Bio


Bruce Macintosh's research focusses on the study of extrasolar planets, in particular the study of such planets through direct imaging, and on using adaptive optics to shape the wavefronts of light for a variety of applications. Direct imaging of extrasolar planets involves blocking, suppressing, and subtracting the light of the bright parent star so that a planet hundreds of thousands of times fainter can be seen and studied in detail. Prof. Macintosh is the Principal Investigator of the Gemini Planet Imager http://planetimager.org/ ,an advanced adaptive optics planet-finder for the Gemini South telescope.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Elected Fellow, SPIE (2011 - 2011)
  • Physicist, Applied Physics Section, Physics Division Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2001 - 2014)
  • Associate Director for High-Contrast AO, National Science Foundation Center for Adaptive Optics (1998 - 2001)
  • Physicist, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1997 - 2001)
  • Postdoctoral Researcher, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1994 - 1997)
  • Research Assistant, Department of Astronomy University of California, Los Angeles (1991 - 1994)
  • Summer Researcher, Rockwell International Science Center Thousand Oaks, California (1991 - 1991)
  • Teaching Assistant, Department of Astronomy University of California, Los Angeles (1988 - 1991)
  • Summer Research Assistant, Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada (1989 - 1989)
  • Summer Research Assistant, Department of Mathematics Royal Military College, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (1988 - 1988)
  • Summer Research Assistant, Department of Physics and Astronomy Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (1985 - 1987)
  • Professor of Physics, Kalvi Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University (2013 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Physics Directorate Award for Outstanding Postdoc Mentoring, LLNL (2013)
  • Newcomb Cleveland Prize for best paper published in Science, American Association for Advancement in Science (2010)
  • Science and Technology award for outstanding research, LLNL (2010)
  • Science and Technology Directorate award for excellence in publication, LLNL (2009)
  • Most significant paper in adaptive optics, OSA (2004)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Principal Investigator, Gemini Planet Imager
  • Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, Sagan Exoplanet Summer Workshop (2014 - 2014)
  • Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope Science Definition Team Member, NASA (2013 - Present)
  • Convener, Thirty Meter Telescope Exoplanet International Science Development Team (2013 - Present)
  • Member, Program Committee, “Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications” 2012 SPIE Astronomical Instrumentation (2012 - 2012)
  • Conceptual Design Reviewer, LSST Camera Systems (2011 - 2011)
  • Member, Program Committee, “Techniques for detection of exoplanets” 2011 SPIE Optics and Photonics (2011 - 2011)
  • Member, NASA Exoplanet Analysis Group Executive Committee (2010 - 2012)
  • Panel Member, National Research Council ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey: Program Prioritization Panel on Ground Based Optical/IR (2009 - 2010)
  • IRIS Science Team Member, Thirty meter Telescope (2008 - Present)
  • Program Committee Member, “Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications” SPIE Astronomical Instrumentation (2008 - 2008)
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee member, Exoplanet Task Force (ExoPTF) (2007 - 2008)
  • Member, NASA APRA Review Panel (X-ray) (2007 - 2008)
  • Member, European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope SPHERE planet finder (2007 - 2008)
  • Scientific Organizing Committee Member, Spirit of Lyot conference (2007 - 2007)
  • Member, Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope Science Working Group (2007 - 2008)
  • Member, Keck Next Generation AO System Science Team (2006 - Present)
  • Member, Gemini Adaptive Optics Working Group (2006 - 2009)
  • Narrow-field IR AO System Conceptual Design Reviewer, Thirty Meter Telescope (2006 - 2006)
  • Laboratory Directed Research and Development selection committee Member, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2005 - 2007)
  • Chair, Next-Generation Wavefront Controller CDR, Keck Observatory (2005 - 2005)
  • Member Terrestrial Planet Finder instrument conceptual design selection, NASA (2005 - 2005)
  • AO Development Plan Steering Committee Member, National Science Foundation (2004 - 2004)
  • Terrestrial Planet Finder Technology Advisory Committee Member, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2004 - 2006)
  • Member, Keck Observatory Adaptive Optics Working Group (2002 - Present)
  • Member, University of California Observatories Infrared Working Group (1995 - 2002)
  • Member NSF Major Research Instrumentation Astronomy Review Panel, National Science Foundation (2003 - 2003)
  • Member, NASA Gossamer Spacecraft Program Review Panel (2001 - 2001)
  • Member LLNL IGPP Director Search Committee, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2001 - 2001)
  • Referee, Ap.J
  • Referee, Ap. J. Letters
  • Referee, A&A
  • Referee, PASP
  • Referee, Optics Express
  • Referee, JOSA A
  • Referee, Applied Optics
  • Member, American Astronomical Society
  • Member, AAS Division of Planetary Sciences

Professional Education


  • B.Sc., Trinity College, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Physics (1988)
  • Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, Astronomy (1994)

2017-18 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • FOMALHAUT b: INDEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PUBLIC ARCHIVE DATA ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Galicher, R., Marois, C., Zuckerman, B., Macintosh, B. 2013; 769 (1)
  • Computer vision applications for coronagraphic optical alignment and image processing APPLIED OPTICS Savransky, D., Thomas, S. J., Poyneer, L. A., Macintosh, B. A. 2013; 52 (14): 3394-3403
  • Detection of Carbon Monoxide and Water Absorption Lines in an Exoplanet Atmosphere SCIENCE Konopacky, Q. M., Barman, T. S., Macintosh, B. A., Marois, C. 2013; 339 (6126): 1398-1401
  • The International Deep Planet Survey I. The frequency of wide-orbit massive planets around A-stars ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS Vigan, A., Patience, J., Marois, C., Bonavita, M., De Rosa, R. J., Macintosh, B., Song, I., Doyon, R., Zuckerman, B., LaFreniere, D., Barman, T. 2012; 544
  • The Volume-limited A-Star (VAST) survey - II. Orbital motion monitoring of A-type star multiples MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY De Rosa, R. J., Patience, J., VIGAN, A., Wilson, P. A., Schneider, A., MCCONNELL, N. J., Wiktorowicz, S. J., Marois, C., Song, I., Macintosh, B., Graham, J. R., Bessell, M. S., Doyon, R., Lai, O. 2012; 422 (4): 2765-2785
  • ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS IN VERY LOW MASS BINARIES ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Konopacky, Q. M., Ghez, A. M., Fabrycky, D. C., Macintosh, B. A., White, R. J., Barman, T. S., Rice, E. L., Hallinan, G., Duchene, G. 2012; 750 (1)
  • A SUBSTELLAR COMPANION TO THE DUSTY PLEIADES STAR HD 23514 ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Rodriguez, D. R., Marois, C., Zuckerman, B., Macintosh, B., Melis, C. 2012; 748 (1)
  • The Gemini Planet Imager: integration and status Macintosh, B. 2012: 84461U
  • M-BAND IMAGING OF THE HR 8799 PLANETARY SYSTEM USING AN INNOVATIVE LOCI-BASED BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION TECHNIQUE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS Galicher, R., Marois, C., Macintosh, B., Barman, T., Konopacky, Q. 2011; 739 (2)
  • TESTING THE APODIZED PUPIL LYOT CORONAGRAPH ON THE LABORATORY FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS EXTREME ADAPTIVE OPTICS TESTBED ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL Thomas, S. J., Soummer, R., Dillon, D., Macintosh, B., Gavel, D., Sivaramakrishnan, A. 2011; 142 (4)
  • THE YOUNG PLANET-MASS OBJECT 2M1207b: A COOL, CLOUDY, AND METHANE-POOR ATMOSPHERE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS Barman, T. S., Macintosh, B., Konopacky, Q. M., Marois, C. 2011; 735 (2)
  • The Volume-limited A-Star (VAST) survey - I. Companions and the unexpected X-ray detection of B6-A7 stars MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY De Rosa, R. J., Bulger, J., Patience, J., Leland, B., Macintosh, B., Schneider, A., Song, I., Marois, C., Graham, J. R., Bessell, M., Doyon, R. 2011; 415 (1): 854-866
  • Experimental Design for the Gemini Planet Imager PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC McBride, J., Graham, J. R., Macintosh, B., Beckwith, S. V., Marois, C., Poyneer, L. A., Wiktorowicz, S. J. 2011; 123 (904): 692-708
  • CLOUDS AND CHEMISTRY IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET HR8799b ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Barman, T. S., Macintosh, B., Konopacky, Q. M., Marois, C. 2011; 733 (1)
  • APODIZED PUPIL LYOT CORONAGRAPHS FOR ARBITRARY APERTURES. III. QUASI-ACHROMATIC SOLUTIONS ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Soummer, R., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Pueyo, L., Macintosh, B., Oppenheimer, B. R. 2011; 729 (2)
  • Integration and test of the Gemini Planet Imager Conference on Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications IV Thomas, S. J., Poyneer, L., de Rosa, R., Macintosh, B., Dillon, D., Wallace, J. K., Palmer, D., Gavel, D., Bauman, B., Saddlemyer, L., Goodsell, S. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2011

