Current Role at Stanford

Senior Research Scholar | Implementation and Social Science

Education & Certifications

  • Post-doctoral Fellow, Stanford Prevention Research Center, Prevention Medicine and Research
  • Post-doctoral Trainee, Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education | University of California, San Francisco, Public Health and Tobacco Control
  • PhD, University of Georgia, Linguistics - Discourse and text analysis
  • BA, Agnes Scott College, English Literature and French

Skills and Expertise

    Information Technology
      Emerging Technologies
      Health Care
      Process Improvement
      Project Management
      Research Data
      User Experience (UX)

All Publications

  • Trauma-Informed Healthcare Leadership? Evidence and opportunities from interviews with leaders during COVID-19. BMC health services research Harris, S. R., Amano, A., Winget, M., Skeff, K. M., Brown-Johnson, C. G. 2024; 24 (1): 515


    COVID-19 impacted the mental health of healthcare workers, who endured pressures as they provided care during a prolonged crisis. We aimed to explore whether and how a Trauma-Informed Care (TIC) approach was reflected in qualitative perspectives from healthcare leaders of their experience during COVID-19 (2020-2021).Semi-structured interviews with healthcare leaders from four institutions were conducted. Data analysis consisted of four stages informed by interpretative phenomenological analysis: 1) deductive coding using TIC assumptions, 2) inductive thematic analysis of coded excerpts, 3) keyword-in-context coding of full transcripts for 6 TIC principles with integration into prior inductive themes, and 4) interpretation of themes through 6 TIC principles (safety; trustworthiness and transparency; peer support; collaboration and mutuality; empowerment, voice, and choice; and awareness of cultural, historical, and gender issues).The actions of leaders (n = 28) that were reported as successful and supportive responses to the COVID-19 pandemic or else missed opportunities reflected core principles of Trauma-Informed Care. To promote safety, leaders reported affirmative efforts to protect staff by providing appropriate physical protection, and enhanced psychological safety by providing channels for communication about emotional well-being. To promote trustworthiness and transparency, leaders listened to their staff, shared current COVID-19 information, and increased frequency of meetings to disseminate accurate information. To promote mutual support, strategies included wellness check-ins, sharing uplifting stories, affirming common goals, articulating fears, and leading by example. Examples of empowerment included: making time and adjusting modalities for flexible communication; naming challenges outside of the hospital; and functioning as a channel for complaints. Reported missed opportunities included needing more dedicated time and space for healthcare employees to process emotions, failures in leadership managing their own anxiety, and needing better support for middle managers. Awareness of the TIC principle of cultural, historical, and gender issues was largely absent. Results informed the nascent Trauma-Informed Healthcare Leadership (TIHL) framework.We propose the Trauma-Informed Healthcare Leadership framework as a useful schema for action and analysis. This approach yields recommendations for healthcare leaders including creating designated spaces for emotional processing, and establishing consistent check-ins that reference personal and professional well-being.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12913-024-10946-9

    View details for PubMedID 38659009

    View details for PubMedCentralID 7946321

  • Perspectives on the Intersection of Electronic Health Records and Health Care Team Communication, Function, and Well-being. JAMA network open Amano, A., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Winget, M., Sinha, A., Shah, S., Sinsky, C. A., Sharp, C., Shanafelt, T., Skeff, K. 2023; 6 (5): e2313178


    Understanding of the interplay between the electronic health record (EHR), health care team relations, and physician well-being is currently lacking. Approaches to cultivate interpersonal interactions may be necessary to complement advancements in health information technology with high-quality team function.To examine ways in which the EHR, health care team functioning, and physician well-being intersect and interact.Secondary qualitative analysis of semistructured interview data from 2 studies used keyword-in-context approaches to identify excerpts related to teams. Thematic analysis was conducted using pattern coding, then organized using the relationship-centered organization model. Two health care organizations in California from March 16 to October 13, 2017, and February 28 to April 21, 2022, participated, with respondents including attending and resident physicians.Across data sets, themes centered around the interactions between the EHR, health care team functioning, and physician well-being. The first study data focused on EHR-related distressing events and their role in attending physician and resident physician emotions and actions. The second study focused on EHR use and daily EHR irritants.The 73 respondents included attending physicians (53 [73%]) and resident physicians (20 [27%]). Demographic data were not collected. Participants worked in ambulatory specialties (33 [45%]), hospital medicine (10 [14%]), and surgery (10 [14%]). The EHR was reported to be the dominant communication modality among all teams. Interviewees indicated that the EHR facilitates task-related communication and is well suited to completing simple, uncomplicated tasks. However, EHR-based communication limited the rich communication and social connection required for building relationships and navigating conflict. The EHR was found to negatively impact team function by promoting disagreement and introducing areas of conflict into team relationships related to medical-legal pressures, role confusion, and undefined norms around EHR-related communication. In addition, interviewees expressed that physician EHR-related distress affects interactions within the team, eroding team well-being.In this study, the EHR supported task-oriented and efficient communication among team members to get work done and care for patients; however, participants felt that the technology shifts attention away from the human needs of the care team that are necessary for developing relationships, building trust, and resolving conflicts. Interventions to cultivate interpersonal interactions and team function are necessary to complement the efficiency benefits of health information technology.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.13178

    View details for PubMedID 37171816

  • You're invited: welcome to the dynamic world of quality improvement and implementation science. BMJ sexual & reproductive health Goldthwaite, L. M., Brown-Johnson, C. G. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjsrh-2023-201814

    View details for PubMedID 37041015

  • Professional Behavior and Value Erosion: A Qualitative Study of Physicians and the Electronic Health Record. Journal of healthcare management / American College of Healthcare Executives Skeff, K. M., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Asch, S. M., Zionts, D. L., Winget, M., Kerem, Y. 2022


    GOAL: Occurrences of physician burnout have reached epidemic numbers, and the electronic health record (EHR) is a commonly cited cause of the distress. To enhance current understanding of the relationship between burnout and the EHR, we explored the connections between physicians' distress and the EHR.METHODS: In this qualitative study, physicians and graduate medical trainees from two healthcare organizations in California were interviewed about EHR-related distressing events and the impact on their emotions and actions. We analyzed physician responses to identify themes regarding the negative impact of the EHR on physician experience and actions. EHR "distressing events" were categorized using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Physician Professional Competencies.PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Every participating physician reported EHR-related distress affecting professional activities. Five main themes emerged from our analysis: system blocks to patient care; poor implementation, design, and functionality of the EHR; billing priorities conflicting with ideal workflow and best-practice care; lack of efficiency; and poor teamwork function. When mapped to the ACGME competencies, physician distress frequently stemmed from situations where physicians prioritized systems-based practice above other desired professional actions and behaviors. Physicians also reported a climate of silence in which physicians would not share problems due to fear of retribution or lack of confidence that the problems would be addressed.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Physicians and administrators need to address the hierarchy of values that prioritizes system requirements such as those required by the EHR above physicians' other desired professional actions and behaviors. Balancing the importance of competing competencies may help to address rising burnout. We also recommend that administrators consider qualitative anonymous interviews as an effective method to uncover and understand physician distress in light of physicians' reported climate of silence.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JHM-D-21-00070

    View details for PubMedID 35984408

  • The Presence 5 for Racial Justice Framework for Anti-Racist Communication with Black Patients. Health services research Brown-Johnson, C., Cox, J., Shankar, M., Baratta, J., De Leon, G., Garcia, R., Hollis, T., Verano, M., Henderson, K., Upchurch, M., Safaeinili, N., Shaw, J. G., Fortuna, R. J., Beverly, C., Walsh, M., Somerville, C. S., Haverfield, M., Israni, S. T., Verghese, A., Zulman, D. M. 2022


    To identify communication practices that clinicians can use to address racism faced by Black patients, build trusting relationships, and empower Black individuals in clinical care.Qualitative data (N=112 participants, August 2020 to March 2021) collected in partnership with clinics primarily serving Black patients in Leeds, AL; Memphis, TN; Oakland, CA; and Rochester, NY.This multi-phased project was informed by human-centered design thinking and community-based participatory research principles. We mapped emergent communication and trust-building strategies to domains from the Presence 5 framework for fostering meaningful connection in clinical care.Interviews and focus group discussions explored anti-racist communication and patient-clinician trust (n=36 Black patients; n=40 non-medical professionals and n=24 clinicians of various races and ethnicities). The Presence 5 Virtual National Community Advisory Board guided analysis interpretation.The emergent Presence 5 for Racial Justice (P5RJ) practices include: 1) Prepare with intention by reflecting on identity, bias, and power dynamics; and creating structures to address bias and structural determinants of health; 2) Listen intently and completely without interruption and listen deeply for the potential impact of anti-Black racism on patient health and interactions with healthcare; 3) Agree on what matters most by having explicit conversations about patient goals, treatment comfort and consent, and referral planning; 4) Connect with the patient's story, acknowledging socioeconomic factors influencing patient health and focusing on positive efforts; 5) Explore emotional cues by noticing and naming patient emotions, and considering how experiences with racism might influence emotions.P5RJ provides a framework with actionable communication practices to address pervasive racism experienced by Black patients. Effective implementation necessitates clinician self-reflection, personal commitment, and institutional support that offers time and resources to elicit a patient's story and to address their needs.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/1475-6773.14015

    View details for PubMedID 35765147

  • Developing best practices for PPE Portraits across 25 sites: a systematic assessment ofimplementation and spread of adaptations using FRAME. BMC health services research Baratta, J., Amano, A., Parsons, P. K., Vilendrer, S., Winter, S. G., Verano, M., Perez, C., Kalanithi, L., Asch, S. M., Heffernan, M. B., Brown-Johnson, C. 2021; 21 (1): 1182


    BACKGROUND: Adaptation, a form of modification that aims to improve an intervention's acceptability and sustainability in each context, is essential to successful implementation in some settings. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians have rapidly adapted how they deliver patient care. PPE Portraits are a form of adaptation, whereby health workers affix a postcard size portrait of themselves to the front of their personal protective equipment (PPE) to foster human connection during COVID-19.METHODS: We used the expanded framework for reporting adaptations and modifications to evidence-based interventions (FRAME) method to better understand the reasoning behind and results of each adaptation. We hypothesized that using the FRAME in conjunction with design-thinking would lead to emerging best practices and that we would find adaptation similarities across sites. Throughout multiple implementations across 25 institutions, we piloted, tracked, and analyzed adaptations using FRAME and design thinking. For each adaptation, we assessed the stage of implementation, whether the change was planned, decision makers involved, level of delivery impacted, fidelity to original intervention, and the goal and reasoning for adaptation. We added three crucial components to the FRAME: original purpose of the adaptation, unintended consequences, and alternative adaptations.RESULTS: When implementing PPE Portraits across settings, from a local assisted living center's memory unit to a pediatric emergency department, several requests for adaptations arose during early development stages before implementation. Adaptations primarily related to (1) provider convenience and comfort, (2) patient populations, and (3) scale. Providers preferred smaller portraits and rounded (rather than square) laminated edges that could potentially injure a patient. Affixing the portrait with a magnet was rejected given the potential choking hazard the magnetic strip presented for children. Other adaptations, related to ease of dissemination, included slowing the process down during early development and providing buttons, which could be produced easily at scale.CONCLUSIONS: The FRAME was used to curate the reasoning for each adaptation and to inform future dissemination. We look forward to utilizing FRAME including our additions and design thinking, to build out a range of PPE Portrait best practices with accompanying costs and benefits.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12913-021-06922-2

    View details for PubMedID 34717597

  • Primary Care 2.0: A Prospective Evaluation of a Novel Model of Advanced Team Care With Expanded Medical Assistant Support. Annals of family medicine Shaw, J. G., Winget, M., Brown-Johnson, C., Seay-Morrison, T., Garvert, D. W., Levine, M., Safaeinili, N., Mahoney, M. R. 2021; 19 (5): 411-418


    PURPOSE: Assess effectiveness of Primary Care 2.0: a team-based model that incorporates increased medical assistant (MA) to primary care physician (PCP) ratio, integration of advanced practice clinicians, expanded MA roles, and extended the interprofessional team.METHODS: Prospective, quasi-experimental evaluation of staff/clinician team development and wellness survey data, comparing Primary Care 2.0 to conventional clinics within our academic health care system. We surveyed before the model launch and every 6-9 months up to 24 months post implementation. Secondary outcomes (cost, quality metrics, patient satisfaction) were assessed via routinely collected operational data.RESULTS: Team development significantly increased in the Primary Care 2.0 clinic, sustained across all 3 post implementation time points (+12.2, +8.5, + 10.1 respectively, vs baseline, on the 100-point Team Development Measure) relative to the comparison clinics. Among wellness domains, only "control of work" approached significant gains (+0.5 on a 5-point Likert scale, P = .05), but was not sustained. Burnout did not have statistically significant relative changes; the Primary Care 2.0 site showed a temporal trend of improvement at 9 and 15 months. Reversal of this trend at 2 years corresponded to contextual changes, specifically, reduced MA to PCP staffing ratio. Adjusted models confirmed an inverse relationship between team development and burnout (P <.0001). Secondary outcomes generally remained stable between intervention and comparison clinics with suggestion of labor cost savings.CONCLUSIONS: The Primary Care 2.0 model of enhanced team-based primary care demonstrates team development is a plausible key to protect against burnout, but is not sufficient alone. The results reinforce that transformation to team-based care cannot be a 1-time effort and institutional commitment is integral.

    View details for DOI 10.1370/afm.2714

    View details for PubMedID 34546947

  • Patient and surgeon experiences with video visits in plastic surgery-toward a data-informed scheduling triage tool. Surgery Brown-Johnson, C. G., Spargo, T., Kling, S. M., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Lestoquoy, A. S., Garvert, D. W., Vilendrer, S., Winget, M., Asch, S. M., Maggio, P., Nazerali, R. S. 2021


    BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 provided the impetus for unprecedented adoption of telemedicine. This study aimed to understand video visit adoption by plastic surgery providers; and patient and surgeon perceptions about its efficacy, value, accessibility, and long-term viability. A secondary aim was to develop the proposed 'Triage Tool for Video Visits in Plastic Surgery' to help determine visit video eligibility.METHODS: This mixed-methods evaluation assessed provider-level scheduling data from the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Stanford Health Care to quantify telemedicine adoption and semi-structured phone interviews with patients (n= 20) and surgeons (n= 10) to explore stakeholder perspectives on video visits.RESULTS: During the 13-week period after the local stay-at-home orders due to coronavirus disease 2019, 21.4% of preoperative visits and 45.5% of postoperative visits were performed via video. Video visits were considered acceptable by patients and surgeons in plastic surgery in terms of quality of care but were limited by the inability to perform a physical examination. Interviewed clinicians reported that long-term viability needs to be centered around technology (eg, connection, video quality, etc) and physical examinations. Our findings informed a proposed triage tool to determine the appropriateness of video visits for individual patients that incorporates visit type, anesthesia, case, surgeon's role, and patient characteristics.CONCLUSION: Video technology has the potential to facilitate and improve preoperative and postoperative patient care in plastic surgery but the following components are needed: patient education on taking high-quality photos; standardized clinical guidelines for conducting video visits; and an algorithm-assisted triage tool to support scheduling.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.03.029

    View details for PubMedID 33941389

  • Opportunities for improving opioid disposal practices in the Veterans Health Administration. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Giannitrapani, K. F., Brown-Johnson, C., McCaa, M., Mckelvey, J., Glassman, P., Holliday, J., Sandbrink, F., Lorenz, K. A. 2021


    DISCLAIMER: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time.PURPOSE: The potentially vast supply of unused opioids in Americans' homes has long been a public health concern. We conducted a needs assessment of how Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities address and manage disposal of unused opioid medications to identify opportunities for improvement.METHODS: We used rapid qualitative content analysis methods with team consensus to synthesize findings. Data were collected in 2 waves: (1) semistructured interviews with 19 providers in October 2019 and (2) structured questions to 21 providers in March to April of 2020 addressing how coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) changed disposal priorities.RESULTS: While many diverse strategies have been tried in the VA, we found limited standardization of advice on opioid disposal and practices nationally. Providers offered the following recommendations: target specific patient scenarios for enhanced disposal efforts, emphasize mail-back envelopes, keep recommendations to providers and patients consistent and reinforce existing guidance, explore virtual modalities to monitor disposal activity, prioritize access to viable disposal strategies, and transition from pull to push communication. These themes were identified in the fall of 2019 and remained salient in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.CONCLUSION: A centralized VA national approach could include proactive communication with patients and providers, interventions tailored to specific settings and populations, and facilitated access to disposal options. All of the above strategies are feasible in the context of an extended period of social distancing.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ajhp/zxab163

