH CNSC

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Pediatrics - Gastroenterology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests1. The mission of the International Intestinal Failure Registry (IIFR) is to provide the international intestinal rehabilitation and transplant community with accurate data on the outcomes and course of intestinal failure to support research, quality improvement, and policy development. https://tts.org/irta-registries/irta-ifr

    2. NCT05241444 is the first-in-human, Phase 1 clinical trial will test the feasibility of the manufacturing and the safety of the administration of CD4^LVFOXP3 in up to 36 evaluable human participants with IPEX and evaluate the impact of the CD4^LVFOXP3 infusion on the disease.

    3. Stanford's local Intestinal Failure Registry (SIFR) ensures ongoing assessment and improvement of intestinal failure outcomes and care provided at Stanford in collaboratiton with the Division of Pediatric Surgery. This registry focuses on clinical outcomes and social developmental outcomes for patients with short bowel syndrome, pediatric CODEs, and pseudoobstruction.

    4. Multiple, multicenter projects with NASPGHAN (https://naspghan.org/) Nutrition Committee's and the NASPGHAN Intestinal Rehabilitation Special Interest Group ensure assessment of blenderized tube feeding, iron in intestinal failure, and other multicenter research.

    5. Through the Office of Child Health Equity, I collaborate with the subgroup focusing on equity analytics & community based participatory research as assistant director of health policy to advocate for communities and a world where healthcare and life outcomes are equitable and just. My interests include civic health & disability justice.

  • Sandy Napel

    Sandy Napel

    Professor of Radiology (Integrative Biomedical Imaging Informatics) and, by courtesy, of Medicine (Medical Informatics) and of Electrical Engineering

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research seeks to advance the clinical and basic sciences in radiology, while improving our understanding of biology and the manifestations of disease, by pioneering methods in the information sciences that integrate imaging, clinical and molecular data. A current focus is on content-based radiological image retrieval and integration of imaging features with clinical and molecular data for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapy planning decision support.

  • Saisindhu Narala, MD, MAS

    Saisindhu Narala, MD, MAS

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Dermatology
    Clinical Assistant Professor, Pathology

    BioDr. Narala completed her dermatology residency at the University of Texas at Houston and MD Anderson Cancer Center. She then completed a fellowship in dermatopathology at Stanford. Her clinical interests include general medical dermatology, dermatology in skin of color, and pigmentary disorders. She also has an interest in medical education.

  • Ramsudha Narala

    Ramsudha Narala

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Ophthalmology

    BioDr. Ramsudha Narala is a board certified ophthalmologist who specializes in vitreoretinal surgery and ocular oncology. Dr. Narala grew up in Fresno, California and following high school, she attended the 8 year combined undergraduate-medical school program at Saint Louis University in Saint Louis, Missouri.

    After medical school, she completed her ophthalmology residency at Kresge Eye Institute in Detroit, MI, where she received the best resident teacher award and highest resident ophthalmic knowledge assessment program exam score award. She then joined the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California for a 2 year vitreoretinal surgery fellowship where she was elected chief vitreoretinal surgery fellow. Following completion of vitreoretinal surgery fellowship, she pursued an advanced training fellowship in ocular oncology at Byers Eye Institute at Stanford University.

    Dr. Narala has authored many peer-reviewed scientific publications and textbook chapters on vitreoretinal diseases and ocular oncology. She is also dedicated to education and teaching medical students, residents, and fellows.

    Dr. Narala's clinical practice is mainly based at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center.

  • Diana Naranjo

    Diana Naranjo

    Clinical Professor, Pediatrics - Endocrinology and Diabetes

    BioAs a licensed clinical psychologist working in diabetes and Cystic Fibrosis clinics for the past 10 years, Dr. Naranjo focuses on the psychosocial needs of patients and families with diabetes and CF. Through clinical research, she aims to understand barriers and facilitators to diabetes self-management, how families and individuals with diabetes respond to health technology, and how to best provide services that engage youth and their families. She is a member of the Stanford Diabetes Research Center.