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.893728

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296103600003

  • The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager Conference on MEMS Adaptive Optics V Poyneer, L. A., Bauman, B., Cornelissen, S., Isaacs, J., Jones, S., Macintosh, B. A., Palmer, D. W. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2011

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.876496

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298045000003

  • Images of a fourth planet orbiting HR 8799 NATURE Marois, C., Zuckerman, B., Konopacky, Q. M., Macintosh, B., Barman, T. 2010; 468 (7327): 1080-1083

    Abstract

    High-contrast near-infrared imaging of the nearby star HR 8799 has shown three giant planets. Such images were possible because of the wide orbits (>25 astronomical units, where 1 au is the Earth-Sun distance) and youth (<100 Myr) of the imaged planets, which are still hot and bright as they radiate away gravitational energy acquired during their formation. An important area of contention in the exoplanet community is whether outer planets (>10 au) more massive than Jupiter form by way of one-step gravitational instabilities or, rather, through a two-step process involving accretion of a core followed by accumulation of a massive outer envelope composed primarily of hydrogen and helium. Here we report the presence of a fourth planet, interior to and of about the same mass as the other three. The system, with this additional planet, represents a challenge for current planet formation models as none of them can explain the in situ formation of all four planets. With its four young giant planets and known cold/warm debris belts, the HR 8799 planetary system is a unique laboratory in which to study the formation and evolution of giant planets at wide (>10 au) separations.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature09684

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285553800053

    View details for PubMedID 21150902

  • MASSES AND ORBITAL CONSTRAINTS FOR THE OGLE-2006-BLG-109Lb,c JUPITER/SATURN ANALOG PLANETARY SYSTEM ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Bennett, D. P., Rhie, S. H., Nikolaev, S., Gaudi, B. S., UDALSKI, A., Gould, A., Christie, G. W., Maoz, D., Dong, S., McCormick, J., Szymanski, M. K., Tristram, P. J., Macintosh, B., Cook, K. H., Kubiak, M., Pietrzynski, G., Soszynski, I., Szewczyk, O., Ulaczyk, K., Wyrzykowski, L., DePoy, D. L., Han, C., Kaspi, S., Lee, C., Mallia, F., Natusch, T., Park, B., Pogge, R. W., Polishook, D., Abe, F., Bond, I. A., Botzler, C. S., Fukui, A., Hearnshaw, J. B., Itow, Y., Kamiya, K., Korpela, A. V., Kilmartin, P. M., Lin, W., Ling, J., Masuda, K., Matsubara, Y., Motomura, M., Muraki, Y., Nakamura, S., Okumura, T., Ohnishi, K., Perrott, Y. C., Rattenbury, N. J., Sako, T., Saito, T., Sato, S., Skuljan, L., Sullivan, D. J., Sumi, T., Sweatman, W. L., Yock, P. C., Albrow, M., Allan, A., Beaulieu, J., Bramich, D. M., Burgdorf, M. J., Coutures, C., Dominik, M., Dieters, S., Fouque, P., Greenhill, J., Horne, K., Snodgrass, C., Steele, I., Tsapras, Y., Chaboyer, B., Crocker, A., Frank, S. 2010; 713 (2): 837-855
  • A COLD NEPTUNE-MASS PLANET OGLE-2007-BLG-368Lb: COLD NEPTUNES ARE COMMON ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Sumi, T., Bennett, D. P., Bond, I. A., Udalski, A., Batista, V., Dominik, M., Fouque, P., Kubas, D., Gould, A., Macintosh, B., Cook, K., Dong, S., Skuljan, L., Cassan, A., Abe, F., Botzler, C. S., Fukui, A., Furusawa, K., Hearnshaw, J. B., Itow, Y., Kamiya, K., Kilmartin, P. M., Korpela, A., Lin, W., Ling, C. H., Masuda, K., Matsubara, Y., Miyake, N., Muraki, Y., Nagaya, M., Nagayama, T., Ohnishi, K., Okumura, T., Perrott, Y. C., Rattenbury, N., Saito, T., Sako, T., Sullivan, D. J., Sweatman, W. L., Tristram, P. J., Yock, P. C., Beaulieu, J. P., Cole, A., Coutures, C., Duran, M. F., Greenhill, J., Jablonski, F., Marboeuf, U., Martioli, E., Pedretti, E., Pejcha, O., Rojo, P., Albrow, M. D., Brillant, S., Bode, M., Bramich, D. M., Burgdorf, M. J., Caldwell, J. A., Calitz, H., Corrales, E., Dieters, S., Prester, D. D., Donatowicz, J., Hill, K., Hoffman, M., Horne, K., Jorgensen, U. G., Kains, N., Kane, S., Marquette, J. B., Martin, R., Meintjes, P., Menzies, J., Pollard, K. R., Sahu, K. C., Snodgrass, C., Steele, I., Street, R., Tsapras, Y., Wambsganss, J., Williams, A., ZUB, M., Szymanski, M. K., Kubiak, M., Pietrzynski, G., Soszynski, I., Szewczyk, O., Wyrzykowski, L., Ulaczyk, K., Allen, W., Christie, G. W., DePoy, D. L., Gaudi, B. S., Han, C., Janczak, J., Lee, C., McCormick, J., Mallia, F., Monard, B., Natusch, T., Park, B., Pogge, R. W., Santallo, R. 2010; 710 (2): 1641-1653
  • Imaging Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager Conference on Adaptive Optics Systems II Perrin, M. D., Graham, J. R., Larkin, J. E., Wiktorowicz, S., Maire, J., Thibault, S., Fitzgerald, M. P., Doyon, R., Macintosh, B. A., Gavel, D. T., Oppenheimer, B. R., Palmer, D. W., Saddlemyer, L., Wallace, J. K. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.857741