    View details for PubMedID 33851212

  • Implementation outcomes of Humanwide: integrated precision health in team-based family practice primary care. BMC family practice Brown-Johnson, C. G., Safaeinili, N., Baratta, J., Palaniappan, L., Mahoney, M., Rosas, L. G., Winget, M. 2021; 22 (1): 28


    BACKGROUND: Humanwide was precision health embedded in primary care aiming to leverage high-tech and high-touch medicine to promote wellness, predict and prevent illness, and tailor treatment to individual medical and psychosocial needs.METHODS: We conducted a study assessing implementation outcomes to inform spread and scale, using mixed methods of semi-structured interviews with diverse stakeholders and chart reviews. Humanwide included: 1) health coaching; 2) four digital health tools for blood-pressure, weight, glucose, and activity; 3) pharmacogenomic testing; and 4) genetic screening/testing. We examined implementation science constructs: reach/penetration, acceptability, feasibility, and sustainability. Chart reviews captured preliminary clinical outcomes.RESULTS: Fifty of 69 patients (72%) invited by primary care providers participated in the Humanwide pilot. We performed chart reviews for the 50 participating patients. Participants were diverse overall (50% non-white, 66% female). Over half of the participants were obese and 58% had one or more major cardiovascular risk factor: dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes. Reach/penetration of Humanwide components varied: pharmacogenomics testing 94%, health coaching 80%, genetic testing 72%, and digital health 64%. Interview participants (n=27) included patients (n=16), providers (n=9), and the 2 staff who were allocated dedicated time for Humanwide patient intake and orientation. Patients and providers reported Humanwide was acceptable; it engaged patients holistically, supported faster medication titration, and strengthened patient-provider relationships. All patients benefited clinically from at least one Humanwide component. Feasibility challenges included: low provider self-efficacy for interpreting genetics and pharmacogenomics; difficulties with data integration; patient technology challenges; and additional staffing needs. Patient financial burden concerns surfaced with respect to sustainability.CONCLUSION: This is the first report of implementation of a multi-component precision health model embedded in team-based primary care. We found acceptance from both patients and providers; however, feasibility barriers must be overcome to enable broad spread and sustainability. We found that barriers to implementation of precision health in a team-based primary care clinic are mundane and straightforward, though not necessarily easy to overcome. Future implementation endeavors should invest in basics: education, workflow, and reflection/evaluation. Strengthening fundamentals will enable healthcare systems to more nimbly accept the responsibility of meeting patients at the crossroads of innovative science and routinized clinical systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12875-021-01373-4

    View details for PubMedID 33530939

  • Protecting the healthcare workforce during COVID-19: a qualitative needs assessment of employee occupational health in the US national Veterans Health Administration. BMJ open Brown-Johnson, C., McCaa, M. D., Giannitrapani, S., Singer, S. J., Lorenz, K. A., Yano, E. M., Thanassi, W. T., DeShields, C., Giannitrapani, K. F. 2021; 11 (10): e049134


    OBJECTIVE: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee occupational health (EOH) providers were tasked with assuming a central role in coordinating employee COVID-19 screening and clearance for duty, representing entirely novel EOH responsibilities. In a rapid qualitative needs assessment, we aimed to identify learnings from the field to support the vastly expanding role of EOH providers in a national healthcare system.METHODS: We employed rapid qualitative analysis of key informant interviews in a maximal variation sample on the parameters of job type, rural versus urban and provider gender. We interviewed 21 VHA EOH providers between July and December 2020. This sample represents 15 facilities from diverse regions of the USA (large, medium and small facilities in the Mid-Atlantic; medium sites in the South; large facilities in the West and Pacific Northwest).RESULTS: Five interdependent needs included: (1) infrastructure to support employee population management, including tools that facilitate infection control measures such as contact tracing (eg, employee-facing electronic health records and coordinated databases); (2) mechanisms for information sharing across settings (eg, VHA listserv), especially for changing policy and protocols; (3) sufficiently resourced staffing using detailing to align EOH needs with human resource capital; (4) connected and resourced local and national leaders; and (5) strategies to support healthcare worker mental health.Our identified facilitators for EOH assuming new challenging and dynamically changing roles during COVID-19 included: (A) training or access to expertise; (B) existing mechanisms for information sharing; (C) flexible and responsive staffing; and (D) leveraging other institutional expertise not previously affiliated with EOH (eg, chaplains to support bereavement).CONCLUSIONS: Our needs assessment highlights local and system level barriers and facilitators of EOH assuming expanded roles during COVID-19. Integrating changes both within and across systems and with alignment of human capital will enable EOH preparedness for future challenges.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049134

    View details for PubMedID 34607860

  • CFIR simplified: Pragmatic application of and adaptations to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) for evaluation of a patient-centered care transformation within a learning health system. Learning health systems Safaeinili, N., Brown-Johnson, C., Shaw, J. G., Mahoney, M., Winget, M. 2020; 4 (1): e10201


    The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) is a commonly used implementation science framework to facilitate design, evaluation, and implementation of evidence-based interventions. Its comprehensiveness is an asset for considering facilitators and barriers to implementation and also makes the framework cumbersome to use. We describe adaptations we made to CFIR to simplify its pragmatic application, for use in a learning health system context, in the evaluation of a complex patient-centered care transformation.We conducted a qualitative study and structured our evaluation questions, data collection methods, analysis, and reporting around CFIR. We collected qualitative data via semi-structured interviews and observations with key stakeholders throughout. We identified and documented adaptations to CFIR throughout the evaluation process.We analyzed semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders (n = 23) from clinical observations (n = 5). We made three key adaptations to CFIR: (a) promoted "patient needs and resources," a subconstruct of the outer setting, to its own domain within CFIR during data analysis; (b) divided the "inner setting" domain into three layers that account for the hierarchy of health care systems (i. pilot clinic, ii. peer clinics, and iii. overarching health care system); and (c) tailored several construct definitions to fit a patient-centered, primary care setting. Analysis yielded qualitative findings concentrated in the CFIR domains "intervention characteristics" and "outer setting," with a robust number of findings in the new domain "patient needs and resources."To make CFIR more accessible and relevant for wider use in the context of patient-centered care transformations within a learning health system, a few adaptations are key. Specifically, we found success by teasing apart interactions across the inner layers of a health system, tailoring construct definitions, and placing additional focus on patient needs.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lrh2.10201

    View details for PubMedID 31989028

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6971122

  • Provider perceptions of a humanizing intervention for healthcare workers - a survey study of PPE Portraits. Journal of pain and symptom management Reidy, J., Brown-Johnson, C., McCool, N., Steadman, S., Heffernan, M. B., Nagpal, V. 2020


    INTRODUCTION: Reports from patients and healthcare workers dealing with COVID-19 underscore experiences of isolation and fear. Some of this experience results from the distancing effect of masks, gloves, and gowns known as Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). One approach to bridging the divide created by PPE is the use of PPE Portraits, postcard-sized pictures affixed to PPE.OBJECTIVE: Our confidential, email-based survey aimed to quantify provider attitudes towards PPE Portraits.METHODS: PPE Portraits were piloted at an academic, safety-net health system experiencing a COVID-19 patient surge in April-May 2020, necessitating use of full PPE for COVID-positive patients and surgical masks in all hospital settings. Our survey assessed staff exposure to PPE Portraits, attitudes towards PPE Portraits, and potential program expansion. For staff wearing PPE Portraits, we also assessed perceptions of interactions with other staff and patients/families and impact on personal wellbeing. The University of Massachusetts Medical School's IRB designated this a quality improvement project (#H00020279).RESULTS: Over half of survey respondents (n=111/173, 64%) reported exposure to PPE Portraits. Attitudes towards PPE Portraits were positive overall, with agreement that PPE Portraits were a good idea (89%), improved provider mood (79%), enhanced perception of team connection (72%) and more positive among those who reported exposure. Open-ended responses (n=41) reinforced positive survey data, and also raised concerns about infection control (n=6), cost/logistics (n=5), and provider vulnerability (n=3).CONCLUSIONS: Providers report that PPE Portraits may represent a positive, patient-centered idea that helps reassure patients, is well-received by interdisciplinary staff, and may enhance patient and team interactions. Potential adaptations to address concerns include "photo pins," and donor/ patient and family experience department support for costs.KEY MESSAGE: This article describes a cross-sectional study that investigated provider perceptions on the use of PPE Portraits, an intervention that addresses the barrier to patient-provider connection presented by the use of PPE. The results suggest that implementation of the PPE Portrait Project is feasible, acceptable, and effective.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.08.038

    View details for PubMedID 32911039

  • PPE Portraits-a Way to Humanize Personal Protective Equipment. Journal of general internal medicine Brown-Johnson, C., Vilendrer, S., Heffernan, M. B., Winter, S., Khong, T., Reidy, J., Asch, S. M. 2020


    The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) has skyrocketed, as providers don masks, glasses, and gowns to protect their eyes, noses, and mouths from COVID-19. Yet these same facial features express human individuality, and are crucial to nonverbal communication. Isolated ICU patients may develop "post intensive-care syndrome," which mimics PTSD with sometimes debilitating consequences. While far from a complete solution, PPE Portraits (disposable portrait picture stickers- 4" * 5") have the potential to humanize care. Preparing for a larger effectiveness evaluation on patient and provider experience, we collected initial qualitative implementation insights during Spring 2020's chaotic surge preparation. Front-line providers reported more comfort with patient interactions while wearing PPE Portraits: "It makes it feel less like a disaster zone [for the patient]." A brief pilot showed signs of significant adoption: a participating physician requested PPE Portraits at their clinic, shift nurses had taken PPE Portraits with them to inpatient services, and masked medical assistant team-members requested PPE Portraits to wear over scrubs. We believe PPE Portraits may support patient care and health, and even potentially healthcare team function and provider wellness. While we await data on these effects, we hope hospitals can use our findings to speed their own implementation testing.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-020-05875-2

    View details for PubMedID 32410125

  • The Stanford Lightning Report Method: A comparison of rapid qualitative synthesis results across four implementation evaluations. Learning health systems Brown-Johnson, C., Safaeinili, N., Zionts, D., Holdsworth, L. M., Shaw, J. G., Asch, S. M., Mahoney, M., Winget, M. 2020; 4 (2): e10210


    Current evaluation methods are mismatched with the speed of health care innovation and needs of health care delivery partners. We introduce a qualitative approach called the lightning report method and its specific product-the "Lightning Report." We compare implementation evaluation results across four projects to explore report sensitivity and the potential depth and breadth of lightning report method findings.The lightning report method was refined over 2.5 years across four projects: team-based primary care, cancer center transformation, precision health in primary care, and a national life-sustaining decisions initiative. The novelty of the lightning report method is the application of Plus/Delta/Insight debriefing to dynamic implementation evaluation. This analytic structure captures Plus ("what works"), Delta ("what needs to be changed"), and Insights (participant or evaluator insights, ideas, and recommendations). We used structured coding based on implementation science barriers and facilitators outlined in the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) applied to 17 Lightning Reports from four projects.Health care partners reported that Lighting Reports were valuable, easy to understand, and they implied reports supported "corrective action" for implementations. Comparative analysis revealed cross-project emphasis on the domains of Inner Setting and Intervention Characteristics, with themes of communication, resources/staffing, feedback/reflection, alignment with simultaneous interventions and traditional care, and team cohesion. In three of the four assessed projects, the largest proportion of coding was to the clinic-level domain of Inner Setting-ranging from 39% for the cancer center project to a high of 56% for the life-sustaining decisions project.The lightning report method can fill a gap in rapid qualitative approaches and is generalizable with consistent but flexible core methods. Comparative analysis suggests it is a sensitive tool, capable of uncovering differences and insights in implementation across projects. The Lightning Report facilitates partnered evaluation and communication with stakeholders by providing real-time, actionable insights in dynamic health care implementations.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lrh2.10210

    View details for PubMedID 32313836

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7156867

  • Implementing Goals of Care Conversations: Lessons from High and Low Performing Sites from a VA National Initiative. Journal of pain and symptom management Brown-Johnson, C. n., Haverfield, M. C., Giannitrapani, K. F., Lo, N. n., Lowery, J. S., Foglia, M. B., Walling, A. M., Bekelman, D. n., Shreve, S. T., Lehmann, L. S., Lorenz, K. A. 2020


    The Veterans Health Administration (VA) National Center for Ethics in Healthcare (NCEHC) implemented the Life-Sustaining Treatment Decisions Initiative (LSTDI) including policy and practice standards, clinician communication training, a documentation template, and central implementation support to foster advance care planning (ACP) via goals of care conversations for seriously ill Veterans in 2014, spreading nationally to other Veterans Health Affairs (VA) sites in 2017.We conducted semi-structured interviews with 31 key stakeholders from 11 sites to identify cross-site best practices and pitfalls related to implementation.Three primary implementation themes emerged: organizational readiness for transformation, importance of champions, and time and resources needed to achieve implementation. Each theme's barriers and facilitators highlighted variability in success based on complexity in terms of vertical hierarchy and horizontal cross-role/cross-clinic relationships.Learning healthcare systems need multi-level interdisciplinary implementation approaches to support communication about serious illness, from broad-based system-level training and education in order to build communication skills, to focusing on characteristics of successful individual champions who listen to critics and are tenacious in addressing concerns.This study of a national implementation of ACP demonstrates that the route to success is variable, with flexible core components of leaders/advisors, champions, and resources that can be instantiated at various levels in a highly complex organization.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.07.040

    View details for PubMedID 32781166

  • Practices to Foster Physician Presence and Connection With Patients in the Clinical Encounter. JAMA Zulman, D. M., Haverfield, M. C., Shaw, J. G., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Schwartz, R. n., Tierney, A. A., Zionts, D. L., Safaeinili, N. n., Fischer, M. n., Thadaney Israni, S. n., Asch, S. M., Verghese, A. n. 2020; 323 (1): 70–81


    Time constraints, technology, and administrative demands of modern medicine often impede the human connection that is central to clinical care, contributing to physician and patient dissatisfaction.To identify evidence and narrative-based practices that promote clinician presence, a state of awareness, focus, and attention with the intent to understand patients.Preliminary practices were derived through a systematic literature review (from January 1997 to August 2017, with a subsequent bridge search to September 2019) of effective interpersonal interventions; observations of primary care encounters in 3 diverse clinics (n = 27 encounters); and qualitative interviews with physicians (n = 10), patients (n = 27), and nonmedical professionals whose occupations involve intense interpersonal interactions (eg, firefighter, chaplain, social worker; n = 30). After evidence synthesis, promising practices were reviewed in a 3-round modified Delphi process by a panel of 14 researchers, clinicians, patients, caregivers, and health system leaders. Panelists rated each practice using 9-point Likert scales (-4 to +4) that reflected the potential effect on patient and clinician experience and feasibility of implementation; after the third round, panelists selected their "top 5" practices from among those with median ratings of at least +2 for all 3 criteria. Final recommendations incorporate elements from all highly rated practices and emphasize the practices with the greatest number of panelist votes.The systematic literature review (n = 73 studies) and qualitative research activities yielded 31 preliminary practices. Following evidence synthesis, 13 distinct practices were reviewed by the Delphi panel, 8 of which met criteria for inclusion and were combined into a final set of 5 recommendations: (1) prepare with intention (take a moment to prepare and focus before greeting a patient); (2) listen intently and completely (sit down, lean forward, avoid interruptions); (3) agree on what matters most (find out what the patient cares about and incorporate these priorities into the visit agenda); (4) connect with the patient's story (consider life circumstances that influence the patient's health; acknowledge positive efforts; celebrate successes); and (5) explore emotional cues (notice, name, and validate the patient's emotions).This mixed-methods study identified 5 practices that have the potential to enhance physician presence and meaningful connection with patients in the clinical encounter. Evaluation and validation of the outcomes associated with implementing the 5 practices is needed, along with system-level interventions to create a supportive environment for implementation.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2019.19003

    View details for PubMedID 31910284

  • "Racial Bias…I'm Not Sure if It Has Affected My Practice": a Qualitative Exploration of Racial Bias in Team-Based Primary Care. Journal of general internal medicine Brown-Johnson, C. n., Shankar, M. n., Taylor, N. K., Safaeinili, N. n., Shaw, J. G., Winget, M. n., Mahoney, M. n. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-020-06219-w