  • Sanjiv Narayan

    Sanjiv Narayan

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Narayan directs the Computational Arrhythmia Research Laboratory, whose goal is to define the mechanisms underlying complex human heart rhythm disorders, to develop bioengineering-focused solutions to improve therapy that will be tested in clinical trials. The laboratory has been funded continuously since 2001 by the National Institutes of Health, AHA and ACC, and interlinks a disease-focused group of clinicians, computational physicists, bioengineers and trialists.

  • Anupama Narla

    Anupama Narla

    Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (Hematology/Oncology)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research interests are to study the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies and to translate these insights into the work-up and management of pediatric bone marrow failure syndromes.

  • Aussama Nassar, MD, MSc,FACS, FRCSC

    Aussama Nassar, MD, MSc,FACS, FRCSC

    Clinical Associate Professor, Surgery - General Surgery

    BioDr. Nassar is board certified in General Surgery and Critical Care in both the USA and Canada. Dr. Nassar has five years of clinical experience in tertiary care referral academic health centers in Canada prior to joining Stanford University in surgery, trauma, and critical care. His clinical interests are emergency and elective surgery in addition to trauma and critical care medicine. He is also a skilled endoscopist performing both upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. His research interests are varied and include developing assessment tools for trainees and burnout among physicians and other healthcare professionals. In addition, he is especially interested in training trainees in simulation-based medical education with a focus on perioperative inter-professional collaboration and patient safety. He is a true clinician-educator and is a certified simulation educator as well as an ATLS course director. Dr. Nassar has also earned an MSc degree in Health Science Education from McMaster University, Canada.

  • Kalpana Isabel Nathan

    Kalpana Isabel Nathan

    Adjunct Clinical Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

    BioKalpana Nathan, MD is Chief Medical Director, Mental Health and Addiction Services at El Camino Hospital and an adjunct clinical professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Stanford University School of Medicine. After completion of residency and research fellowship at Stanford, she served 4 years at the San Francisco General Hospital/UCSF, gaining experience in the areas of substance use, HIV and public health. She worked at Palo Alto VA for more than a couple of decades. She has worked and taught in various settings, both inpatient and outpatient, as well as private and public sectors. She is board certified in General, Addiction and Forensic Psychiatry. Her interests include wellness and self-care for physicians, philosophy and human rights education. She is a certified meditation teacher, has completed sprint and Olympic triathlons, and enjoys traveling around the world. She received the outstanding community clerkship preceptor award in 2010 and the Arthur L. Bloomfield Award in Recognition of Excellence in the Teaching of Clinical Medicine in 2015 at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

    Recent Publications:
    1. Tatum, J, Nathan, K: The USA. Lancet Psychiatry 2021, 8(5):365-366

    2. Nathan N & Nathan KI: Suicide, Stigma, and Utilizing Social Media Platforms to Gauge Public Perceptions. Front. Psychiatry 2020 January 13

    3. Tran BX, Nathan KI, Phan HT, Hall BJ, Vu GT et al: A Global Bibliometric Analysis of Services for Children Affected by HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Implications for Impact Mitigation Programs (GAPRESEARCH). AIDS Rev. 2019 Oct 3;21(3).

    4.Lee A, Nathan KI: Understanding Psychosis in a Veteran With a History of Combat and Multiple Sclerosis. Fed Pract. 2019 Jun;36(Suppl 4):S32-S35.

    5. Tran BX, Ha GH, Vu GT, Nguyen LH, Latkin CA, Nathan K, McIntyre RS, Ho CS, Tam WW, Ho RC: Indices of Change, Expectations, and Popularity of Biological Treatments for Major Depressive Disorder between 1988 and 2017: A Scientometric Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jun 26;16(13)

  • Yasodha Natkunam, M.D., Ph.D

    Yasodha Natkunam, M.D., Ph.D

    Ronald F. Dorfman, MBBch, FRCPath Professor of Hematopathology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research interests focus on the identification and characterization of markers of diagnostic and prognostic importance in hematolymphoid neoplasia.