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285506400192

  • Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: Closed- and open-loop control Conference on Adaptive Optics Systems II Morzinski, K., Johnson, L. C., Gavel, D. T., Grigsby, B., Dillon, D., Reinig, M., Macintosh, B. A. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.857444

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285506400056

  • Laboratory test of application of Electric Field Conjugation image-sharpening to ground-based adaptive optics Conference on Adaptive Optics Systems II Thomas, S. J., Give'on, A. A., Dillon, D., Macintosh, B., Gavel, D., Soummer, R. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.857511

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285506400187

  • The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: spectrograph design Conference on Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy III Moore, A. M., Bauman, B. J., Barton, E. J., Crampton, D., Delacroix, A., Larkin, J. E., Simard, L., Suzuki, R., Wright, S. A. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.857404

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285832400085

  • Gemini Planet Imager coronagraph testbed results Conference on Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy III Sivaramakrishnan, A., Soummer, R., Oppenheimer, B. R., Carr, G. L., Mey, J. L., Brenner, D., Mandeville, C. W., Zimmerman, N., Macintosh, B. A., Graham, J. R., Saddlemyer, L., Bauman, B., Carlotti, A., Pueyo, L., Tuthill, P. G., Dorrer, C., Roberts, R., Greenbaum, A. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.858623

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285832400159

  • Exoplanet Imaging with LOCI Processing: Photometry and Astrometry with the New SOSIE Pipeline. Conference on Adaptive Optics Systems II Marois, C., Macintosh, B., Veran, J. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.857225

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285506400052

  • Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini Planet Imager Conference on Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy III Maire, J., Perrin, M. D., Doyon, R., Artigau, E., Dunn, J., Gavel, D. T., Graham, J. R., Lafreniere, D., Larkin, J. E., Lavigne, J., Macintosh, B. A., Marois, C., Oppenheimer, B., Palmer, D. W., Poyneer, L. A., Thibault, S., Veran, J. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.858028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285832400104

  • Advanced static speckle calibration for exo-planet imaging Conference on Adaptive Optics Systems II Pueyo, L., Wallace, K., Troy, M., Burruss, R., Macintosh, B., Soummer, R. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.858270

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285506400077

  • Amplitude variations on a MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics coronagraph testbed APPLIED OPTICS Thomas, S., Evans, J. W., Gavel, D., Dillon, D., Macintosh, B. 2009; 48 (21): 4077-4089

    Abstract

    High-contrast imaging techniques such as coronagraphy are expected to play an important role in the imaging of extrasolar planets. Instruments like the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) or the Spectro-Polar-Imetric High-Contrast Exoplanet Research (SPHERE) require high-dynamic range, achieved using coronagraphs to block light coming from the parent star. An extremely good adaptive optics (AO) system is required to reduce dynamic atmospheric wavefront errors to 50-100 nm rms. Systematic wavefront errors must also be controlled at the nanometer-equivalent level to remove persistent speckle artifacts. While precision AO systems can control wavefront phase errors at this level, systematic amplitude or intensity errors can also produce speckle artifacts and are uncontrolled by traditional AO phase conjugation. On the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics (LAO) extreme AO testbed, we observed a discrepancy between the coronagraphic image profile and the profile predicted by simple simulations using the measured optical phase, which could potentially be explained by amplitude variations. Measurements showed up to 7% rms intensity changes across the microelectrical mechanical (MEM) plane of the system. We identified potential sources of amplitude variation and compared them to a Fresnel model of the system. One potential concern was the surface structure of the MEM system's (MEMS) deformable mirror, but analysis shows that it induces at most 2% rms variation. The bulk of the observed intensity variation is due to nonuniform illumination of the system by the input single-mode fiber and phase errors mixing into amplitude at the nonpupil-plane due to the Talbot effect, coupled with residual astigmatism in the pupil imager.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/AO.48.004077

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268949800004

    View details for PubMedID 19623221

  • The effect of a small heat source on PSF stability for high-contrast imaging OPTICS EXPRESS Evans, J. W., Macintosh, B., Norton, A., Dillon, D., Gavel, D. 2009; 17 (14): 11652-11664

    Abstract

    High-contrast adaptive optics systems, such as those needed to image extrasolar planets, are known to require excellent wavefront control and diffraction suppression. The Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at UC Santa Cruz is investigating limits to high-contrast imaging in support of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). In this paper we examine the effect of heat sources in the testbed on point-spread-function (PSF) stability. Introducing a heat source primarily introduces image motion. The GPI error budget requires image motion to be less than 0.1 lambda /D. Systematic motion of the PSF core is typically 0.01 lambda /D rms and with a 20 watt heat source introduced near the pupil plane image motion is increased to 0.02 lambda /D rms. Therefore, even a heat source as large as 20 watts near the pupil plane causes errors below the GPI requirement, but the combination of the heat source and additional air turbulence on the system introduced by changes to the enclosure or the fan of other components can produce significantly more motion. Heat also can affect the speckle pattern in the high-contrast region, but in the final instrument other sources of error should be more significant.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267761200044

    View details for PubMedID 19582080

  • SHAPED PUPIL DESIGN FOR THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Cady, E., Macintosh, B., Kasdin, N. J., Soummer, R. 2009; 698 (1): 938-943
  • Stroke saturation on a MEMS deformable mirror for woofer-tweeter adaptive optics OPTICS EXPRESS Morzinski, K., Macintosh, B., Gavel, D., Dillon, D. 2009; 17 (7): 5829-5844

    Abstract

    High-contrast imaging of extrasolar planet candidates around a main-sequence star has recently been realized from the ground using current adaptive optics (AO) systems. Advancing such observations will be a task for the Gemini Planet Imager, an upcoming "extreme" AO instrument. High-order "tweeter" and low-order "woofer" deformable mirrors (DMs) will supply a >90%-Strehl correction, a specialized coronagraph will suppress the stellar flux, and any planets can then be imaged in the "dark hole" region. Residual wavefront error scatters light into the DM-controlled dark hole, making planets difficult to image above the noise. It is crucial in this regard that the high-density tweeter, a micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) DM, have sufficient stroke to deform to the shapes required by atmospheric turbulence. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the rate and circumstance of saturation, i.e. stroke insufficiency. A 1024-actuator 1.5-microm-stroke MEMS device was empirically tested with software Kolmogorov-turbulence screens of r(0) =10-15 cm. The MEMS when solitary suffered saturation approximately 4% of the time. Simulating a woofer DM with approximately 5-10 actuators across a 5-m primary mitigated MEMS saturation occurrence to a fraction of a percent. While no adjacent actuators were saturated at opposing positions, mid-to-high-spatial-frequency stroke did saturate more frequently than expected, implying that correlations through the influence functions are important. Analytical models underpredict the stroke requirements, so empirical studies are important.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264747500102