    View details for PubMedID 32935312

  • The Stanford Lightning Report Method: A comparison of rapid qualitative synthesis results across four implementation evaluations LEARNING HEALTH SYSTEMS Brown-Johnson, C., Safaeinili, N., Zionts, D., Holdsworth, L. M., Shaw, J. G., Asch, S. M., Mahoney, M., Winget, M. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lrh2.10210

    View details for Web of Science ID 000503760600001

  • Role definition is key-Rapid qualitative ethnography findings from a team-based primary care transformation. Learning health systems Brown-Johnson, C., Shaw, J. G., Safaeinili, N., Chan, G. K., Mahoney, M., Asch, S., Winget, M. 2019; 3 (3): e10188


    Purpose: Implementing team-based care into existing primary care is challenging; understanding facilitators and barriers to implementation is critical. We assessed adoption and acceptability of new roles in the first 6months of launching a team-based care model focused on preventive care, population health, and psychosocial support.Methods: We conducted qualitative rapid ethnography at a community-based test clinic, including 74hours of observations and 28 semi-structured interviews. We identified implementation themes related to team-based care and specifically the integration of three roles purposively designed to enhance coordination for better patient outcomes, including preventive screening and mental health: (1) medical assistants as care coordinators; (2) extended care team specialists, including clinical pharmacist and behavioral health professional; and (3) advanced practice providers (APPs)-ie, nurse practitioners and physician assistants.Results: All stakeholders (ie, patients, providers, and staff) reported positive perceptions of care coordinators and extended care specialists; these roles were well defined and quickly implemented. Care coordinators effectively managed care between visits and established strong patient relationships. Specialist colocation facilitated patient access and well-supported diabetes services and mental health care. We also observed unanticipated value: Care coordinators relayed encounter-relevant chart information to providers while scribing; extended care specialists supported informal continuing medical education. In contrast, we observed uncertain definition and expectations of the APP role across stakeholders; accordingly, adoption and acceptability of the role varied.Conclusions: Practice redesign can redistribute responsibility and patient connection throughout a team but should emphasize well-defined roles. Ethnography, conducted early in implementation with multistakeholder perspectives, can provide rapid and actionable insights about where roles may need refinement or redefinition to support ultimate physical and mental health outcomes for patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lrh2.10188

    View details for PubMedID 31317071

  • Primary Care 2.0: Design of a Transformational Team-Based Practice Model to Meet the Quadruple Aim AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL QUALITY Brown-Johnson, C. G., Chan, G. K., Winget, M., Shaw, J. G., Patton, K., Hussain, R., Olayiwola, J., Chang, S., Mahoney, M. 2019; 34 (4): 339–47
  • E-Cigarettes: Harmful or Harm-Reducing? Evaluation of a Novel Online CME Program for Health Care Providers. Journal of general internal medicine Fielding-Singh, P. n., Brown-Johnson, C. n., Oppezzo, M. n., Das, S. n., Jackler, R. n., Prochaska, J. J. 2019


    Patients are asking health care providers about e-cigarettes, vaping, and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Provider advice on ENDS has varied greatly, suggesting a need for evidence-based continuing medical education (CME).A novel free online CME course was developed on ENDS risks and benefits, product types (e.g., vape pens, pods), and screening and counseling best practices for adults, adolescents, and different smoker profiles (e.g., daily, social).From January 2017 through June 2018, 1061 individuals accessed the course: 46% physicians, 7% physician assistants, 7% nurse practitioners, 15% nurses, 4% pharmacists, and 28% allied health/student/other; 41% were international.The course was built from observed online patient-provider interactions. Through video role-plays, expert interviews, and interactive activities, the course engaged learners in the evidence on ENDS. Completers earned 1.5 CME units.A total of 555 health care providers earned 832.5 CME units. Pre- to post-test scores significantly increased from 57 to 90%; 76% rated the course as above average (41%) or outstanding (35%); 99% indicated the course was free of commercial bias.Addressing the growing need for balanced provider education on ENDS, this interactive online CME engaged learners and increased knowledge on devices and evidence-based cessation approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-019-05388-7

    View details for PubMedID 31630366

  • Trust in Health Information Sources: Survey Analysis of Variation by Sociodemographic and Tobacco Use Status in Oklahoma. JMIR public health and surveillance Brown-Johnson, C. G., Boeckman, L. M., White, A. H., Burbank, A. D., Paulson, S., Beebe, L. A. 2018; 4 (1): e8


    BACKGROUND: Modern technology (ie, websites and social media) has significantly changed social mores in health information access and delivery. Although mass media campaigns for health intervention have proven effective and cost-effective in changing health behavior at a population scale, this is best studied in traditional media sources (ie, radio and television). Digital health interventions are options that use short message service/text messaging, social media, and internet technology. Although exposure to these products is becoming ubiquitous, electronic health information is novel, incompletely disseminated, and frequently inaccurate, which decreases public trust. Previous research has shown that audience trust in health care providers significantly moderates health outcomes, demographics significantly influence audience trust in electronic media, and preexisting health behaviors such as smoking status significantly moderate audience receptivity to traditional mass media. Therefore, modern health educators must assess audience trust in all sources, both media (traditional and digital) and interpersonal, to balance pros and cons before structuring multicomponent community health interventions.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore current trust and moderators of trust in health information sources given recent changes in digital health information access and delivery to inform design of future health interventions in Oklahoma.METHODS: We conducted phone surveys of a cross-sectional sample of 1001 Oklahoma adults (age 18-65 years) in spring 2015 to assess trust in seven media sources: traditional (television and radio), electronic (online and social media), and interpersonal (providers, insurers, and family/friends). We also gathered information on known moderators of trust (sociodemographics and tobacco use status). We modeled log odds of a participant rating a source as "trustworthy" (SAS PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC), with subanalysis for confounders (sociodemographics and tobacco use).RESULTS: Oklahomans showed the highest trust in interpersonal sources: 81% (808/994) reported providers were trustworthy, 55% (550/999) for friends and family, and 48% (485/998) for health insurers. For media sources, 24% of participants (232/989) rated the internet as trustworthy, followed by 21% of participants for television (225/998), 18% for radio (199/988), and only 11% for social media (110/991). Despite this low self-reported trust in social media, 40% (406/991) of participants reported using social media for tobacco-related health information. Trust in health providers did not vary by subpopulation, but sociodemographic variables (gender, income, and education) and tobacco use status significantly moderated trust in other sources. Women were on the whole more trusting than men, trust in media decreased with income, and trust in friends and family decreased with education.CONCLUSIONS: Health education interventions should incorporate digital media, particularly when targeting low-income populations. Utilizing health care providers in social media settings could leverage high-trust and low-cost features of providers and social media, respectively.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/publichealth.6260

    View details for PubMedID 29434015

  • Online Patient-Provider E-cigarette Consultations: Perceptions of Safety and Harm. American journal of preventive medicine Brown-Johnson, C. G., Burbank, A., Daza, E. J., Wassmann, A., Chieng, A., Rutledge, G. W., Prochaska, J. J. 2016


    E-cigarettes are popular and unregulated. Patient-provider communications concerning e-cigarettes were characterized to identify patient concerns, provider advice and attitudes, and research needs.An observational study of online patient-provider communications was conducted January 2011-June 2015 from a network providing free medical advice, and analyzed July 2014-May 2016. Patient and provider themes, and provider attitudes toward e-cigarettes (positive, negative, or neutral) were coded qualitatively. Provider attitudes were analyzed with cumulative logit modeling to account for clustering. Patient satisfaction with provider responses was expressed via a Thank function.An increase in e-cigarette-related questions was observed over time. Patient questions (N=512) primarily concerned specific side effects and harms (34%); general safety (27%); e-cigarettes as quit aids (19%); comparison of e-cigarette harms relative to combusted tobacco (18%); use with pre-existing medical conditions (18%); and nicotine-free e-cigarettes (14%). Half of provider responses discussed e-cigarettes as a harm reduction option (48%); 26% discussed them as quit aids. Overall, 47% of providers' responses represented a negative attitude toward e-cigarettes; 33% were neutral (contradictory or non-committal); and 20% were positive. Attitudes did not differ statistically by medical specialty; provider responses positive toward e-cigarettes received significantly more Thanks.Examination of online patient-provider communications provides insight into consumer health experience with emerging alternative tobacco products. Patient concerns largely related to harms and safety, and patients preferred provider responses positively inclined toward e-cigarettes. Lacking conclusive evidence of e-cigarette safety or efficacy, healthcare providers encouraged smoking cessation and recommended first-line cessation treatment approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.06.018

    View details for PubMedID 27576005

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5118131

  • Exploring Smoking Stigma, Alternative Tobacco Product Use, & Quit Attempts. Health behavior and policy review Brown-Johnson, C. G., Popova, L. 2016; 3 (1): 13-20


    Investigate smoking stigma among different tobacco user types.US adults (N=1,812) responded to an online survey, including non-smokers, smokeless tobacco users, exclusive smokers, and smokeless and cigarette "dual users".Dual users perceived the highest smoking stigma. Stigma was higher for smokers open to quitting by switching to smokeless. E-cigarette users (smokers) reported higher stigma than non-users. Making a past-year quit attempt was predicted by smoking stigma, and smokeless and/or e-cigarette use.Smoking stigma and dual use of smokeless tobacco and/or e-cigarettes with cigarettes predict quit attempts. However, smoking stigma might prevent smokers from consulting doctors and induce use of alternative tobacco products as cessation aids.

    View details for DOI 10.14485/HBPR.3.1.2

    View details for PubMedID 27088103

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4829360

  • "You have the right to protect your health": Perceptions of Secondhand Smoke and Exposure Mitigation Strategies in Low-Income Patients With Heart Disease, San Francisco, 2011-2012. Preventing chronic disease Brown-Johnson, C. G., Oppezzo, M., Benowitz, N. L., Prochaska, J. J. 2016; 13: E116-?


    We examined the understanding of the harms of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among low-income, hospitalized adults with cardiovascular disease. Participants were 15 nonsmokers reporting daily SHS exposure and 15 light or nondaily cigarette smokers. We coded responses from audiotaped semistructured interviews for themes. No participant spontaneously identified heart risks related to SHS exposure. Strategies to avoid SHS included verbal requests to not smoke and physically avoiding smoke; both smokers and nonsmokers prioritized politeness over urgency. Most participants thought a blood test quantifying SHS exposure would be clinically useful. Health education, assertiveness communication training, and protective policies (eg, smoke-free multiunit housing) also were supported.

    View details for DOI 10.5888/pcd13.150593

    View details for PubMedID 27560724

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5003531

  • Validity and reliability of the internalized stigma of smoking inventory: An exploration of shame, isolation, and discrimination in smokers with mental health diagnoses AMERICAN JOURNAL ON ADDICTIONS Brown-Johnson, C. G., Cataldo, J. K., Orozco, N., Lisha, N. E., Hickman, N. J., Prochaska, J. J. 2015; 24 (5): 410-418


    De-normalization of smoking as a public health strategy may create shame and isolation in vulnerable groups unable to quit. To examine the nature and impact of smoking stigma, we developed the Internalized Stigma of Smoking Inventory (ISSI), tested its validity and reliability, and explored factors that may contribute to smoking stigma.We evaluated the ISSI in a sample of smokers with mental health diagnoses (N = 956), using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and assessed construct validity.Results reduced the ISSI to eight items with three subscales: smoking self-stigma related to shame, felt stigma related to social isolation, and discrimination experiences. Discrimination was the most commonly endorsed of the three subscales. A multivariate generalized linear model predicted 21-30% of the variance in the smoking stigma subscales. Self-stigma was greatest among those intending to quit; felt stigma was highest among those experiencing stigma in other domains, namely ethnicity and mental illness-based; and smoking-related discrimination was highest among women, Caucasians, and those with more education.Smoking stigma may compound stigma experiences in other areas. Aspects of smoking stigma in the domains of shame, isolation, and discrimination were related to modeled stigma responses, particularly readiness to quit and cigarette addiction, and were found to be more salient for groups where tobacco use is least prevalent.The ISSI measure is useful for quantifying smoking-related stigma in multiple domains. (Am J Addict 2015;24:410 -418).

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ajad.12215

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358620400006

  • Clinical Impact of Routine Assessment of Patient-Reported Health Status in Heart Failure Clinic. Circulation Sandhu, A. T., Calma, J., Skye, M., Kalwani, N. M., Zheng, J., Schirmer, J., Din, N., Brown Johnson, C., Gupta, A., Lan, R., Yu, B., Spertus, J. A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2024


    The impact of routine clinic use of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) has not been well-characterized. We tested if clinic-based use of a disease-specific PRO improves patient-reported quality of life at 1 year.PRO-HF was an open-label, parallel, patient-level randomized clinical trial of routine PRO assessment or usual care at an academic HF clinic between August 30, 2021, and June 30, 2022, with 1 year of follow-up. In the PRO assessment arm, participants completed the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-12 (KCCQ-12) at each HF clinic visit and results were shared with their treating clinician. The usual care arm completed the KCCQ-12 at randomization and 1 year later, which was not shared with the treating clinician. The primary outcome was the KCCQ-12 Overall Summary Score (OSS) between 12-15 months post-randomization. Secondary outcomes included domains of the KCCQ-12, hospitalization and emergency department visit rates, HF medication therapy, clinic visit frequency, and testing rates.Across 17 clinicians, 1,248 participants were enrolled and randomized to PRO assessment (n=624) or usual care (n=624). The median age was 63.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 51.8-72.8), 38.9% were women, and the median baseline KCCQ-12 OSS was 82.3 (IQR 58.3-94.8). Final KCCQ-12 (available in 87.9% of the PRO arm and 85.1% in usual care [p=0.16]) median OSS scores were 87.5 (IQR 68.8-96.9) in the PRO arm and 87.6 (IQR 69.7-96.9) in the usual care arm with a baseline-adjusted mean difference of 0.2 (95% CI: -1.7 to 2.0; p=0.85). The results were consistent across pre-specified subgroups. A post hoc analysis demonstrated a significant interaction with greater benefit among participants with baseline KCCQ-12 OSS scores of 60-80 but not in less or more symptomatic participants. No significant differences were found in 1-year mortality, hospitalizations, ED visits, medication therapy, clinic follow-up, or testing rates between arms.Routine PRO assessment in HF clinic visits did not impact patient-reported quality of life or other clinical outcomes. Alternate strategies and settings for embedding PROs into routine clinical care should be tested.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.124.069624

    View details for PubMedID 38583147

  • Paediatricians' perspectives in treating lower urinary tract symptoms: a qualitative exploratory needs assessment study. BMJ paediatrics open Spinzi, S., Agrawal, G., Sharma, A., Venkatapuram, P., Sharma, K., Brown-Johnson, C., Kan, K. M. 2024; 8 (1)


    Paediatric lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common experiences among school-aged children, with prevalence rates reaching as high as 20%. Paediatricians are often first-line stakeholders in providing treatment for these bothersome symptoms, yet there is no formal resource to support them with the treatment of LUTS. Evaluating paediatricians' experiences is an important step in informing health promotion efforts to improve health outcomes in children. This study aims to explore paediatricians' knowledge, beliefs, practice patterns, and perceived barriers and facilitators in providing LUTS care.In this qualitative study, we conducted semistructured focus groups of paediatricians within California. Focus groups were conducted via Zoom, and participants were enrolled until thematic saturation was reached. Participants were asked about their current practices, knowledge and beliefs, barriers and facilitators to care, training and education, and responsibility for behaviour and action. Thematic analysis was performed using deductive and inductive approaches; themes were mapped through an iterative, team-based process.15 paediatricians, aged 30-69 years, with 13 (86.7%) women, were interviewed. Most (11, 73.3%) practised in general outpatient settings. Interviewed paediatricians recognised paediatric LUTS as a common problem that can significantly impact children's well-being. In practice, paediatricians did not actively screen for LUTS beyond the potty-training milestone due to short visit duration and competing healthcare demands. Lack of guidelines, parental mistrust and inadequate clinical education were barriers identified by paediatricians.Paediatricians expressed a willingness to help patients but indicated several limitations to providing adequate LUTS care. Future professional development work can emphasise guideline development, early screening strategies to support timely intervention and better education for clinicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjpo-2023-002372

    View details for PubMedID 38569740

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10989118

  • Patient and caregiver perspectives of fluid discharge protocols following pituitary surgery. Journal of clinical & translational endocrinology Chang, J. J., Amano, A., Brown-Johnson, C., Chu, O., Gates-Bazarbay, V., Wipff, E., Kling, S. M., Alhadha, M., Carlos Fernandez-Miranda, J., Vilendrer, S. 2024; 35: 100336