  • Vaidehi Natu

    Vaidehi Natu

    Physical Sci Res Scientist

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI am a developmental neuroscientist. My research program aims to study how the human brain matures from infancy to adulthood, as it acquires new life skills and behaviors: What are the origins of neural and cellular mechanisms of brain development during infancy? How does the trajectory of cellular mechanisms unfold during development, as school-aged children acquire complex skills such as reading or face recognition? What are some of the parallels in brain development across primate species? What changes occur in the brain in developmental disorders such as autism, multiple sclerosis, and dyslexia.

    I use a multi-modal approach by combining different techniques to study the brain. I use neuroimaging methods including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), quantitative MRI (qMRI), and diffusion MRI (dMRI) as well as behavioral observations, histology, comparative methods across humans and macaques, and intracranial electroencephalography. This combination of complementary techniques provides a unified understanding of how the brain’s anatomy, function, and behavior co-develop to achieve complex human skills.

  • Ashwin K Nayak

    Ashwin K Nayak

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMachine learning, clinical informatics and digital health

  • Jayakar V. Nayak, MD, PhD

    Jayakar V. Nayak, MD, PhD

    Associate Professor of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery (OHNS) and, by courtesy, of Neurosurgery

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsUpper Airway Stem Cell Biology, Fate, and Repair/Regeneration of the Airway Epithelium to treat Upper and Lower Airway Disorders

  • Rosamond Naylor

    Rosamond Naylor

    William Wrigley Professor, Professor at the Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability, Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute, at the Freeman Spogli Institute and Professor, by courtesy, of Economics and of Earth System Science
    On Leave from 01/01/2023 To 12/31/2023

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsResearch Activities:
    My research focuses on the environmental and equity dimensions of intensive food production systems, and the food security dimensions of low-input systems. I have been involved in a number of field-level research projects around the world and have published widely on issues related to climate impacts on agriculture, distributed irrigation systems for diversified cropping, nutrient use and loss in agriculture, biotechnology, aquaculture and livestock production, biofuels development, food price volatility, and food policy analysis.

    Teaching Activities:
    I teach courses on the world food economy, food and security, aquaculture science and policy, human society and environmental change, and food-water-health linkages. These courses are offered to graduate and undergraduate students through the departments of Earth System Science, Economics, History, and International Relations.

    Professional Activities:
    William Wrigley Professor of Earth Science (2015 - Present); Professor in Earth System Science (2009-present); Director, Stanford Center on Food Security and the Environment (2005-2018); Associate Professor of Economics by courtesy (2000-present); William Wrigley Senior Fellow, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and the Woods Institute for the Environment (2007-2015); Trustee, The Nature Conservancy CA program (2012-present); Member of the Scientific Advisory Board for the Beijer Institute for Ecological Economics in Stockholm (2011-present), for the Aspen Global Change Institute (2011-present), and for the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program (2012-present); Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow in Environmental Science and Public Policy (1999); Pew Fellow in Conservation and the Environment (1994). Associate Editor for the Journal on Food Security (2012-present). Editorial board member for Aquaculture-Environment Interactions (2009-present) and Global Food Security (2012-present).

  • Rahim Nazerali, MD, MHS

    Rahim Nazerali, MD, MHS

    Clinical Associate Professor, Surgery - Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery

    BioDr. Nazerali specializes in complex reconstruction, microsurgery, and aesthetic and cosmetic surgery. He excels at breast reconstruction using free autologous tissue and performs advanced techniques such as the minimally invasive superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap, as well as the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap procedure. In addition to autologous reconstruction, Dr. Nazerali utilizes the latest techniques in implant-based breast reconstruction. His techniques and results have made him a leading instructor and lecturer at national and international institutions, societies and conferences.

    In addition to breast reconstruction, Dr. Nazerali performs both aesthetic as well as whole body reconstructive procedures. He has a busy aesthetic practice focusing on breast augmentation, face and body rejuvenation as well as body contouring. In his reconstructive practice, he specializes in abdominal wall reconstruction as well as post-trauma tissue transfers. For every patient in his care, his goal is to optimize restoration of both form and function.