    View details for PubMedID 19333352

  • Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines' 4096-actuator deformable mirror Conference on MEMS Adaptive Optics III Norton, A., Evans, J. W., Gavel, D., Dillon, D., Palmer, D., Macintosh, B., Morzinski, K., Cornelissen, S. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2009

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.811681

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285333600014

  • The detection and characterization of extrasolar planets. Physics Today Morzinski, K., Macintosh, B., Peale, S. 2009; 62: 46
  • Direct Imaging of Multiple Planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799 SCIENCE Marois, C., Macintosh, B., Barman, T., Zuckerman, B., Song, I., Patience, J., Lafreniere, D., Doyon, R. 2008; 322 (5906): 1348-1352

    Abstract

    Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step toward imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging because of the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our solar system.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1166585

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261170600030

    View details for PubMedID 19008415

  • Gas and dust associated with the strange, isolated star BP piscium ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Zuckerman, B., Melis, C., Song, I., Meier, D. S., Perrin, M. D., Macintosh, B., Marois, C., Weinberger, A. J., Rhee, J. H., Graham, J. R., Kastner, J. H., Palmer, P., Forveille, T., Becklin, E. E., Wilner, D. J., Barman, T. S., Marcy, G. W., Bessell, M. S. 2008; 683 (2): 1085-1103
  • Keck observations of the 2002-2003 jovian ring plane crossing ICARUS de Pater, I., Showalter, M. R., Macintosh, B. 2008; 195 (1): 348-360
  • Laboratory demonstration of accurate and efficient nanometer-level wavefront control for extreme adaptive optics APPLIED OPTICS Poyneer, L. A., Dillon, D., Thomas, S., Macintosh, B. A. 2008; 47 (9): 1317-1326

    Abstract

    A 32 x 32 microelectricalmechanical systems mirror is controlled in a closed-loop adaptive optics test bed with a spatially filtered wavefront sensor (WFS), Fourier transform wavefront reconstruction, and calibration of references with a high-precision interferometer. When correcting the inherent aberration of the mirror, 0.7 nm rms phase error in the controllable band is achieved. When correcting an etched phase plate with atmospheric statistics, a dark hole 10(3) deeper than the uncontrollable phase is produced in the phase power spectral density. Compensation of the mirror's influence function is done with a Fourier filter, which results in improved loop convergence. Use of the spatial filter is shown to reduce the gain variability of the WFS in a quadcell configuration.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255048000021

    View details for PubMedID 18709080

  • Discovery of a Jupiter/Saturn analog with gravitational microlensing SCIENCE Gaudi, B. S., Bennett, D. P., UDALSKI, A., Gould, A., Christie, G. W., Maoz, D., Dong, S., McCormick, J., Szymanski, M. K., Tristram, P. J., Nikolaev, S., Paczynski, B., Kubiak, M., Pietrzynski, G., Soszynski, I., Szewczyk, O., Ulaczyk, K., Wyrzykowski, L., DePoy, D. L., Han, C., Kaspi, S., Lee, C., Mallia, F., Natusch, T., Pogge, R. W., Park, B., Abe, F., Bond, I. A., Botzler, C. S., Fukui, A., Hearnshaw, J. B., Itow, Y., Kamiya, K., Korpela, A. V., Kilmartin, P. M., Lin, W., Masuda, K., Matsubara, Y., Motomura, M., Muraki, Y., Nakamura, S., Okumura, T., Ohnishi, K., Rattenbury, N. J., Sako, T., Saito, T., Sato, S., Skuljan, L., Sullivan, D. J., Sumi, T., Sweatman, W. L., Yock, P. C., Albrow, M. D., Allan, A., Beaulieu, J., Burgdorf, M. J., Cook, K. H., Coutures, C., Dominik, M., Dieters, S., Fouque, P., Greenhill, J., Horne, K., Steele, I., Tsapras, Y., Chaboyer, B., Crocker, A., Frank, S., Macintosh, B. 2008; 319 (5865): 927-930

    Abstract

    Searches for extrasolar planets have uncovered an astonishing diversity of planetary systems, yet the frequency of solar system analogs remains unknown. The gravitational microlensing planet search method is potentially sensitive to multiple-planet systems containing analogs of all the solar system planets except Mercury. We report the detection of a multiple-planet system with microlensing. We identify two planets with masses of approximately 0.71 and approximately 0.27 times the mass of Jupiter and orbital separations of approximately 2.3 and approximately 4.6 astronomical units orbiting a primary star of mass approximately 0.50 solar mass at a distance of approximately 1.5 kiloparsecs. This system resembles a scaled version of our solar system in that the mass ratio, separation ratio, and equilibrium temperatures of the planets are similar to those of Jupiter and Saturn. These planets could not have been detected with other techniques; their discovery from only six confirmed microlensing planet detections suggests that solar system analogs may be common.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1151947

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253165700038

    View details for PubMedID 18276883

  • Confidence level and sensitivity limits in high-contrast imaging ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Marois, C., Lafreniere, D., Macintosh, B., Doyon, R. 2008; 673 (1): 647-656
  • Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed Conference on Adaptive Optics Systems Evans, J. W., Thomas, S., Gavel, D., Dillon, D., Macintosh, B. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2008

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.789452

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261491700181

  • Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed (II) Conference on MEMS Adaptive Optics II Thomas, S., Evans, J. W., Phillion, D., Gavel, D., Dillon, D., Macintosh, B. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2008

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.771766

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255942700016

  • An End-to-End Polychromatic Fresnel Propagation Model of GPI Conference on Adaptive Optics Systems Marois, C., Macintosh, B., Soummer, R., Poyneer, L., Bauman, B. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2008

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.789899

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261491700047

  • High-contrast imaging testbed Conference on MEMS Adaptive Optics II Baker, K. L., Silva, D. A., Poyneer, L. A., Macintosh, B. A., Bauman, B. J., Palmer, D., Remington, T. P., Delgadillo-Lariz, M. A. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2008

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.771755

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255942700015

  • Empirical measurement of MEMS stroke saturation, with implications for woofer-tweeter architectures Conference on Adaptive Optics Systems Morzinski, K. M., Macintosh, B. A., Dillon, D., Gavel, D., Palmer, D., Norton, A. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2008

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.788091

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261491700100

  • The Gemini Planet Imager: from science to design to construction Conference on Adaptive Optics Systems Macintosh, B. A., Graham, J. R., Palmer, D. W., Doyon, R., Dunn, J., Gavel, D. T., Larkin, J., Oppenheimer, B., Saddlemyer, L., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Wallace, J. K., Bauman, B., Erickson, D. A., Marois, C., Poyneer, L. A., Soummer, R. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2008