    Post-operative fluid restriction after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for pituitary tumors may effectively prevent delayed hyponatremia, the most common cause of readmission. However, implementation of individualized fluid restriction interventions after discharge is often complex and poses challenges for provider and patient. The purpose of this study was to understand the factors necessary for successful implementation of fluid restriction and discharge care protocols following TSS.Semi-structured interviews with fifteen patients and four caregivers on fluid discharge protocols were conducted following TSS. Patients and caregivers who had surgery before and after the implementation of updated discharge protocols were interviewed. Data were analyzed inductively using a procedure informed by rapid and thematic analysis.Most patients and caregivers perceived fluid restriction protocols as acceptable and feasible when indicated. Facilitators to the protocols included clear communication about the purpose of and strategies for fluid restriction, access to the care team, and involvement of patients' caregivers in care discussions. Barriers included patient confusion about differences in the care plan between teams, physical discomfort of fluid restriction, increased burden of tracking fluids during recovery, and lack of clarity surrounding desmopressin prescriptions.Outpatient fluid restriction protocols are a feasible intervention following pituitary surgery but requires frequent patient communication and education. This evaluation highlights the importance of patient engagement and feedback to effectively develop and implement complex clinical interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcte.2024.100336

    View details for PubMedID 38545460

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10965805

  • Qualitative interview study of strategies to support healthcare personnel mental health through an occupational health lens. BMJ open Brown-Johnson, C., DeShields, C., McCaa, M., Connell, N., Giannitrapani, S. N., Thanassi, W., Yano, E. M., Singer, S. J., Lorenz, K. A., Giannitrapani, K. 2024; 14 (1): e075920


    Employee Occupational Health ('occupational health') clinicians have expansive perspectives of the experience of healthcare personnel. Integrating mental health into the purview of occupational health is a newer approach that could combat historical limitations of healthcare personnel mental health programmes, which have been isolated and underused.We aimed to document innovation and opportunities for supporting healthcare personnel mental health through occupational health clinicians. This work was part of a national qualitative needs assessment of employee occupational health clinicians during COVID-19 who were very much at the centre of organisational responses.This qualitative needs assessment included key informant interviews obtained using snowball sampling methods.We interviewed 43 US Veterans Health Administration occupational health clinicians from 29 facilities.This analysis focused on personnel mental health needs and opportunities, using consensus coding of interview transcripts and modified member checking.Three major opportunities to support mental health through occupational health involved: (1) expanded mental health needs of healthcare personnel, including opportunities to support work-related concerns (eg, traumatic deployments), home-based concerns and bereavement (eg, working with chaplains); (2) leveraging expanded roles and protocols to address healthcare personnel mental health concerns, including opportunities in expanding occupational health roles, cross-disciplinary partnerships (eg, with employee assistance programmes (EAP)) and process/protocol (eg, acute suicidal ideation pathways) and (3) need for supporting occupational health clinicians' own mental health, including opportunities to address overwork/burn-out with adequate staffing/resources.Occupational health can enact strategies to support personnel mental health: to structurally sustain attention, use social cognition tools (eg, suicidality protocols or expanded job descriptions); to leverage distributed attention, enhance interdisciplinary collaboration (eg, chaplains for bereavement support or EAP) and to equip systems with resources and allow for flexibility during crises, including increased staffing.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-075920

    View details for PubMedID 38216178

  • Medicine plus mindset: A mixed-methods evaluation of a novel mindset-focused training for primary care teams. Patient education and counseling Leibowitz, K. A., Howe, L. C., Winget, M., Brown-Johnson, C., Safaeinili, N., Shaw, J. G., Thakor, D., Kwan, L., Mahoney, M., Crum, A. J. 2024; 122: 108130


    Patient mindsets influence health outcomes; yet trainings focused on care teams' understanding, recognizing, and shaping patient mindsets do not exist. This paper aims to describe and evaluate initial reception of the "Medicine Plus Mindset" training program.Clinicians and staff at five primary care clinics (N = 186) in the San Francisco Bay Area received the Medicine Plus Mindset Training. The Medicine Plus Mindset training consists of a two-hour training program plus a one-hour follow-up session including: (a) evidence to help care teams understand patients' mindsets' influence on treatment; (b) a framework to support care teams in identifying specific patient mindsets; and (c) strategies to shape patient mindsets.We used a common model (Kirkpatrick) to evaluate the training based on participants' reaction, learnings, and behavior. Reaction: Participants rated the training as highly useful and enjoyable. Learnings: The training increased the perceived importance of mindsets in healthcare and improved self-reported efficacy of using mindsets in practice. Behavior: The training increased reported frequency of shaping patient mindsets.Development of this training and the study's results introduce a promising and feasible approach for integrating mindset into clinical practice. Practice Implications Mindset training can add a valuable dimension to clinical care and should be integrated into training and clinical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pec.2023.108130

    View details for PubMedID 38242012

  • Evaluating the Implementation of a Relationship-Centered Communication Training for Connecting With Patients in Virtual Visits. Journal of patient experience Pines, R., Haverfield, M. C., Wong Chen, S., Lee, E., Brown-Johnson, C., Kline, M., Weimer-Elder, B. 2024; 11: 23743735241241179


    The use of telehealth, specifically virtual visits, has increased and adoption continues. Providers need effective training for how to communicate with patients to develop a connection during virtual visits. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a course called Mastering Presence in Virtual Visits. Results show that although providers perceive lack of time, technology issues, and lacking experiential knowledge as barriers to enacting course behaviors, the course was feasible and acceptable. Following the course, providers rated key course behaviors as helpful for practice, and 80.7% of providers were likely to recommend the course to a colleague. The course shifted provider perceptions of the purpose, patient experience, and procedures in virtual visits. Prior to the course, providers perceived virtual visits as fundamentally different than in-person visits. However, after the course, they recognized the importance of connection in virtual visits and how to foster that connection. Providers continue to require support in conducting high-quality virtual visits. Online, asynchronous courses, developed in partnership with providers, are feasible and effective for encouraging behavior change. Key findings: When asked on a needs assessment in 2020, communication strategies to connect with patients in virtual visits were a top provider need. Partnering with providers to create online, communication training content is effective for increasing the acceptability of courses about virtual visits. Asynchronous, online courses can meet provider needs for communication strategies to connect with patients in virtual visits.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/23743735241241179

    View details for PubMedID 38515761

  • Analysis of FRAME data (A-FRAME): An analytic approach to assess the impact of adaptations on health services interventions and evaluations. Learning health systems Mui, H. Z., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Lessios, A. S., Verano, M., Siden, R., Holdsworth, L. M. 2024; 8 (1): e10364


    Tracking adaptations during implementation can help assess and interpret outcomes. The framework for reporting adaptations and modifications-expanded (FRAME) provides a structured approach to characterize adaptations. We applied the FRAME across multiple health services projects, and developed an analytic approach to assess the impact of adaptations.Mixed methods analysis of research diaries from seven quality improvement (QI) and research projects during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the FRAME as a codebook, discrete adaptations were described and categorized. We then conducted a three-step analysis plan: (1) calculated the frequency of adaptations by FRAME categories across projects; (2) qualitatively assessed the impact of adaptations on project goals; and (3) qualitatively assessed relationships between adaptations within projects to thematically consolidate adaptations to generate more explanatory value on how adaptations influenced intervention progress and outcomes.Between March and July 2020, 42 adaptations were identified across seven health services projects. The majority of adaptations related to training or evaluation (52.4%) with the goal of maintaining the feasibility (66.7%) of executing projects during the pandemic. Five FRAME constructs offered the most explanatory benefit to assess the impact of adaptations on program and evaluation goals, providing the basis for creating an analytic approach dubbed the "A-FRAME," analysis of FRAME data. Using the A-FRAME, the 42 adaptations were consolidated into 17 succinct adaptations. Two QI projects discontinued altogether. Intervention adaptations related to staffing, training, or delivery, while evaluation adaptations included design, recruitment, and data collection adjustments.By sifting qualitative data about adaptations into the A-FRAME, implementers and researchers can succinctly describe how adaptations affect interventions and their evaluations. The simple and concise presentation of information using the A-FRAME matrix can help implementers and evaluators account for the influence of adaptations on program outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lrh2.10364

    View details for PubMedID 38249838

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10797575

  • Opportunities to Increase Science of Diversity and Inclusion in Clinical Trials: Equity and a Lack of a Control. Journal of the American Heart Association Igwe, J., Wangdak Yuthok, T. Y., Cruz, E., Mueller, A., Lan, R. H., Brown-Johnson, C., Idris, M., Rodriguez, F., Clark, K., Palaniappan, L., Echols, M., Wang, P., Onwuanyi, A., Pemu, P., Lewis, E. F. 2023: e030042


    The United States witnessed a nearly 4-fold increase in personal health care expenditures between 1980 and 2010. Despite innovations and obvious benefits to health, participants enrolled in clinical trials still do not accurately represent the racial and ethnic composition of patients nationally or globally. This lack of diversity in cohorts limits the generalizability and significance of results among all populations and has deep repercussions for patient equity. To advance diversity in clinical trials, robust evidence for the most effective strategies for recruitment of diverse participants is needed. A major limitation of previous literature on clinical trial diversity is the lack of control or comparator groups for different strategies. To date, interventions have focused primarily on (1) community-based interventions, (2) institutional practices, and (3) digital health systems. This review article outlines prior intervention strategies across these 3 categories and considers health policy and ethical incentives for substantiation before US Food and Drug Administration approval. There are no current studies that comprehensively compare these interventions against one another. The American Heart Association Strategically Focused Research Network on the Science of Diversity in Clinical Trials represents a multicenter, collaborative network between Stanford School of Medicine and Morehouse School of Medicine created to understand the barriers to diversity in clinical trials by contemporaneous head-to-head interventional strategies accessing digital, institutional, and community-based recruitment strategies to produce informed recruitment strategies targeted to improve underrepresented patient representation in clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.123.030042

    View details for PubMedID 38108253

  • Barriers to Family Building Among Physicians and Medical Students. JAMA network open King, Z., Zhang, Q., Liang, J. W., Levy, M. S., Plowden, T. C., Jeelani, R., Marshall, A. L., Barnett, R., Caban-Martinez, A. J., Brown, A., Mueller, C. M., Brown-Johnson, C., Salles, A. 2023; 6 (12): e2349937


    Physicians and medical students who desire to build families face significant barriers due to the structure and culture of medicine.To understand the barriers and facilitators to family building for all people in medicine-not only individuals who can become pregnant-through an open-ended, qualitative analysis of survey responses.This qualitative study used a survey conducted in April and May 2021 with a broad sample of physicians and medical students. Participants were recruited through social media, targeting physician and medical student communities. Physicians (residents, fellows, and physicians in independent practice) and medical students of all gender identities and sexual orientations were included. Informed by a postpositivist approach, coding reliability thematic analysis was performed on 3 open-ended survey questions on family-building experiences (what they would do differently, what advice they have for others, and anything else they wished to share).Identified themes were mapped to the social-ecological model, a model used in public health to examine how a spectrum of factors is associated with health outcomes.A total of 2025 people (1860 [92%] women; 299 [15%] Asian, 151 [8%] Black, and 1303 [64%] White; 1730 [85%] heterosexual; and 1200 [59%] physicians who had completed training) responded to at least 1 of 3 open-ended questions. Themes mapped to social-ecological model levels included: (1) cultural, eg, medical training being at odds with family building; (2) organizational, eg, lack of institutional support for the range of family-building routes; (3) interpersonal, eg, impact of social support on family building; and (4) individual, eg, socioeconomic status and other individual factors that facilitate or inhibit family building. Recommendations to improve family-building experiences include implementing family-building curricula at medical schools, providing adequate parental leave for all physicians and medical students who become parents, and providing insurance coverage for all family-building routes.In this qualitative study of physicians and medical students, self-reported barriers to family building were identified at each level of the social-ecological model. Addressing these barriers is critical to creating a more equitable family-building environment for physicians and medical students.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.49937

    View details for PubMedID 38153730

  • Disabilities Reporting in Cardiac Clinical Trials: How Are We Doing? Journal of the American Heart Association Lan, R. H., Rice, E. N., Nunes, J. C., Shah, R., Igwe, J. K., Clark, K., Periyakoil, V. S., Chen, J. H., Lin, B., Awad, C., Idris, M., Cruz, E. R., Lewis, E. F., Johnson, C. B., Wang, P. J. 2023: e029726

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.123.029726

    View details for PubMedID 37949834

  • Who Are We Missing? Reporting of Transgender and Gender-Expansive Populations in Clinical Trials. Journal of the American Heart Association Rice, E. N., Lan, R. H., Nunes, J. C., Shah, R., Clark, K., Periyakoil, V. S., Chen, J. H., Lin, B., Echols, M., Awad, C., Idris, M. Y., Cruz, E. R., Poullos, P. D., Lewis, E. F., Brown-Johnson, C., Igwe, J., Shen, S., Palaniappan, L., Stefanick, M. L., Ritter, V., Pemu, P., Rodriguez, F., Deb, B., Pundi, K., Wang, P. J. 2023: e030209

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.123.030209

    View details for PubMedID 37947088

  • Physician- and Patient-Elicited Barriers and Facilitators to Implementation of a Machine Learning-Based Screening Tool for Peripheral Arterial Disease: Preimplementation Study With Physician and Patient Stakeholders. JMIR cardio Ho, V., Brown Johnson, C., Ghanzouri, I., Amal, S., Asch, S., Ross, E. 2023; 7: e44732


    BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is underdiagnosed, partially due to a high prevalence of atypical symptoms and a lack of physician and patient awareness. Implementing clinical decision support tools powered by machine learning algorithms may help physicians identify high-risk patients for diagnostic workup.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a novel machine learning-based screening tool for PAD among physician and patient stakeholders using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR).METHODS: We performed semistructured interviews with physicians and patients from the Stanford University Department of Primary Care and Population Health, Division of Cardiology, and Division of Vascular Medicine. Participants answered questions regarding their perceptions toward machine learning and clinical decision support for PAD detection. Rapid thematic analysis was performed using templates incorporating codes from CFIR constructs.RESULTS: A total of 12 physicians (6 primary care physicians and 6 cardiovascular specialists) and 14 patients were interviewed. Barriers to implementation arose from 6 CFIR constructs: complexity, evidence strength and quality, relative priority, external policies and incentives, knowledge and beliefs about intervention, and individual identification with the organization. Facilitators arose from 5 CFIR constructs: intervention source, relative advantage, learning climate, patient needs and resources, and knowledge and beliefs about intervention. Physicians felt that a machine learning-powered diagnostic tool for PAD would improve patient care but cited limited time and authority in asking patients to undergo additional screening procedures. Patients were interested in having their physicians use this tool but raised concerns about such technologies replacing human decision-making.CONCLUSIONS: Patient- and physician-reported barriers toward the implementation of a machine learning-powered PAD diagnostic tool followed four interdependent themes: (1) low familiarity or urgency in detecting PAD; (2) concerns regarding the reliability of machine learning; (3) differential perceptions of responsibility for PAD care among primary care versus specialty physicians; and (4) patient preference for physicians to remain primary interpreters of health care data. Facilitators followed two interdependent themes: (1) enthusiasm for clinical use of the predictive model and (2) willingness to incorporate machine learning into clinical care. Implementation of machine learning-powered diagnostic tools for PAD should leverage provider support while simultaneously educating stakeholders on the importance of early PAD diagnosis. High predictive validity is necessary for machine learning models but not sufficient for implementation.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/44732

    View details for PubMedID 37930755

  • Building trust and partnership with Black pediatric patients and their families: A scoping review. Academic pediatrics Garcia, R. S., Hollis, T., Baratta, J., King, Z., Faulks, M., Ricketts, M., Brown-Johnson, C., Shankar, M., Guerin, A., Wong, C., Zulman, D. M., Floyd, B. D. 2023