    To help advance the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery, Dr. Nazerali conducts research into outcomes of breast reconstruction, augmentation, and reduction. Dr. Nazerali has published widely: well over 100 journal articles and conference proceedings. Topics include breast reconstruction after radiation; advances in surgical technique; and, the use of virtual, augmented, and mixed reality systems in plastic surgery practice and education. His work has appeared in Annals of Plastic Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Surgery, the European Journal of Plastic Surgery, the Aesthetic Surgery Journal, and elsewhere.

    Dr. Nazerali focuses not only on improving his patient’s lives but also our ability to deliver care as an institution. He is on the Medical Executive Council at Stanford Healthcare, serves as a committee member in the American Society of Plastic Surgeons as well as the California Society of Plastic Surgeons. In his spare time, he volunteers his time to provide reconstructive surgical services to adults and children in need worldwide.


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  • Joel Neal, MD, PhD

    Joel Neal, MD, PhD

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Oncology)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI am a thoracic oncologist who cares for patients with non-small cell lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, and other thoracic malignancies. I design and conduct clinical trials of novel therapies in collaboration with other researchers and pharmaceutical companies. These generally focus on two areas, 1) targeted therapies against particular mutations in cancers (for example EGFR, ALK, ROS1, HER2, KRAS, MET, and others) and 2) the emerging field of immunotherapy in cancer, using anti PD-1/PD-L1 therapies in combination with other agents, and also developing cellular therapies. I also collaborate with other researchers on campus to apply emerging technologies to cancer therapy, for example, circulating tumor DNA detection. Additionally, in my role as the Cancer Center IT Medical Director, I coordinate projects relating to our use of the electronic health record to improve provider efficiency and facilitate patient care.

  • Lindsey Negrete

    Lindsey Negrete

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Radiology

    BioStanford University, BS 2010
    Brown University, MD 2015
    Scripps Transitional Year, Intern
    University of California San Diego, Residency

  • Robert Negrin

    Robert Negrin

    Professor of Medicine (Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsOur labaratory focuses on the study of immune recognition by T and NK cells with special emphasis on graft vs host disease and graft vs tumor reactions. We utilize both murine and human systems in an effort to enhance graft vs tumor reactions while controlling graft vs host disease. We have developed bioluminescence models in collaboration with the Contag laboratory to study the trafficking of immune effector cells with a special emphasis on NK, T and regulatory T cells.

  • Liesl Nel-Themaat, PhD, HCLD, MBA

    Liesl Nel-Themaat, PhD, HCLD, MBA

    Clinical Associate Professor, Obstetrics & Gynecology - Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility

    BioDr. Nel-Themaat has been in the field of assisted reproduction for more than 20 years, with the past 11 years in clinical IVF. She possesses a unique combination of a strong academic background, broad technical experience and extensive leadership, and management training. Through a multi-dimensional approach, she has helped to improve patient care and outcomes in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART).
    Dr. Nel-Themaat was most recently employed as the Regional IVF Lab Director for Shady Grove Fertility in Colorado and served as the IVF Lab Director at University of Colorado Advanced Reproductive Medicine. She received her PhD from LSU, Baton Rouge and recently completed an Executive Masters of Business Administration program at the University of Denver.

    Her goal is to advance the field “by building strong, high performing lab teams, by carefully evaluating and adapting appropriately to industry trends, by training and educating the current and next generations, and by participating in collaborative research that enhances our understanding of reproduction.”
    In her free time, Dr. Nel-Themaat loves to spend time with her husband and two children, preferably in nature. With them, she enjoys skiing, hiking, biking, swimming and anything nature has to offer. She likes to cook out and introduce our American friends to South African cuisine, especially a “braai,” which is their version of a BBQ. During school holidays, she likes to visit family in South Africa, go on safari and enjoy the beautiful beaches. Dr. Nel-Themaat enjoys jamming on the piano, guitar, drums and microphone with her family. She also considers herself very competitive and loves playing and watching sports or playing board games.