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.788083

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261491700031

  • The Gemini Deep Planet Survey ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Lafreniere, D., Doyon, R., Marois, C., Nadeau, D., Oppenheimer, B. R., Roche, P. F., Rigaut, F., Graham, J. R., Jayawardhana, R., Johnstone, D., Kalas, P. G., Macintosh, B., Racine, R. 2007; 670 (2): 1367-1390
  • Spatially resolved observations of the forbidden SO a(1) Delta -> X-3 Sigma(-) rovibronic transition on Io during an eclipse and a volcanic eruption at Ra Patera ICARUS de Pater, I., Laver, C., Marchis, F., Roe, H. G., Macintosh, B. A. 2007; 191 (1): 172-182
  • Fourier transform wavefront control with adaptive prediction of the atmosphere JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION Poyneer, L. A., Macintosh, B. A., Veran, J. 2007; 24 (9): 2645-2660

    Abstract

    Predictive Fourier control is a temporal power spectral density-based adaptive method for adaptive optics that predicts the atmosphere under the assumption of frozen flow. The predictive controller is based on Kalman filtering and a Fourier decomposition of atmospheric turbulence using the Fourier transform reconstructor. It provides a stable way to compensate for arbitrary numbers of atmospheric layers. For each Fourier mode, efficient and accurate algorithms estimate the necessary atmospheric parameters from closed-loop telemetry and determine the predictive filter, adjusting as conditions change. This prediction improves atmospheric rejection, leading to significant improvements in system performance. For a 48x48 actuator system operating at 2 kHz, five-layer prediction for all modes is achievable in under 2x10(9) floating-point operations/s.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249813000017

    View details for PubMedID 17767234

  • The wide brown dwarf binary Oph 1622-2405 and discovery of a wide, low-mass binary in Ophiuchus (Oph 1623-2402): A new class of young evaporating wide binaries? ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Close, L. M., Zuckerman, B., Song, I., Barman, T., Marois, C., Rice, E. L., Siegler, N., Macintosh, B., Becklin, E. E., Campbell, R., Lyke, J. E., Conrad, A., Le Mignant, D. 2007; 660 (2): 1492-1506
  • Measuring the mass of a pre-main-sequence binary star through the orbit of TWA 5A ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL Konopacky, Q. M., Ghez, A. M., Duchene, G., McCabe, C., MacIntosh, B. A. 2007; 133 (5): 2008-2014
  • Discovery of a 66 mas ultracool binary with laser guide star adaptive optics ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL Siegler, N., Close, L. M., Burgasser, A. J., Cruz, K. L., Marois, C., Macintosh, B., Barman, T. 2007; 133 (5): 2320-2326
  • Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager COMPTES RENDUS PHYSIQUE Macintosh, B., Graham, J., Palmer, D., Doyon, R., Gavel, D., Larkin, J., Oppenheimer, B., Saddlemyer, L., Wallace, J. K., Bauman, B., Erikson, D., Poyneer, L., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Soummer, R., Veran, J. 2007; 8 (3-4): 365-373
  • Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed Conference on Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III Evans, J. W., Thomas, S., Dillon, D., Gavel, D., Phillion, D., Macintosh, B. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2007

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.735741

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252361500030

  • GQ Lup B Optical and Near-Infrared Photometry The Astrophysical Journal Letters Marois, C., Macintosh, B., Barman, T. 2007; 654: 151
  • Ground-based near infrared spectroscopy of Jupiter's ring and moons ICARUS Wong, M. H., de Pater, I., Showalter, M. R., Roe, H. G., Macintosh, B., Verbanac, G. 2006; 185 (2): 403-415
  • HST NICMOS imaging of the planetary-mass companion to the young brown dwarf 2MASSW J1207334-393254 ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Song, I., Schneider, G., Zuckerman, B., Farihi, J., Becklin, E. E., Bessell, M. S., Lowrance, P., MacIntosh, B. A. 2006; 652 (1): 724-729
  • Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Marois, C., Lafreniere, D., Macintosh, B., Doyon, R. 2006; 647 (1): 612-619
  • Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening OPTICS EXPRESS Evans, J. W., Macintosh, B., Poyneer, L., Morzinski, K., Severson, S., Dillon, D., Gavel, D., Reza, L. 2006; 14 (12): 5558-5570

    Abstract

    Ground based high-contrast imaging (e.g. extrasolar giant planet detection) has demanding wavefront control requirements two orders of magnitude more precise than standard adaptive optics systems. We demonstrate that these requirements can be achieved with a 1024-Micro-Electrical-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) deformable mirror having an actuator spacing of 340 microm and a stroke of approximately 1 microm, over an active aperture 27 actuators across. We have flattened the mirror to a residual wavefront error of 0.54 nm rms within the range of controllable spatial frequencies. Individual contributors to final wavefront quality, such as voltage response and uniformity, have been identified and characterized.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238437800071

    View details for PubMedID 19516724

  • Angular differential imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Marois, C., Lafreniere, D., Doyon, R., Macintosh, B., Nadeau, D. 2006; 641 (1): 556-564
  • Effect of wavefront error on 10(-7) contrast measurements OPTICS LETTERS Evans, J. W., Sommargren, G., Macintosh, B. A., Severson, S., Dillon, D. 2006; 31 (5): 565-567

    Abstract

    Received October 11, 2005; accepted November 10, 2005; posted December 2, 2005 (Doc. ID 65234) We have measured a contrast of 6.5 x 10(-8) from 10 to 25 lambda/D in visible light on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed, using a shaped pupil for diffraction suppression. The testbed was designed with a minimal number of high-quality optics to ensure low wavefront error and uses a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer for metrology. This level of contrast is within the regime needed for imaging young Jupiter-like planets, a primary application of high-contrast imaging. We have concluded that wavefront error, not pupil quality, is the limiting error source for improved contrast in our system.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235532600001

    View details for PubMedID 16570399

  • Experimental demonstration of phase correction with a 32 X 32 microelectromechanical systems mirror and a spatially filtered wavefront sensor OPTICS LETTERS Poyneer, L. A., Bauman, B., Macintosh, B. A., Dillon, D., Severson, S. 2006; 31 (3): 293-295

    Abstract

    A 32 x 32 microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror is controlled in closed loop with a spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a Fourier-transform wavefront reconstruction algorithm. A phase plate based on atmospheric turbulence statistics is used to generate a 1 microm peak-valley static phase aberration. Far-field images and direct phase measurements of the residual are used to compare performance with and without the spatial filter. Use of the spatial filter reduces error in the controllable band from 20 to 6 nm rms. Residual phase power is reduced by more than a factor of 5 for all spatial frequencies up to 0.85 x 1/2d, with a maximum attenuation factor of 37.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234961100001

    View details for PubMedID 16480186

  • The Detection and Characterization of Exoplanets Physics Today Lunine, J., Macintosh, B., Peale, S. 2006; 62: 46
  • Interferometric wavefront sensors for extreme adaptive optics on the Thirty Meter Telescope Conference on Advances in Adaptive Optics II Baker, K. L., Macintosh, B. A., Phillion, D. W., Poyneer, L. A., Bauman, B. J. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2006: U1757–U1765