    Systemic racism embedded within the U.S. healthcare system results in disproportionately worse health outcomes for Black pediatric patients and their families/caregivers. One meaningful mechanism through which these health disparities persist is through discriminatory treatment and anti-Black bias from clinicians. Strengthening care provided to Black pediatric patients and their families/caregivers requires that clinicians adopt culturally tailored communication strategies that promote health equity and counter racism. We conducted a scoping review of evidence-based communication practices in the medical literature that improve care for Black pediatric patients. We mapped the specific practices to the Presence 5 for Racial Justice framework and identified cross-cutting themes to describe practices across the five domains. There are three cross-cutting themes that underlie the recommended practices: (1) promote unbiased implementation of clinician communication strategies (e.g., providing equitable recommendations for preventive care); (2) tailor care to Black pediatric patients (e.g., explore the importance of the family unit); and (3) address racism experienced by Black pediatric patients and their families/caregivers (e.g., acknowledge any previous negative experiences with the healthcare system). This review highlights communication practices that clinicians can adopt to build trusting relationships, empower Black families, and promote racial justice in clinical care. Future opportunities include expanding to system level change and validating these practices with patients and clinicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2023.08.016

    View details for PubMedID 37659602

  • A Nurse-Led Care Delivery App and Telehealth System for Patients Requiring Wound Care: Mixed Methods Implementation and Evaluation Study. JMIR formative research Brown-Johnson, C. G., Lessios, A. S., Thomas, S., Kim, M., Fukaya, E., Wu, S., Kling, S. M., Brown, G., Winget, M. 2023; 7: e43258


    Innovative solutions to nursing care are needed to address nurse, health system, patient, and caregiver concerns related to nursing wellness, work flexibility and control, workforce retention and pipeline, and access to patient care. One innovative approach includes a novel health care delivery model enabling nurse-led, off-hours wound care (PocketRN) to triage emergent concerns and provide additional patient health education via telehealth.This pilot study aimed to evaluate the implementation of PocketRN from the perspective of nurses and patients.Patients and part-time or per-diem, wound care-certified and generalist nurses were recruited through the Stanford Medicine Advanced Wound Care Center in 2021 and 2022. Qualitative data included semistructured interviews with nurses and patients and clinical documentation review. Quantitative data included app use and brief end-of-interaction in-app satisfaction surveys.This pilot study suggests that an app-based nursing care delivery model is acceptable, clinically appropriate, and feasible. Low technology literacy had a modest effect on initial patient adoption; this barrier was addressed with built-in outreach and by simplifying the patient experience (eg, via phone instead of video calls). This approach was acceptable for users, despite total patient enrollment and use numbers being lower than anticipated (N=49; 17/49, 35% of patients used the app at least once beyond the orientation call). We interviewed 10 patients: 7 who had used the app were satisfied with it and reported that real-time advice after hours reduced anxiety, and 3 who had not used the app after enrollment reported having other resources for health care advice and noted their perception that this tool was meant for urgent issues, which did not occur for them. Interviewed nurses (n=10) appreciated working from home, and they reported comfort with the scope of practice and added quality of care facilitated by video capabilities; there was interest in additional wound care-specific training for nonspecialized nurses. Nurses were able to provide direct patient care over the web, including the few participating nurses who were unable to perform in-person care (n=2).This evaluation provides insights into the integration of technology into standard health care services, such as in-clinic wound care. Using in-system nurses with access to electronic medical records and specialized knowledge facilitated app integration and continuity of care. This care delivery model satisfied nurse desires for flexible and remote work and reduced patient anxiety, potentially reducing postoperative wound care complications. Feasibility was negatively impacted by patients' technology literacy and few language options; additional patient training, education, and language support are needed to support equitable access. Adoption was impacted by a lack of perceived need for additional care; lower-touch or higher-acuity settings with a longer wait between visits could be a better fit for this type of nurse-led care.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/43258

    View details for PubMedID 37610798

  • An initiative to promote value-based stress test selection in primary care and cardiology clinics: A mixed methods evaluation. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice Kling, S. M., Kalwani, N. M., Winget, M., Gupta, K., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Baratta, J., Garvert, D. W., Veruttipong, D., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Vilendrer, S., Gaspar, C., Levin, E., Tsai, S. 2023


    Exercise stress echocardiograms (stress echos) are overused, whereas exercise stress electrocardiograms (stress ECGs) can be an appropriate, lower-cost substitute. In this post hoc, mixed methods evaluation, we assessed an initiative promoting value-based, guideline-concordant ordering practices in primary care (PC) and cardiology clinics.Change in percent of stress ECGs ordered of all exercise stress tests (stress ECGs and echos) was calculated between three periods: baseline (January 2019-February 2020); Period 1 with reduced stress ECG report turnaround time + PC-targeted education (began June 2020); and Period 2 with the addition of electronic health record-based alternative alert (AA) providing point-of-care clinical decision support. The AA was deployed in two of five PC clinics in July 2020, two additional PC clinics in January 2021, and one of four cardiology clinics in February 2021. Nineteen primary care providers (PCPs) and five cardiologists were interviewed in Period 2.Clinicians reported reducing ECG report turnaround time was crucial for adoption. PCPs specifically reported that value-based education helped change their practice. In PC, the percent of stress ECGs ordered increased by 38% ± 6% (SE) (p < 0.0001) from baseline to Period 1. Most PCPs identified the AA as the most impactful initiative, yet stress ECG ordering did not change (6% ± 6%; p = 0.34) between Periods 1 and 2. In contrast, cardiologists reportedly relied on their expertise rather than AAs, yet their stress ECGs orders increased from Period 1 to 2 to a larger degree in the cardiology clinic with the AA (12% ± 5%; p = 0.01) than clinics without the AA (6% ± 2%; p = 0.01). The percent of stress ECGs ordered was higher in Period 2 than baseline for both specialties (both p < 0.0001).This initiative influenced ordering behaviour in PC and cardiology clinics. However, clinicians' perceptions of the initiative varied between specialties and did not always align with the observed behaviour change.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jep.13896

    View details for PubMedID 37459156

  • The Stanford Lightning Report: A pragmatic methodological approach for rapid qualitative synthesis Brown-Johnson, C., Safaeinili, N., Zionts, D., Holdsworth, L. M., Shaw, J. G., Asch, S. M., Mahoney, M., Winget, M. BMC. 2023
  • From Acceptable to Superlative: Scaling a Technologist Coaching Intervention to Improve Image Quality. Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR Hwang, G. L., Vilendrer, S., Amano, A., Brown-Johnson, C., Kling, S. M., Faust, A., Willis, M. H., Larson, D. B. 2023; 20 (6): 570-584


    To explore factors influencing the expansion of the peer-based technologist Coaching Model Program (CMP) from its origins in mammography and ultrasound to all imaging modalities at a single tertiary academic medical center.After success in mammography and ultrasound, efforts to expand the CMP across all Stanford Radiology modalities commenced in September 2020. From February to April 2021 as lead coaches piloted the program in these novel modalities, an implementation science team designed and conducted semistructured stakeholder interviews and took observational notes at learning collaborative meetings. Data were analyzed using inductive-deductive approaches informed by two implementation science frameworks.Twenty-seven interviews were collected across modalities with radiologists (n = 5), managers (n = 6), coaches (n = 11), and technologists (n = 5) and analyzed with observational notes from six learning meetings with 25 to 40 recurrent participants. The number of technologists, the complexity of examinations, or the existence of standardized auditing criteria for each modality influenced CMP adaptations. Facilitators underlying program expansion included cross-modality learning collaborative, thoughtful pairing of coach and technologist, flexibility in feedback frequency and format, radiologist engagement, and staged rollout. Barriers included lack of protected coaching time, lack of pre-existing audit criteria for some modalities, and the need for privacy of auditing and feedback data.Adaptations to each radiology modality and communication of these learnings were key to disseminating the existing CMP to new modalities across the entire department. An intermodality learning collaborative can facilitate the dissemination of evidence-based practices across modalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2022.10.007

    View details for PubMedID 37302811

  • Evolution of a Project to Improve Inpatient-to-Outpatient Dermatology Care Transitions: Mixed Methods Evaluation. JMIR dermatology Kling, S. M., Aleshin, M. A., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Garvert, D. W., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Amano, A., Kwong, B. Y., Calugar, A., Shaw, J. G., Ko, J. M., Winget, M. 2023; 6: e43389


    BACKGROUND: In-hospital dermatological care has shifted from dedicated dermatology wards to consultation services, and some consulted patients may require postdischarge follow-up in outpatient dermatology. Safe and timely care transitions from inpatient-to-outpatient specialty care are critical for patient health, but communication around these transitions can be disjointed, and workflows can be complex.OBJECTIVE: In this 3-phase quality improvement effort, we developed and evaluated an intervention that leveraged an electronic health record (EHR) feature, known as SmartPhrase, to enable a new workflow to improve transitions from inpatient care to outpatient dermatology.METHODS: Phase 1 (February-March 2021) included interviews with patients and process mapping with key stakeholders to identify gaps and inform an intervention: a SmartPhrase table and associated workflow to promote collection of patient information needed for scheduling follow-up and closed-loop communication between dermatology and scheduling teams. In phase 2 (April-May 2021), semistructured interviews-with dermatologists (n=5), dermatology residents (n=5), and schedulers (n=6)-identified pain points and refinements. In phase 3, the intervention was evaluated by triangulating data from these interviews with measured changes in scheduling efficiency, visit completion, and messaging volume preimplementation (January-February 2021) and postimplementation (April-May 2021).RESULTS: Preintervention pain points included unclear workflow for care transitions, limited patient input in follow-up planning, multiple messaging channels (eg, EHR based, email, and phone messages), and time-inefficient patient tracking. The intervention addressed most pain points; interviewees reported the intervention was easy to adopt and improved scheduling efficiency, workload, and patient involvement. More visits were completed within the desired timeframe of 14 days after discharge during the postimplementation period (21/47, 45%) than the preimplementation period (28/41, 68%; P=.03). The messaging workload also decreased from 88 scheduling-related messages sent for 25 patients before implementation to 30 messages for 8 patients after implementation.CONCLUSIONS: Inpatient-to-outpatient specialty care transitions are complex and involve multiple stakeholders, thus requiring multifaceted solutions. With deliberate evaluation, broad stakeholder input, and iteration, we designed and implemented a successful solution using a standard EHR feature, SmartPhrase, integrated into a standardized workflow to improve the timeliness of posthospital specialty care and reduce workload.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/43389

    View details for PubMedID 37632927

  • Implementing an Interdisciplinary Team-Based Serious Illness Care Program (SICP) in Stanford Healthcare Giannitrapani, K., Garcia, R., Teuteberg, W., Brown-Johnson, C. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2023: E627-E628
  • Evaluating the Implementation of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Heart Failure Clinic: A Qualitative Assessment. Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes Brown-Johnson, C., Calma, J., Amano, A., Winget, M., Harris, S. R., Vilendrer, S., Asch, S. M., Heidenreich, P., Sandhu, A. T., Kalwani, N. M. 2023: e009677


    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) may improve care for patients with heart failure. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-12 (KCCQ-12) is a patient survey that captures symptom frequency, symptom burden, physical limitations, social limitations, and quality of life. Despite the utility of PROs and the KCCQ-12, the implementation and routine use of these measures can be difficult. We conducted an evaluation of clinician perceptions of the KCCQ-12 to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation into clinical practice.We conducted interviews with cardiologists from 4 institutions across the United States and Canada (n=16) and observed clinic visits at 1 institution in Northern California (n=5). Qualitative analysis was conducted in 2 rounds: (1) rapid analysis constructed around major themes related to the aims of the study and (2) content analysis with codes derived from the rapid analysis and implementation science.Most heart failure physicians and advanced practice clinicians reported that the KCCQ-12 was acceptable, appropriate, and useful in clinical care. Clinician engagement efforts, trialability, and the straightforward design of the KCCQ-12 facilitated its use in clinical care. Further opportunities identified to facilitate implementation include more streamlined integration into the electronic health record and comprehensive staff education on PROs. Participants highlighted that the KCCQ-12 was useful in clinic visits to improve the consistency of patient history taking, focus patient-clinician conversations, collect a more accurate account of patient quality of life, track trends in patient well-being over time, and refine clinical decision-making.In this qualitative study, clinicians reported that the KCCQ-12 enhanced several aspects of heart failure patient care. Use of the KCCQ-12 was facilitated by a robust clinician engagement campaign and the design of the KCCQ-12 itself. Future implementation of PROs in heart failure clinic should focus on streamlining electronic health record integration and providing additional staff education on the value of PROs.URL:; Unique identifier: NCT04164004.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.122.009677

    View details for PubMedID 37114990

  • Analysis of FRAME data (A-FRAME): An analytic approach to assess the impact of adaptations on health services interventions and evaluations LEARNING HEALTH SYSTEMS Mui, H. Z., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Lessios, A., Verano, M., Siden, R., Holdsworth, L. M. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lrh2.10364

    View details for Web of Science ID 000952417800001

  • WHO ARE WE MISSING? REPORTING OF TRANSGENDER AND GENDER EXPANSIVE POPULATIONS IN CLINICAL TRIALS Rice, E., Lan, R., Nunes, J., Shah, R., Echols, M. R., Lunn, M., Bryant, L., Lewis, E. F., Awad, C., Idris, M. Y., Clark, K., Periyakoil, V., Cruz, E., Chen, J., Brown-Johnson, C., Palaniappan, L. P., Wang, P. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2023: 119
  • DISABILITIES REPORTING IN CLINICAL TRIALS. HOW ARE WE DOING? Lan, R., Rice, E., Nunes, J., Shah, R., Joseph, I. E., Echols, M. R., Echols, M. R., Lunn, M., Bryant, L., Lewis, E. F., Awad, C., Idris, M. Y., Clark, K., Periyakoil, V., Cruz, E., Chen, J., Brown-Johnson, C., Palaniappan, L. P., Wang, P. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2023: 172
  • The Team-based Serious Illness Care Program, a qualitative evaluation of implementation and teaming. Journal of pain and symptom management Garcia, R., Brown-Johnson, C., Teuteberg, W., Seevaratham, B., Giannitrapani, K. 2023


    CONTEXT: Earlier and more frequent serious illness conversations with patients allow clinical teams to better align care with patients' goals and values. Non-physician clinicians often have unique perspectives and understanding of patients' wishes and are thus well-positioned to support conversations with seriously ill patients. The Team-based Serious Illness Care Program (SICP) at Stanford aimed to involve all care team members to support and conduct serious illness conversations with patients and their caregivers and families.OBJECTIVES: We conducted interviews with clinicians to understand how care teams implement team-based approaches to conduct serious illness conversations and navigate resulting team complexity.METHODS: We used a rapid qualitative approach to analyze semi-structured interviews of clinician and administrative stakeholders in two Team-based SICP implementation groups (i.e., inpatient oncology and hospital medicine) (n=25). Analysis was informed by frameworks/theory: cross-disciplinary role agreement, team formation and functioning, and organizational theory.RESULTS: Implementing Team-based SICP was feasible. Theme 1 centered on how teams formed and managed to come to agreement: teams with rapidly changing staffing/responsibilities prioritized communication, whereas teams with consistent staffing/responsibilities primarily relied on protocols. Theme 2 demonstrated that leaders and managers at multiple levels could support implementation. Theme 3 explored strengths and opportunities. Positively, Team-based SICP distributed work burden, timed conversations in alignment with patient needs, and added unique value from non-physician team members. Role ambiguity and conflict were attributed to miscommunication and ethical conflicts.CONCLUSION: Team-based serious illness communication is viable and valuable, with a range of successful workflow and leadership approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2023.01.024

    View details for PubMedID 36764413

  • Physician Perceptions of Performance Feedback and Impact on Personal Well-Being: A Qualitative Exploration of Patient Satisfaction Feedback in Neurology. Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety Vilendrer, S., Levoy, E., Miller-Kuhlmann, R., Amano, A., Brown-Johnson, C., De Borba, L., Luu, J. H., Sakamuri, S., Gold, C. A. 2022


    BACKGROUND: To understand neurologists' experiences and perspectives on patient satisfaction feedback and its impact on personal well-being and behavior.METHODS: From May to June 2021, the researchers conducted 19 semistructured interviews with neurologists from a large academic medical center. Clinical Performance Feedback Intervention Theory informed a combined inductive and deductive thematic analysis of the qualitative data, which focused on perceptions of current feedback practices, its impact on physician behavior, and recommendations for improvement.RESULTS: Participants tended to be female (n = 12/19, 63.2%), aged 30-39 (n = 8/19, 42.1%), white (n = 9/19, 47.4%), and were 10+ years into clinical practice (n = 18/19, 94.7%). Physicians were receptive to feedback overall, but perceptions varied by feedback type. Physicians preferred informal feedback (delivered unprompted directly by patients), given its tendency toward actionability. They disliked formal feedback (derived from anonymous surveys) due to low actionability, bias and validity issues, lack of contextual considerations, delivery through public reports, and links to financial incentives. Nearly all physicians reported formal feedback programs had the potential to negatively affect well-being and were not beneficial to their practice; a few reported adjusting their clinical practice to improve patient satisfaction performance. Five recommendations to improve patient satisfaction feedback programs emerged: Align on feedback intent, acknowledge survey limitations during program administration, increase actionability of feedback through specificity and control, support direct patient-physician feedback and problem resolution, and support empathetic integration of feedback.CONCLUSION: Understanding physician perceptions of current approaches to patient satisfaction feedback offers the opportunity to shape subsequent collection and distribution methods to improve physician performance and optimize professional fulfillment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcjq.2022.12.003