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.672405

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240348302057

  • The Gemini Planet Imager Conference on Advances in Adaptive Optics II Macintosh, B., Graham, J., Palmer, D., Doyon, R., Gavel, D., Larkin, J., Oppenheimer, B., Saddlemyer, L., Wallace, J. K., Bauman, B., Evans, J., Erikson, D., Morzinski, K., Phillion, D., Poyneer, L., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Soummer, R., Thibault, S., Jean-Pierre-Veran SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2006: U195–U206

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.672430

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240348300020

  • Effects of diffraction and static wavefront errors on high-contrast imaging from the thirty meter telescope Conference on Advances in Adaptive Optics II Troy, M., Crossfield, I., Chanan, G., Dumont, P., Green, J. J., Macintosh, B. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2006: U807–U817

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.671667

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240348301017

  • Exoplanet detection with simultaneous spectral differential imaging: effects of out-of-pupil-plane optical aberrations Conference on Ground-Based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy Marois, C., Phillion, D. W., Macintosh, B. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2006

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.672263

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240348500116

  • Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics Conference on Advances in Adaptive Optics II Morzinski, K. M., Evans, J. W., Severson, S., Macintosh, B., Dillon, D., Gavel, D., Max, C., Palmer, D. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2006: U696–U707

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.672470

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240348301006

  • MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection Conference on MEMS/MOEMS Components and Their Applications III Macintosh, B., Graham, J., Oppenheimer, B., Poyneer, L., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Veran, J. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2006

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.657463

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237171400006

  • The core of NGC 6240 from Keck adaptive optics and Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Max, C. E., Canalizo, G., MacIntosh, B. A., Raschke, L., Whysong, D., Antonucci, R., Schneider, G. 2005; 621 (2): 738-749
  • The dynamic neptunian ring arcs: evidence for a gradual disappearance of Liberte and resonant jump of courage ICARUS de Pater, I., Gibbard, S. G., Chiang, E., Hammel, H. B., Macintosh, B., Marchis, F., MARTIN, S. C., Roe, H. G., Showalter, M. 2005; 174 (1): 263-272
  • Speckle lifetimes in high-contrast adaptive optics Macintosh, B., Poyneer, L., Sivaramakrishman, A., Marois, C. 2005: 170
  • Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system APPLIED OPTICS van Dam, M. A., Le Mignant, D., Macintosh, B. A. 2004; 43 (29): 5458-5467

    Abstract

    The adaptive-optics (AO) system at the W. M. Keck Observatory is characterized. We calculate the error budget of the Keck AO system operating in natural guide star mode with a near-infrared imaging camera. The measurement noise and bandwidth errors are obtained by modeling the control loops and recording residual centroids. Results of sky performance tests are presented: The AO system is shown to deliver images with average Strehl ratios of as much as 0.37 at 1.58 microm when a bright guide star is used and of 0.19 for a magnitude 12 star. The images are consistent with the predicted wave-front error based on our error budget estimates.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224509800006

    View details for PubMedID 15508602

  • Titan's 2 mu m surface albedo and haze optical depth in 1996-2004 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Gibbard, S. G., de Pater, I., Macintosh, B. A., Roe, H. G., Max, C. E., Young, E. F., McKay, C. P. 2004; 31 (17)
  • Mid-infrared observations of Van Maanen 2: No substellar companion ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Farihi, J., Becklin, E. E., Macintosh, B. A. 2004; 608 (2): L109-L112
  • A new 1.6-micron map of Titan's surface GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Roe, H. G., de Pater, I., Gibbard, S. G., Macintosh, B. A., Max, C. E., Young, E. F., Brown, M. E., Bouchez, A. H. 2004; 31 (17)
  • A multiwavelength scattered light analysis of the dust grain population in the GG Tauri circumbinary ring ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Duchene, G., McCabe, C., Ghez, A. M., Macintosh, B. A. 2004; 606 (2): 969-982
  • Keck AO observations of Io in and out of eclipse ICARUS de Pater, I., Marchis, F., Macintosh, B. A., Roe, H. G., Le Mignant, D., Graham, J. R., Davies, A. G. 2004; 169 (1): 250-263
  • Spatially filtered wave-front sensor for high-order adaptive optics JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION Poyneer, L. A., Macintosh, B. 2004; 21 (5): 810-819

    Abstract

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems take sampled measurements of the wave-front phase. Because in the general case the spatial-frequency content of the phase aberration is not band limited, aliasing will occur. This aliasing will cause increased residual error and increased scattered light in the point-spread function (PSF). The spatially filtered wave-front sensor (SFWFS) mitigates this phenomenon by using a field stop at a focal plane before the wave-front sensor. This stop acts as a low-pass filter on the phase, significantly reducing the high-spatial-frequency content phase seen by the wave-front sensor at moderate to high Strehl ratios. We study the properties and performance of the SFWFS for open- and closed-loop correction of atmospheric turbulence, segmented-primary-mirror errors, and sensing with broadband light. In closed loop the filter reduces high-spatial-frequency phase power by a factor of 10(3) to 10(8). In a full AO-system simulation, this translates to a reduction by up to 625 times in the residual error power due to aliasing over a specific spatial frequency range. The final PSF (generated with apodization of the pupil) has up to a 100 times reduction in intensity out to lambda/2d.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220982700016

    View details for PubMedID 15139434

  • Science camera calibration for extreme adaptive optics Conference on Advancements in Adaptive Optics Wallace, J. K., Green, J. J., Shao, M., Troy, M., Lloyd, J., Macintosh, B. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2004: 370–378

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.552362

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225417900036

  • Characterization of Keck Adaptive Optics II Dam, M. V., le Mignant, D., Macintosh, B. 2004: 174
  • Is that really your Strehl ratio? Conference on Advancements in Adaptive Optics Roberts, L. C., Perrin, M. D., Marchis, F., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Makidon, R. B., Christou, J. C., Macintosh, B. A., Poyneer, L. A., van Dam, M. A., Troy, M. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2004: 504–515

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.549115

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225417900050

  • Coronagraph design for an extreme adaptive optics system with spatially-filtered wavefront sensing on segmented telescopes Conference on Advancements in Adaptive Optics Sivaramakrishnan, A., Makidon, R. B., Soummer, R., Macintosh, B. A., Troy, M., Chanan, G. A., Lloyd, J. P., Perrin, M. D., Graham, J. R., Poyneer, L., Sheinis, A. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2004: 535–544

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.551939

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225417900053

  • Titan: 2 micron surface albedo and haze optical depth in 1996-1998 Icarus Gibbard, S., Macintosh, B., Gavel, D., Max, C., de Pater, I., Roe, H., Ghez, A., Young, E., McKay, C. 2004; 169: 429
  • eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager: Overview and status Conference on Advancements in Adaptive Optics Macintosh, B., Bauman, B., Evans, J. W., Graham, J., Lockwood, C., Poyneer, L., Dillon, D., Gavel, D., Green, J., Lloyd, J., Makidon, R., Olivier, S., Palmer, D., Perrin, M., Severson, S., Sheinis, A., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Sommargren, G., Soumer, R., Troy, M., Wallace, K., Wishnow, E. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2004: 359–369

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.552188

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225417900035

  • Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Results and future work Conference on Advancements in Adaptive Optics Evans, J. W., Sommargren, G., Poyneer, L., Macintosh, B., Severson, S., Dillon, D., Sheinis, A., Palmer, D., Kasdin, J., Olivier, S. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2004: 954–959

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.551762

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225417900097

  • No evidence for dust around the Beta Pictoris moving group stars HD 199143 and HD 358623 Astronomy and Astrophysics Kaisler, D., Zuckerman, B., Song, I., Macintosh, B., Weinberger, A., Becklin, E., Konopacky, Q., Patience, J. 2004; 414: 175
  • The altitude of Neptune cloud features from high-spatial-resolution near-infrared spectra ICARUS Gibbard, S. G., de Pater, I., Roe, H. G., Martin, S., Macintosh, B. A., Max, C. E. 2003; 166 (2): 359-374
  • Speckle imaging of volcanic hotspots on Io with the Keck telescope ICARUS Macintosh, B. A., Gavel, D., Gibbard, S. G., Max, C. E., Eckart, M., de Pater, I., Ghez, A. M., Spencer, J. 2003; 165 (1): 137-143
  • Experimental validation of Fourier-transform wave-front reconstruction at the Palomar Observatory OPTICS LETTERS Poyneer, L. A., Troy, M., Macintosh, B., Gavel, D. T. 2003; 28 (10): 798-800

    Abstract

    Wave-front reconstruction with use of the Fourier transform has been validated through theory and simulation. This method provides a dramatic reduction in computational costs for large adaptive (AO) systems. Because such a reconstructor can be expressed as a matrix, it can be used as an alternative in a matrix-based AO control system. This was done with the Palomar Observatory AO system on the 200-in. Hale telescope. Results of these tests indicate that Fourier-transform wave-front reconstruction works in a real system. For both bright and dim stars, a Hudgin-geometry Fourier-transform method produced performance comparable to that of the Palomar Adaptive Optics least squares. The Fried-geometry method had a noticeable Strehl ratio performance degradation of 0.043 in the K band (165-nm rms wave-front error added in quadrature) on a dim star.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182634500012