    View details for PubMedID 36732115

  • Increasing access, quality, and convenience of care through a specialty-matched telenursing platform for vascular and wound patients - a pilot study Thomas, S., Fukaya, E., Kim, M., Winget, M., Brown-Johnson, C., Lestoquoy, A., Veruttipong, D. SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. 2022: 656
  • Pandemic Through the Lens of Black Barbershops: COVID-19's Impact and Barbers' Potential Role as Public Health Extenders. Journal of immigrant and minority health Taylor, N. K., Faulks, M., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Rosas, L. G., Shaw, J. G., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Asch, S. M. 2022


    We examined the impact of COVID-19 on Black barbershops and their potential role as public health extenders. A 30-item survey was distributed to predominantly Black barbershop owners and barbers across 40 different states/territories in the US between June and October 2020. The survey addressed the impact of COVID-19 on Black barbershops, and barbers' interest in engaging in health outreach programs. The majority reported that stay-at-home orders had significant to severe impact on their business; few were prepared for the financial impact and less than half thought they qualified for government assistance. The majority were already providing health education and outreach to the Black community and showed interest in continuing to provide such services, like information on COVID-19. Barbers in Black-serving barbershops, a well-documented effective place for public health outreach to the Black community, show promise as public health extenders in the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10903-022-01420-x

    View details for PubMedID 36417031

  • The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement in Heart Failure Clinic Trial: Rationale and Methods of The PRO-HF Trial. American heart journal Kalwani, N. M., Calma, J., Varghese, G. M., Gupta, A., Zheng, J., Brown-Johnson, C., Amano, A., Vilendrer, S., Winget, M., Asch, S. M., Heidenreich, P., Sandhu, A. 2022


    BACKGROUND: Among patients with heart failure (HF), patient-reported health status provides information beyond standard clinician assessment. Although HF management guidelines recommend collecting patient-reported health status as part of routine care, there is minimal data on the impact of this intervention.STUDY DESIGN: The Patient-Reported Outcomes in Heart Failure Clinic (PRO-HF) trial is a pragmatic, randomized, implementation-effectiveness trial testing the hypothesis that routine health status assessment via the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-12 (KCCQ-12) leads to an improvement in patient-reported health status among patients treated in a tertiary health system HF clinic. PRO-HF has completed randomization of 1,248 participants to routine KCCQ-12 assessment or usual care. Patients randomized to the KCCQ-12 arm complete KCCQ-12 assessments before each HF clinic visit with the results shared with their treating clinician. Clinicians received education regarding the interpretation and potential utility of the KCCQ-12. The primary endpoint is the change in KCCQ-12 over 1 year. Secondary outcomes are HF therapy patterns and healthcare utilization, including clinic visits, testing, hospitalizations, and emergency department (ED) visits. As a sub-study, PRO-HF also evaluated the impact of routine KCCQ-12 assessment on patient experience and the accuracy of clinician-assessed health status. In addition, clinicians completed semi-structured interviews to capture their perceptions on the trial's implementation of routine KCCQ-12 assessment in clinical practice.CONCLUSIONS: PRO-HF is a pragmatic, randomized trial based in a real-world HF clinic to determine the feasibility of routinely assessing patient-reported health status and the impact of this intervention on health status, care delivery, patient experience, and the accuracy of clinician health status assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2022.10.081

    View details for PubMedID 36309127

  • Evaluating clinician-led quality improvement initiatives: A system-wide embedded research partnership at Stanford Medicine. Learning health systems Vilendrer, S., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Asch, S. M., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Kling, S. M., Shaw, J. G., Winget, M., Larson, D. B. 2022; 6 (4): e10335


    Many healthcare delivery systems have developed clinician-led quality improvement (QI) initiatives but fewer have also developed in-house evaluation units. Engagement between the two entities creates unique opportunities. Stanford Medicine funded a collaboration between their Improvement Capability Development Program (ICDP), which coordinates and incentivizes clinician-led QI efforts, and the Evaluation Sciences Unit (ESU), a multidisciplinary group of embedded researchers with expertise in implementation and evaluation sciences.To describe the ICDP-ESU partnership and report key learnings from the first 2 y of operation September 2019 to August 2021.Department-level physician and operational QI leaders were offered an ESU consultation to workshop design, methods, and overall scope of their annual QI projects. A steering committee of high-level stakeholders from operational, clinical, and research perspectives subsequently selected three projects for in-depth partnered evaluation with the ESU based on evaluability, importance to the health system, and broader relevance. Selected project teams met regularly with the ESU to develop mixed methods evaluations informed by relevant implementation science frameworks, while aligning the evaluation approach with the clinical teams' QI goals.Sixty and 62 ICDP projects were initiated during the 2 cycles, respectively, across 18 departments, of which ESU consulted with 15 (83%). Within each annual cycle, evaluators made actionable, summative findings rapidly available to partners to inform ongoing improvement. Other reported benefits of the partnership included rapid adaptation to COVID-19 needs, expanded clinician evaluation skills, external knowledge dissemination through scholarship, and health system-wide knowledge exchange. Ongoing considerations for improving the collaboration included the need for multi-year support to enable nimble response to dynamic health system needs and timely data access.Presence of embedded evaluation partners in the enterprise-wide QI program supported identification of analogous endeavors (eg, telemedicine adoption) and cross-cutting lessons across QI efforts, clinician capacity building, and knowledge dissemination through scholarship.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lrh2.10335

    View details for PubMedID 36263267

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9576232

  • Evaluating clinician-led quality improvement initiatives: A system-wide embedded research partnership at Stanford Medicine LEARNING HEALTH SYSTEMS Vilendrer, S., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Asch, S. M., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Kling, S. R., Shaw, J. G., Winget, M., Larson, D. B. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lrh2.10335

    View details for Web of Science ID 000843397900001

  • Teledermatology to Facilitate Patient Care Transitions From Inpatient to Outpatient Dermatology: Mixed Methods Evaluation. Journal of medical Internet research Kling, S. M., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Winget, M., Aleshin, M. A., Garvert, D. W., Amano, A., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Kwong, B. Y., Calugar, A., El-Banna, G., Shaw, J. G., Asch, S. M., Ko, J. M. 2022; 24 (8): e38792


    BACKGROUND: Both clinicians and patients have increasingly turned to telemedicine to improve care access, even in physical examination-dependent specialties such as dermatology. However, little is known about whether teledermatology supports effective and timely transitions from inpatient to outpatient care, which is a common care coordination gap.OBJECTIVE: Using mixed methods, this study sought to retrospectively evaluate how teledermatology affected clinic capacity, scheduling efficiency, and timeliness of follow-up care for patients transitioning from inpatient to outpatient dermatology care.METHODS: Patient-level encounter scheduling data were used to compare the number and proportion of patients who were scheduled and received in-clinic or video dermatology follow-ups within 14 and 90 days after discharge across 3 phases: June to September 2019 (before teledermatology), June to September 2020 (early teledermatology), and February to May 2021 (sustained teledermatology). The time from discharge to scheduling and completion of patient follow-up visits for each care modality was also compared. Dermatology clinicians and schedulers were also interviewed between April and May 2021 to assess their perceptions of teledermatology for postdischarge patients.RESULTS: More patients completed follow-up within 90 days after discharge during early (n=101) and sustained (n=100) teledermatology use than at baseline (n=74). Thus, the clinic's capacity to provide follow-up to patients transitioning from inpatient increased from baseline by 36% in the early (101 from 74) and sustained (100 from 74) teledermatology periods. During early teledermatology use, 61.4% (62/101) of the follow-ups were conducted via video. This decreased significantly to 47% (47/100) in the following year, when COVID-19-related restrictions started to lift (P=.04), indicating more targeted but still substantial use. The proportion of patients who were followed up within the recommended 14 days after discharge did not differ significantly between video and in-clinic visits during the early (33/62, 53% vs 15/39, 38%; P=.15) or sustained (26/53, 60% vs 28/47, 49%; P=.29) teledermatology periods. Interviewees agreed that teledermatology would continue to be offered. Most considered postdischarge follow-up patients to be ideal candidates for teledermatology as they had undergone a recent in-person assessment and might have difficulty attending in-clinic visits because of competing health priorities. Some reported patients needing technological support. Ultimately, most agreed that the choice of follow-up care modality should be the patient's own.CONCLUSIONS: Teledermatology could be an important tool for maintaining accessible, flexible, and convenient care for recently discharged patients needing follow-up care. Teledermatology increased clinic capacity, even during the pandemic, although the timeliness of care transitions did not improve. Ultimately, the care modality should be determined through communication with patients to incorporate their and their caregivers' preferences.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/38792

    View details for PubMedID 35921146

  • Addressing Methamphetamine Use in Primary Care: Provider Perspectives. Journal of addiction medicine Dunn, J., Yuan, M., Ramírez, F., Chokron Garneau, H., Brown-Johnson, C., Breland, H., Antonini, V., Larkins, S., Rawson, R., McGovern, M. 2022


    The opioid epidemic has evolved into a combined stimulant epidemic, with escalating stimulant and fentanyl-related overdose deaths. Primary care providers are on the frontlines grappling with patients' methamphetamine use. Although effective models exist for treating opioid use disorder in primary care, little is known about current clinical practices for methamphetamine use.Six semistructured group interviews were conducted with 38 primary care providers. Interviews focused on provider perceptions of patients with methamphetamine use problems and their care. Data were analyzed using inductive and thematic analysis and summarized along the following dimensions: (1) problem identification, (2) clinical management, (3) barriers and facilitators to care, and (4) perceived needs to improve services.Primary care providers varied in their approach to identifying and treating patient methamphetamine use. Unlike opioid use disorders, providers reported lacking standardized screening measures and evidence-based treatments, particularly medications, to address methamphetamine use. They seek more standardized screening tools, Food and Drug Administration-approved medications, reliable connections to addiction medicine specialists, and more training. Interest in novel behavioral health interventions suitable for primary care settings was also noteworthy.The findings from this qualitative analysis revealed that primary care providers are using a wide range of tools to screen and treat methamphetamine use, but with little perceived effectiveness. Primary care faces multiple challenges in effectively addressing methamphetamine use among patients singularly or comorbid with opioid use disorders, including the lack of Food and Drug Administration-approved medications, limited patient retention, referral opportunities, funding, and training for methamphetamine use. Focusing on patients' medical issues using a harm reduction, motivational interviewing approach, and linkage with addiction medicine specialists may be the most reasonable options to support primary care in compassionately and effectively managing patients who use methamphetamines.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ADM.0000000000001035

    View details for PubMedID 35841323

  • Patient and Health Professional Perceptions of Telemonitoring for Hypertension Management: Qualitative Study. JMIR formative research Baratta, J., Brown-Johnson, C., Safaeinili, N., Goldman Rosas, L., Palaniappan, L., Winget, M., Mahoney, M. 2022; 6 (6): e32874


    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most prevalent and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting nearly 50% of the US adult population; however, only 30% of these patients achieve controlled blood pressure (BP). Incorporating strategies into primary care that take into consideration individual patient needs, such as remote BP monitoring, may improve hypertension management.OBJECTIVE: From March 2018 to December 2018, Stanford implemented a precision health pilot called Humanwide, which aimed to leverage high-technology and high-touch medicine to tailor individualized care for conditions such as hypertension. We examined multi-stakeholder perceptions of hypertension management in Humanwide to evaluate the program's acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility, and sustainability.METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with 16 patients and 15 health professionals to assess their experiences with hypertension management in Humanwide. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews using a hybrid approach of inductive and deductive analysis to identify common themes around hypertension management and consensus methods to ensure reliability and validity.RESULTS: A total of 63% (10/16) of the patients and 40% (6/15) of the health professionals mentioned hypertension in the context of Humanwide. These participants reported that remote BP monitoring improved motivation, BP control, and overall clinic efficiency. The health professionals discussed feasibility challenges, including the time needed to analyze BP data and provide individualized feedback, integration of BP data, technological difficulties with the BP cuff, and decreased patient use of remote BP monitoring over time.CONCLUSIONS: Remote BP monitoring for hypertension management in Humanwide was acceptable to patients and health professionals and appropriate for care. Important challenges need to be addressed to improve the feasibility and sustainability of this approach by leveraging team-based care, engaging patients to sustain remote BP monitoring, standardizing electronic medical record integration of BP measurements, and finding more user-friendly BP cuffs.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/32874

    View details for PubMedID 35687380

  • Gearing Up for a Vaccine Requirement: A Mixed Methods Study of COVID-19 Vaccine Confidence Among Workers at an Academic Medical Center. Journal of healthcare management / American College of Healthcare Executives Mahoney, M., Winget, M., Brown-Johnson, C., de Borba, L., Veruttipong, D., Luu, J., Jones, D., Bohman, B., Vilendrer, S. 2022; 67 (3): 206-220


    Assessing barriers to vaccination among healthcare workers may be particularly important given their roles in their respective communities. We conducted a mixed methods study to explore healthcare worker perspectives on receiving COVID-19 vaccines at a large multisite academic medical center.A total of 5,917 employees completed the COVID-19 vaccine confidence survey (20% response rate). Most participants were vaccinated (93%). Compared to vaccinated participants, unvaccinated participants were younger (60% < 44 years), more likely to be from a non-Asian minority group (48%), and more likely to be nonclinical employees (57% vs. 46%). Among the unvaccinated respondents, 53% indicated they would be influenced by their healthcare provider, while 19% reported that nothing would influence them to get vaccinated. Key perceived barriers to vaccination from the qualitative analysis included the need for more long-term safety and efficacy data, a belief in the right to make an individual choice, mistrust, a desire for greater public health information, personal health concerns, circumstances such as prior COVID-19 infection, and access issues.Strategies endorsed by some participants to address their concerns about safety and access included a communication campaign, personalized medicine approaches (e.g., individual appointments to discuss how the vaccine might interact with personal health conditions), and days off to recover. Mistrust and a belief in the right to make an individual choice may be harder barriers to overcome; further dialogue is needed.These findings reflect potential strategies for vaccine requirements that healthcare organizations can implement to enhance vaccine confidence. In addition, organizations can ask respected health professionals to serve as spokespeople, which may help shift the perspectives of unvaccinated healthcare workers.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JHM-D-21-00226

    View details for PubMedID 35576446

  • Promising Strategies to Support COVID-19 Vaccination of Healthcare Personnel: Qualitative Insights from the VHA National Implementation. Journal of general internal medicine Giannitrapani, K. F., Brown-Johnson, C., Connell, N. B., Yano, E. M., Singer, S. J., Giannitrapani, S. N., Thanassi, W., Lorenz, K. A. 2022


    BACKGROUND: In August 2021, up to 30% of Americans were uncertain about taking the COVID-19 vaccine, including some healthcare personnel (HCP).OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify barriers and facilitators of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) HCP vaccination program.DESIGN: We conducted key informant interviews with employee occupational health (EOH) providers, using snowball recruitment.PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 43 VHA EOH providers representing 29 of VHA's regionally diverse healthcare systems.APPROACH: Thematic analysis elucidated 5 key themes and specific strategies recommended by EOH.KEY RESULTS: Implementation themes reflected logistics of distribution (supply), addressinganyvaccine concerns orhesitancy (demand), and learning health system strategies/approaches for shared learnings. Specifically, themes included the following: (1) use interdisciplinary task forces to leverage diverse skillsets for vaccine implementation; (2) invest in processes and align resources with priorities, including creating detailed processes, addressing time trade-offs for personnel involved in vaccine clinics by suspending everything non-essential, designating process/authority to shift personnel where needed, and proactively involving leaders to support resource allocation/alignment; (3) expect and accommodate vaccine buy-in occurring over time: prepare for some HCP's slow buy-in, align buy-in facilitation with identities and motivation, and encourage word-of-mouth and hyper-local testimonials; (4) overcome misinformation with trustworthy communication: tailor communication to individuals and address COVID vaccines "in every encounter," leverage proactive institutional messaging to reinforce information, and invite bi-directional conversations about any vaccine concerns. A final overarching theme focused on learning health system needs and structures: (5) use existing and newly developed communication channels to foster shared learning across teams and sites.CONCLUSIONS: Expecting deliberation allows systems to prepare for complex distribution logistics (supply) and make room for conversations that are trustworthy, bi-directional, and identity aligned (demand). Ideally, organizations provide time for conversations that address individual concerns, foster bi-directional shared decision-making, respect HCP beliefs and identities, and emphasize shared identities as healthcare providers.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-022-07439-y