    View details for PubMedID 12779150

  • Keck AO observations of Io in and out of eclipse Conference on Discoveries and Research Prospects from 6- to 10- Meter-Class Telescopes II de Pater, I., Marchis, F., Macintosh, B., Roe, H. G., Le Mignant, D., Graham, J. R. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2003: 139–149
  • Initial concepts for CELT adaptive optics Conference on Adaptive Optical System Technologies II Dekany, R., Bauman, B., Gavel, D., Troy, M., Macintosh, B., Britton, M. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2003: 1165–1174
  • Cloud structures on Neptune observed with Keck Telescope adaptive optics ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL Max, C. E., Macintosh, B. A., Gibbard, S. G., Gavel, D. T., Roe, H. G., de Pater, I., Ghez, A. M., Acton, D. S., Lai, O., Stomski, P., Wizinowich, P. L. 2003; 125 (1): 364-375
  • Deep adaptive optics searches for planets in the dust of Epsilon Eridani and Vega The Astrophysical Journal Macintosh, B., Becklin, E., Kaisler, D., Konopacky, Q., Zuckerman, B. 2003; 594: 538
  • Recent science and engineering results with the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory Conference on Adaptive Optical System Technologies II Gavel, D. T., Gates, E. L., Max, C. E., Cruz, S., Olivier, S. S., Bauman, B. J., Pennington, D. M., Macintosh, B. A., Patience, J., Brown, C. G., Danforth, P. M., Hurd, R. L., Severson, S. A., Lloyd, J. P. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2003: 354–359
  • Titan's clouds from Gemini and Keck adaptive optics imaging ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Roe, H. G., de Pater, I., Macintosh, B. A., McKay, C. P. 2002; 581 (2): 1399-1406
  • Speckle decorrelation and dynamic range in speckle noise-limited imaging ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Sivaramakrishnan, A., Lloyd, J. P., Hodge, P. E., Macintosh, B. A. 2002; 581 (1): L59-L62
  • Stellar companions to stars with planets ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Patience, J., White, R. J., Ghez, A. M., McCabe, C., McLean, I. S., Larkin, J. E., Prato, L., Kim, S. S., Lloyd, J. P., Liu, M. C., Graham, J. R., Macintosh, B. A., Gavel, D. T., Max, C. E., Bauman, B. J., Olivier, S. S., Wizinowich, P., Acton, D. S. 2002; 581 (1): 654-665
  • Keck adaptive optics images of Uranus and its rings ICARUS de Pater, I., Gibbard, S. G., Macintosh, B. A., Roe, H. G., Gavel, D. T., Max, C. E. 2002; 160 (2): 359-374
  • Characterizing the adaptive optics off-axis point-spread function. I. A semiempirical method for use in natural guide star observations PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC Steinbring, E., Faber, S. M., Hinkley, S., Macintosh, B. A., Gavel, D., Gates, E. L., Christou, J. C., Le Louarn, M., Raschke, L. M., Severson, S. A., Rigaut, F., CRAMPTON, D., Lloyd, J. P., Graham, J. R. 2002; 114 (801): 1267-1280
  • High-resolution Keck adaptive optics imaging of violent volcanic activity on Io ICARUS Marchis, F., de Pater, I., Davies, A. G., Roe, H. G., Fusco, T., Le Mignant, D., Descamps, P., Macintosh, B. A., Prange, R. 2002; 160 (1): 124-131
  • Titan's atmosphere in late southern spring observed with adaptive optics on the W.M. Keck II 10-meter telescope ICARUS Roe, H. G., de Pater, I., Macintosh, B. A., Gibbard, S. G., Max, C. E., McKay, C. P. 2002; 157 (1): 254-258
  • High-resolution infrared imaging of Neptune from the Keck Telescope ICARUS Gibbard, S. G., Roe, H., de Pater, I., Macintosh, B., Gavel, D., Max, C. E., Baines, K. H., Ghez, A. 2002; 156 (1): 1-15
  • Science with laser guide stars at Lick Observatory Gravel, D., Max, C., Olivier, S., Bauman, B., Pennington, D., Macintosh, B., Patience, J., Brown, C., Danforth, P., Hurd, R., Gates, E., Severson, S., Lloyd, J. 2002: 336
  • Practical high-order adaptive optics systems for extrasolar planet searches Macintosh, B., Olivier, S., Bauman, B., Brase, J., Carr, E., Carrano, C., Gavel, D., Max, C., Patience, J. 2002: 60
  • Near-infrared observations of Neptune's tropospheric cloud layer with the Lick Observatory adaptive optics system ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL Roe, H. G., Gavel, D., Max, C., de Pater, I., Gibbard, S., Macintosh, B., Baines, K. H. 2001; 122 (3): 1636-1643
  • Astronomical coronagraphy with high order adaptive optics Conference on Multifrequency Electronic/Photonic Devices and Systems for Dual-Use Applications Lloyd, J. P., Graham, J. R., Kalas, P., Oppenheimer, B. R., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Makidon, R., Macintosh, B. A., Max, C., Baudoz, P., Kuhn, J., Potter, D. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2001: 290–297
  • High resolution imaging with AEOS Conference on Multifrequency Electronic/Photonic Devices and Systems for Dual-Use Applications Patience, J., MacIntosh, B. A., Max, C. E. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2001: 178–186
  • Keck adaptive optics imaging of TWA5 and 6 Young Stars near Earth Macintosh, B., Zuckerman, B., kaisler, D., Becklin, E., Lowrance, P., Webb, R., Weinberger, A., Schneider, G., Christou, J. edited by Jaywaharda, R. 2001: 309
  • First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II Telescope: A new era of high angular resolution imagery PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC Wizinowich, P., Acton, D. S., Shelton, C., Stomski, P., Gathright, J., Ho, K., Lupton, W., Tsubota, K., Lai, O., Max, C., Brase, J., An, J., Avicola, K., Olivier, S., Gavel, D., Macintosh, B., Ghez, A., Larkin, J. 2000; 112 (769): 315-319
  • Initial performance of the Keck adaptive optics system Johnson, E., Action, D., An, J., Avicola, K., Beeman, B., Brase, J., Corrano, C., Gathright, J., Gavel, D., Hurd, R., Lai, O., Lupton, W., Mucintosh, B., Max, C., Olivier, S., Shelton, J., Stomski, P., Tsubota, K., Waltjen, K., Watson, J., Wizinowich, P. 2000: 600
  • IRCAL: The infrared camera for adaptive optics at Lick Observatory Conference on Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors Lloyd, J. P., Liu, M. C., Macintosh, B. A., Severson, S. A., DEICH, W. T., Graham, J. R. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2000: 814–821
  • Etched silicon gratings for NGST NGST Science and Technology Exposition Conference Ge, J., CIARLO, D., KUZMENKO, P., Macintosh, B., Alcock, C., Cook, K. ASTRONOMICAL SOC PACIFIC. 2000: 457–461
  • Progress with the Lick adaptive optics system Conference on Adaptive Optical Systems Technology Gavel, D. T., Olivier, S. S., Bauman, B., Max, C. E., Macintosh, B. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2000: 63–70
  • Neptune and Titan observed with Keck Telescope adaptive optics Conference on Adaptive Optical Systems Technology Max, C. E., Macintosh, B. A., Gibbard, S., Gavel, D. T., Roe, H., de Pater, I., Ghez, A. M., Acton, S., Wizinowich, P. L., Lai, O. P. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2000: 803–810
  • Titan: High-resolution speckle images from the Keck Telescope ICARUS Gibbard, S. G., Macintosh, B., Gavel, D., Max, C. E., de Pater, I., Ghez, A. M., Young, E. F., McKay, C. P. 1999; 139 (2): 189-201
  • A cw, high-power, conduction-cooled, edge-pumped slab laser Conference on Solid State Lasers VIII Tulloch, W. M., Rutherford, T. S., Gustafson, E. K., Byer, R. L. SPIE - INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1999: 2–7
  • Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: Present status and future direction Conference on Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology Ge, J., CIARLO, D., KUZMENKO, P., Alcock, C., Macintosh, B., Angel, R., Woolf, N., Lloyd-Hart, M. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1999: 174–183
  • Phase retrieval techniques for adaptive optics SPIE Conference on Adaptive Optical System Technologies CARRANO, C. J., Olivier, S. S., Brase, J. M., Macintosh, B. A., AN, J. R. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1998: 658–667
  • Direct imaging of extra-solar planets Workshop on Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Planets Olivier, S. S., Max, C. E., Brase, J. M., Gavel, D. T., Macintosh, B., Carrano, C. ASTRONOMICAL SOC PACIFIC. 1998: 262–270
  • Observing techniques for astronomical laser guide star adaptive optics SPIE Conference on Adaptive Optical System Technologies Max, C. E., Macintosh, B., Olivier, S. S., Gavel, D. T., FRIEDMAN, H. W. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1998: 277–281
  • A companion to the white dwarf G261-43 ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL Zuckerman, B., Becklin, E. E., Macintosh, B. A., Bida, T. 1997; 113 (2): 764-766
  • First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory Conference on Adaptive Optics and Applications Olivier, S. S., Max, C. E., FRIEDMAN, H. W., An, J., Avicola, K., Beeman, B. V., BISSINGER, H. D., Brase, J. M., Erbert, G. V., Gavel, D. T., Kanz, K., Macintosh, B., Neeb, K. P., WALTJEN, K. E. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1997: 240–248
  • Initial results from the Lick Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system Olivier, S., An, J., Avicola, K., Bissinger, H., Brase, J., Gavel, D., Macintosh, B., Max, C., Salmon, J., J, T., Wlatjen, K. 1996: 75
  • THE BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE 0918-0023B IS A DISTANT COMPACT GALAXY ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL Becklin, E. E., Macintosh, B., Zuckerman, B. 1995; 449 (2): L117-L118
  • UBVRI PHOTOMETRY OF THE TYPE-IA SN-1994D IN NGC-4526 ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL Richmond, M. W., Treffers, R. R., Filippenko, A. V., VANDYK, S. D., Paik, Y., Peng, C., Marschall, L. A., Laaksonen, B. D., Macintosh, B., McLean, I. S. 1995; 109 (5): 2121-2133
  • RADIAL-VELOCITIES OF VERY-LOW MASS STARS AND CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF MEMBERS OF THE HYADES AND PLEIADES ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL Stauffer, J. R., Liebert, J., Giampapa, M., Macintosh, B., Reid, N., Hamilton, D. 1994; 108 (1): 160-174
  • A NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING SEARCH FOR LOW-MASS COMPANIONS TO HYADES STARS Conference on Infrared Astronomy with Arrays: The Next Generation Macintosh, B., Zuckerman, B., Becklin, E. E., McLean, I. S. KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL. 1994: 231–234
  • PERFORMANCE AND RESULTS WITH A DOUBLE-BEAM INFRARED CAMERA 8th SPIE Conference on Instrumentation in Astronomy McLean, I. S., Macintosh, B., Liu, T., Casement, L. S., Figer, D., LACAYANGA, F., Larson, S., Teplitz, H., Silverstone, M., Becklin, E. SPIE - INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1994: 457–466
  • THE UCLA DOUBLE-BEAM INFRARED CAMERA SYSTEM Conference on Infrared Detector and Instrumentation McLean, I. S., Becklin, E. E., Brims, G., Canfield, J., Casement, L. S., Figer, D. F., Henriquez, F., Huang, A., Liu, T., Macintosh, B., Teplitz, H. SPIE - INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1993: 513–533
  • THE OEDIPUS EXPERIMENT - ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT VOLTAGE DATA JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS Godard, R., James, H. G., Laframboise, J. G., Macintosh, B., MCNAMARA, A. G., Watanabe, S., Whalen, B. A. 1991; 96 (A10): 17879-17890