    View details for PubMedID 35260957

  • Nonmedical Transdisciplinary Perspectives of Black and Racially and Ethnically Diverse Individuals About Antiracism Practices: A Qualitative Study. JAMA network open Shankar, M., Cox, J., Baratta, J., De Leon, G., Shaw, J. G., Israni, S. T., Zulman, D. M., Brown-Johnson, C. G. 2022; 5 (2): e2147835


    Importance: Overwhelming evidence that anti-Black racism is associated with health inequities is driving clinician demand for antiracism practices that promote health equity.Objective: To investigate how nonmedical professionals address personally mediated, institutional, and internalized racism and to adapt these practices for the clinical setting.Design, Setting, and Participants: Using an approach from human-centered design for this qualitative study, virtual qualitative interviews were conducted among 40 professionals from nonmedical fields to investigate antiracism practices used outside of medicine. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted to identify latent themes and practices that may be adaptable to health care, subsequently using an established theoretical framework describing levels of racism to interpret and organize themes. Convenience and purposive sampling was used to recruit participants via email, social media, and electronic flyers.Main Outcomes and Measures: Antiracism practices adapted to medicine.Results: Among 40 professionals from nonmedical fields, most were younger than age 40 years (23 individuals [57.5%]) and there were 20 (50.0%) women; there were 25 Black or African American individuals (62.5%); 4 East Asian, Southeast Asian, or South Asian individuals (10.0%); 3 individuals with Hispanic, Latinx, or Spanish origin (7.5%); and 3 White individuals. Participants described personally mediated, institutional, and internalized antiracism practices that may be adaptable to promote health equity for Black patients. Personally mediated antiracism practices included dialogue and humble inquiry, building trust, and allyship and shared humanity; clinicians may be able to adopt these practices by focusing on patient successes, avoiding stigmatizing language in the electronic health record, and using specific phrases to address racism in the moment. Institutional antiracism practices included education, representation, and mentorship; in the health care setting, clinics may be able to develop staff affiliate groups, focus on improving racial health equity outcomes, and conduct antiracism trainings. Internalized antiracism practices centered on authenticity; clinicians may be able to write positionality statements reflecting their identity and the expertise they bring to clinical encounters.Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that antiracism practices from outside the health care sector may offer innovative strategies to promote health equity by addressing personally mediated, institutional, and internalized racism in clinical care.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.47835

    View details for PubMedID 35138395

  • Presence 5 for Racial Justice Workshop: Fostering Dialogue Across Medical Education to Disrupt Anti-Black Racism in Clinical Encounters. MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources Shankar, M., Henderson, K., Garcia, R., Li, G., Titer, K., Acholonu, R. G., Essien, U. R., Brown-Johnson, C., Cox, J., Shaw, J. G., Haverfield, M. C., Taylor, K., Israni, S. T., Zulman, D. 2022; 18: 11227


    Introduction: Anti-Black racism has strong roots in American health care and medical education. While curricula on social determinants of health are increasingly common in medical training, curricula directly addressing anti-Black racism are limited. Existing frameworks like the Presence 5 framework for humanism in medicine can be adapted to develop a novel workshop that promotes anti-racism communication.Methods: We performed a literature review of anti-racism collections and categorized anti-racism communication practices using the Presence 5 framework to develop the Presence 5 for Racial Justice Workshop. Implementation included an introductory didactic, a small-group discussion, and a large-group debrief. Participants evaluated the workshop via an online survey, and we analyzed the resulting qualitative feedback.Results: A total of 17 participants took part in two workshops, with nine of the participants responding to the evaluation survey. Themes that emerged from survey responses included strengths of and improvements for the workshop structure (protected time for anti-racism discussion, dialogue between learners and faculty) and content (specific phrases and language, practicing self-reflection).Discussion: The workshop provides participants with a semistructured discussion around the five anti-racism communication practices. Barriers to implementation include incorporating the workshop into existing curricula and ensuring diverse learners. Barriers to evaluating the workshop include the low survey response rate. Recommendations to improve the workshop include using case-based discussion and varying the workshop structure according to institutional needs. Next steps include an implementation study to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of the workshop.

    View details for DOI 10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11227

    View details for PubMedID 35198729

  • Engaging Frontline Physicians in Value Improvement: A Qualitative Evaluation of Physician-Directed Reinvestment. Journal of healthcare leadership Vilendrer, S., Amano, A., Asch, S. M., Brown-Johnson, C., Lu, A. C., Maggio, P. 2022; 14: 31-45


    Purpose: Physicians can limit upward trending healthcare costs, yet legal and ethical barriers prevent the use of direct financial incentives to engage physicians in cost-reduction initiatives. Physician-directed reinvestment is an alternative value-sharing arrangement in which a health system reinvests a portion of savings attributed to physician-led cost reduction initiatives back into professional areas of the physicians' choosing. Formal evaluations of such programs are lacking.Methods: To understand the impact of Stanford Health Care's physician-directed reinvestment in its first year (2017-2018) on physician engagement, adherence to program requirements around safety and fund use, and factors facilitating program dissemination, semi-structured qualitative interviews with physician participants, non-participants, and administrative stakeholders were conducted July-November 2019. Interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed through an implementation science lens. To support contextual analysis of the qualitative data, a directional estimation of the program's impact on cost from the perspective of the health system was calculated by subtracting annual maintenance cost (derived from interview self-reported time estimates and public salary data) from internal cost accounting of the total savings from first year cohort to obtain annual net benefit, which was then divided by the annual maintenance cost.Results: Physician participation was low compared with the overall physician population (n=14 of approximately 2300 faculty physicians), though 32 qualitative interviews suggested deep engagement across physician participants and adherence to target program requirements. Reinvestment funds activated intrinsic motivators such as autonomy, purpose and inter-professional relations, and extrinsic motivators, such as the direction of resources and external recognition. Ongoing challenges included limited physician awareness of healthcare costs and the need for increased clarity around which projects rise above one's existing job responsibilities. Administrative data excluding physician time, which was not directly compensated, showed a direct cost savings of $8.9M. This implied an 11-fold return on investment excluding uncompensated physician time.Conclusion: A physician-directed reinvestment program appeared to facilitate latent frontline physician innovation towards value, though additional evaluation is needed to understand its long-term impact.

    View details for DOI 10.2147/JHL.S335763

    View details for PubMedID 35422669

  • Patient and Clinician Perspectives of New and Return Ambulatory Teleneurology Visits. Neurology. Clinical practice Kling, S. M., Falco-Walter, J. J., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Garvert, D. W., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Miller-Kuhlmann, R., Shaw, J. G., Asch, S. M., Yang, L., Gold, C. A., Winget, M. 1800; 11 (6): 472-483


    Background and Objectives: To evaluate the adoption and perceived utility of video visits for new and return patient encounters in ambulatory neurology subspecialties.Methods: Video visits were launched in an academic, multi-subspecialty, ambulatory neurology clinic in March 2020. Adoption of video visits for new and return patient visits was assessed using clinician-level scheduling data from March 22 to May 16, 2020. Perceived utility of video visits was explored via a clinician survey and semistructured interviews with clinicians and patients/caregivers. Findings were compared across 5 subspecialties and 2 visit types (new vs return).Results: Video visits were adopted rapidly; all clinicians (n = 65) integrated video visits into their workflow within the first 6 weeks, and 92% of visits were conducted via video, although this varied by subspecialty. Utility of video visits was higher for return than new patient visits, as indicated by surveyed (n = 48) and interviewed clinicians (n = 30), aligning with adoption patterns. Compared with in-person visits, clinicians believed that it was easier to achieve a similar physical examination, patient-clinician rapport, and perceived quality of care over video for return rather than new patient visits. Of the 25 patients/caregivers interviewed, most were satisfied with the care provided via video, regardless of visit type, with the main limitation being the physical examination.Discussion: Teleneurology was robustly adopted for both new and return ambulatory neurology patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Return patient visits were preferred over new patient visits, but both were feasible. These results provide a foundation for developing targeted guidelines for sustaining teleneurology in ambulatory care.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/CPJ.0000000000001065

    View details for PubMedID 34992955

  • Financial Incentives for Medical Assistants: A Mixed-Methods Exploration of Bonus Structures, Motivation, and Population Health Quality Measures. Annals of family medicine Vilendrer, S., Brown-Johnson, C., Kling, S. M., Veruttipong, D., Amano, A., Bohman, B., Daines, W. P., Overton, D., Srivastava, R., Asch, S. M. 2021; 19 (5): 427-436


    PURPOSE: Medical assistants (MAs) have seen their roles expand as a result of team-based primary care models. Unlike their physician counterparts, MAs rarely receive financial incentives as a part of their compensation. This exploratory study aims to understand MA acceptability of financial incentives and perceived MA control over common population health measures.METHODS: We conducted semistructured focus groups between August and December of 2019 across 10 clinics affiliated with 3 institutions in California and Utah. MAs' perceptions of experienced and hypothetical financial incentives, their potential influence on workflow processes, and perceived levels of control over population health measures were discussed, recorded, and qualitatively analyzed for emerging themes. Perceived levels of control were further quantified using a Likert survey; measures were grouped into factors representing vaccinations, and workflow completed in the same day or multiple days (multiday). Mean scores for each factor were compared using repeated 1-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer adjustment.RESULTS: MAs reported little direct experience with financial incentives. They indicated that a hypothetical bonus representing 2% to 3% of their average annual base pay would be acceptable and influential in improving consistent performance during patient rooming workflow. MAs reported having greater perceived control over vaccinations (P <.001) and same-day measures (P <.001) as compared with multiday measures.CONCLUSIONS: MAs perceived that relatively small financial incentives would increase their motivation and quality of care. Our findings suggests target measures should focus on MA work processes that are completed in the same day as the patient encounter, particularly vaccinations. Future investigation is needed to understand the effectiveness of MA financial incentives in practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1370/afm.2719

    View details for PubMedID 34546949

  • How Feedback Is Given Matters: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Patient Satisfaction Feedback Delivery and Physician Well-being. Mayo Clinic proceedings Vilendrer, S. M., Kling, S. M., Wang, H., Brown-Johnson, C., Jayaraman, T., Trockel, M., Asch, S. M., Shanafelt, T. D. 2021


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how variation in the way patient satisfaction feedback is delivered relates to physician well-being and perceptions of its impact on patient care, job satisfaction, and clinical decision making.PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional electronic survey was sent to faculty physicians from a large academic medical center in March 29, 2019. Physicians reported their exposure to feedback (timing, performance relative to peers, or channel) and related perceptions. The Professional Fulfillment Index captured burnout and professional fulfillment. Associations between feedback characteristics and well-being or perceived impact were tested using analysis of variance or logistic regression adjusted for covariates.RESULTS: Of 1016 survey respondents, 569 (56.0%) reported receiving patient satisfaction feedback. Among those receiving feedback, 303 (53.2%) did not believe that this feedback improved patient care. Compared with physicians who never received feedback, those who received any type of feedback had higher professional fulfillment scores (mean, 6.6±2.1 vs 6.3±2.0; P=.03) but also reported an unfavorable impact on clinical decision making (odds ratio [OR], 2.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 4.7; P<.001). Physicians who received feedback that included one-on-one discussions (as opposed to feedback without this channel) held more positive perceptions of the feedback's impact on patient care (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.0; P=.003), whereas perceptions were less positive in physicians whose feedback included comparisons to named colleagues (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.8; P=.003).CONCLUSION: Providing patient satisfaction feedback to physicians was associated with mixed results, and physician perceptions of the impact of feedback depended on the characteristics of feedback delivery. Our findings suggest that feedback is viewed most constructively by physicians when delivered through one-on-one discussions and without comparison to peers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.03.039

    View details for PubMedID 34479736

  • PROTECTING THE HEALTH CARE WORKFORCE DURING COVID AND BEYOND: A RAPID QUALITATIVE NEEDS ASSESSMENT OF VA EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Brown-Johnson, C., Mccaa, M., DeShields, C., Singer, S., Lorenz, K., Yano, E., Giannitrapani, S., Thanassi, W., Giannitrapani, K. F. SPRINGER. 2021: S173
  • Using ethnographic methods to classify the human experience in medicine: a case study of the presence ontology. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA Maitra, A., Kamdar, M. R., Zulman, D. M., Haverfield, M. C., Brown-Johnson, C., Schwartz, R., Israni, S. T., Verghese, A., Musen, M. A. 2021


    OBJECTIVE: Although social and environmental factors are central to provider-patient interactions, the data that reflect these factors can be incomplete, vague, and subjective. We sought to create a conceptual framework to describe and classify data about presence, the domain of interpersonal connection in medicine.METHODS: Our top-down approach for ontology development based on the concept of "relationality" included the following: 1) a broad survey of the social sciences literature and a systematic literature review of >20 000 articles around interpersonal connection in medicine, 2) relational ethnography of clinical encounters (n=5 pilot, 27 full), and 3) interviews about relational work with 40 medical and nonmedical professionals. We formalized the model using the Web Ontology Language in the Protege ontology editor. We iteratively evaluated and refined the Presence Ontology through manual expert review and automated annotation of literature.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Presence Ontology facilitates the naming and classification of concepts that would otherwise be vague. Our model categorizes contributors to healthcare encounters and factors such as communication, emotions, tools, and environment. Ontology evaluation indicated that cognitive models (both patients' explanatory models and providers' caregiving approaches) influenced encounters and were subsequently incorporated. We show how ethnographic methods based in relationality can aid the representation of experiential concepts (eg, empathy, trust). Our ontology could support investigative methods to improve healthcare processes for both patients and healthcare providers, including annotation of videotaped encounters, development of clinical instruments to measure presence, or implementation of electronic health record-based reminders for providers.CONCLUSION: The Presence Ontology provides a model for using ethnographic approaches to classify interpersonal data.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jamia/ocab091

    View details for PubMedID 34151988

  • Exploring expanded interdisciplinary roles in goals of care conversations in a national goals of care initiative: A qualitative approach. Palliative medicine Ma, J. E., Haverfield, M., Lorenz, K. A., Bekelman, D. B., Brown-Johnson, C., Lo, N., Foglia, M. B., Lowery, J. S., Walling, A. M., Giannitrapani, K. F. 2021: 2692163211020473


    BACKGROUND: The United States Veterans Health Administration National Center for Ethics in Health Care implemented the Life-Sustaining Treatment Decisions Initiative throughout the Veterans Health Administration health care system in 2017. This policy encourages goals of care conversations, referring to conversations about patient's treatment and end-of-life wishes for life-sustaining treatments, among Veterans with serious illnesses. A key component of the initiative is expanding interdisciplinary provider roles in having goals of care conversations.AIM: Use organizational role theory to explore medical center experiences with expanding interdisciplinary roles in the implementation of a goals of care initiative.DESIGN: A qualitative thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews.SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Initial participants were recruited using purposive sampling of local medical center champions. Snowball sampling identified additional participants. Participants included thirty-one interdisciplinary providers from 12 geographically diverse initiative pilot and spread medical centers.RESULTS: Five themes were identified. Expanding provider roles in goals of care conversations (1) involves organizational culture change; (2) is influenced by medical center leadership; (3) is supported by provider role readiness; (4) benefits from cross-disciplinary role agreement; and (5) can "overwhelm" providers.CONCLUSIONS: Organizational role theory is a helpful framework for exploring interdisciplinary roles in a goals of care initiative. Support and recognition of provider role expansion in goals of care conversations was important for the adoption of a goals of care initiative. Actionable strategies, including multi-level leadership support and the use of interdisciplinary champions, facilitate role change and have potential to strengthen uptake of a goals of care initiative.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/02692163211020473

    View details for PubMedID 34080488

  • Inpatient telemedicine implementation as an infection control response to COVID-19: A qualitative process evaluation. JMIR formative research Safaeinili, N., Vilendrer, S., Williamson, E., Zhao, Z., Brown-Johnson, C., Asch, S. M., Shieh, L. 2021


    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic created new challenges to delivering safe and effective healthcare while minimizing staff and non-COVID-19 patient exposure to the virus. Health systems worldwide have moved quickly to implement telemedicine in diverse settings to reduce infection, but little is understood about how best to connect acutely ill patients with nearby clinical team members, even in the next room.OBJECTIVE: To inform these efforts, this paper provides an early example of inpatient telemedicine implementation and its perceived acceptability and effectiveness.METHODS: Using purposive sampling, this study conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with nurses (n=5) and attending (n=5) and resident (n=15) physicians on a single COVID-19 unit within Stanford Health Care to evaluate implementation outcomes and perceived effectiveness of inpatient telemedicine. Semi-structured interview protocols and qualitative analysis were framed around the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework and identified key themes using a rapid analytic process and consensus approach.RESULTS: All clinical team members reported wide reach of inpatient telemedicine, with some use for almost all COVID-19 patients. Inpatient telemedicine was perceived to be effective in reducing COVID-19 exposure and personal protective equipment (PPE) use without significantly compromising quality of care. Physician workflows remained relatively stable as most standard clinical activities were conducted via telemedicine following the initial intake examination, though resident physicians reported reduced educational opportunities given limited opportunities to conduct physical exams. Nurse workflows required significant adaptations to cover non-nursing duties such as food delivery and facilitating technology connections for patients and physicians alike. Perceived patient impact included consistent care quality, with some considerations around privacy. Reported challenges included: patient-clinical team communication and personal connection with the patient, perceptions of patient isolation, ongoing technical challenges, and certain aspects of the physical exam.CONCLUSIONS: Clinical team members reported inpatient telemedicine encounters as acceptable and effective in reducing COVID-19 exposure and PPE use. Nurses adapted their workflows more than physicians to implement the new technology and bore a higher burden of in-person care and technical support. Recommendations for improved inpatient telemedicine use include information technology (IT) support and training, increased technical functionality, and remote access for the clinical team.CLINICALTRIAL:

    View details for DOI 10.2196/26452

    View details for PubMedID 34033576

  • Evaluation of Patient and Clinician Perspectives for New and Return Ambulatory Teleneurology Visits, with special attention to subspecialty differences Falco-Walter, J., Kling, S., Saliba-Gustafsson, E., Yang, L., Miller-Kuhlmann, R., Garvert, D., Brown-Johnson, C., Shaw, J., Asch, S., Winget, M., Gold, C. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021
  • Playing Nice in the Sandbox: Lessons on Roles, Interdisciplinary Collaboration, and Leadership from a VA National Improvement Intervention Ma, J., Haverfield, M. C., Brown-Johnson, C., Lorenz, K. A., Giannitrapani, K. F. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2021: 649–50
  • Accessing behavioral health care during COVID: rapid transition from in-person to teleconferencing medical group visits. Therapeutic advances in chronic disease Juarez-Reyes, M., Mui, H. Z., Kling, S. M., Brown-Johnson, C. 2021; 12: 2040622321990269


    Background and aim: Effective and safe behavioral health interventions in primary care are critical during pandemic and other disaster situations. California shelter-in-place orders necessitated rapid transition of an effective mindfulness-based medical group visit (MGV) program from in-person to videoconferenced sessions (VCSs). Aim: to Describe procedures, acceptability, and feasibility of converting from in-person to VCS.Patients and methods: Methods: qualitative. Dataset: primary care. Intervention: a six-session 2-h MGV program with educational and mindfulness components was converted. Four in-person sessions and two VCSs were held. General Anxiety Disorder and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were administered at first and last sessions. A semi-structured focus group was conducted after session six. Population studied: six primary care patients (42±11years) with stress, anxiety, or depression participated.Results: Procedural changes included remote material distribution, scheduling, hosting, and facilitation functions using the Zoom platform. The focus group revealed that patients preferred in-person sessions during initial visits, but appreciated transitioning to VCS, which provided continued support during a challenging time. Instruction on technical (e.g. logging on) and social (e.g. signaling next speaker) aspects of VCS was suggested. Building relationships through conversations was an important part before and after in-person sessions missing from VCS. Patients suggested combining in-person and VCS to allow relationship building while also improving access.Conclusion: While many procedural changes were needed to facilitate conversion to VCS, primary care patients seeking stress, anxiety, and depression interventions found VCS acceptable during COVID-19. Future iterations of this program are proposed which incorporate procedural changes and facilitate relationship building between patients in VCS.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2040622321990269

    View details for PubMedID 33633823

  • Supporting First Responders and Essential Workers During a Pandemic: Needs Assessment and Mixed-Methods Implementation Evaluation of a COVID-19 App-Based Intervention. Journal of medical Internet research Vilendrer, S. n., Amano, A. n., Brown Johnson, C. G., Favet, M. n., Safaeinili, N. n., Villasenor, J. n., Shaw, J. G., Hertelendy, A. J., Asch, S. M., Mahoney, M. n. 2021


    The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented challenges for first responders (e.g., police, fire, and emergency medical services) and non-medical essential workers (e.g., food, transportation and other industries). Health systems may be uniquely suited to support these workers given their medical expertise, and mobile applications ("apps") can reach local communities despite social distancing requirements. Formal evaluation of real-world mobile app-based interventions are lacking.We aimed to evaluate the adoption, acceptability and appropriateness of an academic medical center's app-based intervention (COVID-19 Guide App) designed to support first responders and essential workers' access to COVID-19 information and testing services. We also sought to better understand the COVID-19 related needs of these workers early in the pandemic.To understand overall community adoption, COVID-19 Guide App views and download data were described. To understand adoption, appropriateness and acceptability of the app and workers' unmet needs, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted by phone, video and in-person with first responder and essential workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, recruited through purposive, convenience, and snowball sampling. Interview transcripts and field notes were qualitatively analyzed and presented using an implementation outcomes framework.From April 2020 launch to September 2020, the app received 8,262 views from unique devices and 6,640 downloads (80.4% conversion rate, 0.61% adoption rate across the Bay Area). App acceptability was mixed amongst 17 first responders interviewed and high amongst 10 essential workers interviewed. Select themes included the need for personalized and accurate information, access to testing, and securing personal safety. First responders faced additional challenges related to inter-professional coordination and a culture of heroism that could both protect against and exacerbate health vulnerability.First responders and essential workers both report challenges related to obtaining accurate information, testing services, and other resources. A mobile app intervention has the potential to combat these challenges through the provision of disease-specific information and access to testing services but may be most effective if delivered as part of a larger ecosystem of support. Differentiated interventions that acknowledge and address the divergent needs between first responders and non-first responder essential workers may optimize acceptance and adoption.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/26573

    View details for PubMedID 33878023

  • Transforming Interprofessional Roles During Virtual Health Care: The Evolving Role of the Medical Assistant, in Relationship to National Health Profession Competency Standards. Journal of primary care & community health Rokicki-Parashar, J., Phadke, A., Brown-Johnson, C., Jee, O., Sattler, A., Torres, E., Srinivasan, M. 2021; 12: 21501327211004285


    INTRODUCTION: Medical assistants (MAs) were once limited to obtaining vital signs and office work. Now, MAs are foundational to team-based care, interacting with patients, systems, and teams in many ways. The transition to Virtual Health during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a further rapid and unique shift of MA roles and responsibilities. We sought to understand the impact of this shift and to place their new roles in the context of national professional competency standards.METHODS: In this qualitative, grounded theory study we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 MAs at 10 primary care sites at a major academic medical center on their experiences during the shift from in-person to virtual care. MAs were selected by convenience sample. Coding was done in Dedoose version 8.335. Consensus-based inductive and deductive approaches were used for interview analysis. Identified MA roles were compared to national MA, Institute of Medicine, physician, and nursing professional competency domains.RESULTS: Three main themes emerged: Role Apprehension, Role Expansion, and Adaptability/Professionalism. Nine key roles emerged in the context of virtual visits: direct patient care (pre-visit and physical care), panel management, health systems ambassador, care coordination, patient flow coordination, scribing, quality improvement, and technology support. While some prior MA roles were limited by the virtual care shift, the majority translated directly or expanded in virtual care. Identified roles aligned better with Institute of Medicine, physician, and nursing professional competencies, than current national MA curricula.CONCLUSIONS: The transition to Virtual Health decreased MA's direct clinical work and expanded other roles within interprofessional care, notably quality improvement and technology support. Comparison of the current MA roles with national training program competencies identified new leadership and teamwork competencies which could be expanded during MA training to better support MA roles on inter-professional teams.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/21501327211004285

    View details for PubMedID 33764223

  • Approach to Human-Centered, Evidence-Driven Adaptive Design (AHEAD) for Health Care Interventions: a Proposed Framework. Journal of general internal medicine Fischer, M. n., Safaeinili, N. n., Haverfield, M. C., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Zionts, D. n., Zulman, D. M. 2021


    Human-centered design (HCD), an empathy-driven approach to innovation that focuses on user needs, offers promise for the rapid design of health care interventions that are acceptable to patients, clinicians, and other stakeholders. Reviews of HCD in healthcare, however, note a need for greater rigor, suggesting an opportunity for integration of elements from traditional research and HCD. A strategy that combines HCD principles with evidence-grounded health services research (HSR) methods has the potential to strengthen the innovation process and outcomes. In this paper, we review the strengths and limitations of HCD and HSR methods for intervention design, and propose a novel Approach to Human-centered, Evidence-driven Adaptive Design (AHEAD) framework. AHEAD offers a practical guide for the design of creative, evidence-based, pragmatic solutions to modern healthcare challenges.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-020-06451-4

    View details for PubMedID 33537952

  • Treating tobacco dependence to aid Re-employment among job-seekers: A randomized controlled trial. Preventive medicine Prochaska, J. J., Brown-Johnson, C., Baiocchi, M., Lazaro, A. S., Chieng, A., Stinson, S., Anzai, N. 2020: 106259


    INTRODUCTION: U.S. reductions in smoking have not been experienced equally. Smoking prevalence is greater among persons of lower education, lower income, and unemployed. We evaluated whether a cessation intervention for job-seekers would result in significantly fewer cigarettes smoked per day and a greater likelihood of tobacco abstinence and re-employment, compared to the control condition at 6-months follow-up.METHODS: Unemployed, job-seekers who smoked daily were recruited from five employment development departments in the San Francisco Bay Area, October 2015 to February 2018. Intention to quit smoking was not required. Participants were randomized to a brief motivationally-tailored, computer-assisted counseling intervention or referred to a toll-free quitline. Midstudy, 8-weeks of combination nicotine replacement was added to the intervention. Expired carbon monoxide and cotinine testing verified abstinence. Data were analyzed fall 2019.RESULTS: Participants (N = 360; 70% men; 43% African American, 27% non-Hispanic Caucasian; 19% unhoused) averaged 12 cigarettes/day (SD = 6), 67% smoked within 30 min of wakening; 27% were in preparation stage to quit. During the 6-month study period, intervention participants were more likely to make a quit attempt (71% vs. 58%, p = .021) and reported significantly greater reduction in cigarettes/day than control participants (median reduction: 6.9 vs. 5.0, p = .038); however, bioconfirmed abstinence (3%) and re-employment (36%) did not differ by treatment group.CONCLUSIONS: In a diverse sample with economic hardships, quit attempts and smoking reduction were greater in the intervention group; however, few achieved abstinence, and neither abstinence nor re-employment differed by condition. A priority group, further research is needed on smoking and re-employment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106259

    View details for PubMedID 33022318

  • Accelerated launch of video visits in ambulatory neurology during COVID-19: Key lessons from the Stanford experience. Neurology Yang, L., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Miller-Kuhlmann, R., Kling, S. M., Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Shaw, J. G., Gold, C. A., Winget, M. 2020


    The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly moved telemedicine from discretionary to necessary. Here we describe how the Stanford Neurology Department: 1) rapidly adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in over 1000 video visits within four weeks and 2) accelerated an existing quality improvement plan of a tiered roll out of video visits for ambulatory neurology to a full-scale roll out. Key issues we encountered and addressed were related to: equipment/software, provider engagement, workflow/triage, and training. Upon reflection, the key drivers of our success were provider engagement and a supportive physician champion. The physician champion played a critical role understanding stakeholder needs, including staff and physicians' needs, and creating workflows to coordinate both stakeholder groups. Prior to COVID-19, physician interest in telemedicine was mixed. However, in response to county and state stay-at-home orders related to COVID-19, physician engagement changed completely; all providers wanted to convert a majority of visits to video visits as quickly as possible. Rapid deployment of neurology video visits across all its subspecialties is feasible. Our experience and lessons learned can facilitate broader utilization, acceptance, and normalization of video visits for neurology patients in the present as well as the much anticipated post-pandemic era.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010015

    View details for PubMedID 32611634

  • Implementation outcomes of humanwide: A pilot project of integrated precision health in team-based primary care Brown-Johnson, C., Safaeinili, N., Baratta, J., Morris, S., Palaniappan, L., Mahoney, M., Rosas, L., Winget, M. BMC. 2020
  • Can Patient-Provider Interpersonal Interventions Achieve the Quadruple Aim of Healthcare? A Systematic Review. Journal of general internal medicine Haverfield, M. C., Tierney, A. n., Schwartz, R. n., Bass, M. B., Brown-Johnson, C. n., Zionts, D. L., Safaeinili, N. n., Fischer, M. n., Shaw, J. G., Thadaney, S. n., Piccininni, G. n., Lorenz, K. A., Asch, S. M., Verghese, A. n., Zulman, D. M. 2020


    Human connection is at the heart of medical care, but questions remain as to the effectiveness of interpersonal interventions. The purpose of this review was to characterize the associations between patient-provider interpersonal interventions and the quadruple aim outcomes (population health, patient experience, cost, and provider experience).We sourced data from PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo (January 1997-August 2017). Selected studies included randomized controlled trials and controlled observational studies that examined the association between patient-provider interpersonal interventions and at least one outcome measure of the quadruple aim. Two abstractors independently extracted information about study design, methods, and quality. We characterized evidence related to the objective of the intervention, type and duration of intervention training, target recipient (provider-only vs. provider-patient dyad), and quadruple aim outcomes.Seventy-three out of 21,835 studies met the design and outcome inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of research was moderate to high for most included studies; 67% of interventions targeted the provider. Most studies measured impact on patient experience; improvements in experience (e.g., satisfaction, patient-centeredness, reduced unmet needs) often corresponded with a positive impact on other patient health outcomes (e.g., quality of life, depression, adherence). Enhanced interpersonal interactions improved provider well-being, burnout, stress, and confidence in communicating with difficult patients. Roughly a quarter of studies evaluated cost, but the majority reported no significant differences between intervention and control groups. Among studies that measured time in the clinical encounter, intervention effects varied. Interventions with lower demands on provider time and effort were often as effective as those with higher demands.Simple, low-demand patient-provider interpersonal interventions may have the potential to improve patient health and patient and provider experience, but there is limited evidence that these interventions influence cost-related outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-019-05525-2

    View details for PubMedID 31919725

  • Rapid implementation of video visits in neurology during COVID-19: a mixed methods evaluation. Journal of medical Internet research Saliba-Gustafsson, E. A., Miller-Kuhlmann, R. n., Kling, S. M., Garvert, D. W., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Lestoquoy, A. S., Verano, M. R., Yang, L. n., Falco-Walter, J. n., Shaw, J. G., Asch, S. M., Gold, C. A., Winget, M. n. 2020


    Telemedicine has been used for decades; yet, despite its many advantages, its uptake and rigorous evaluation of feasibility across neurology's ambulatory subspecialties has been sparse. The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic however, prompted healthcare systems worldwide to reconsider traditional healthcare delivery. To safeguard healthcare workers and patients many healthcare systems quickly transitioned to telemedicine, including across neurology subspecialties, providing a new opportunity to evaluate this modality of care.To evaluate the accelerated implementation of video visits in ambulatory neurology during the COVID-19 pandemic, we used mixed methods to assess the adoption, acceptability, appropriateness, and perceptions of potential sustainability.Video visits were launched rapidly in ambulatory neurology clinics of a large academic medical center. To assess adoption, we analyzed clinician-level scheduling data collected between March 22 and May 16, 2020. We assessed acceptability, appropriateness, and sustainability via a clinician survey (n=48) and semi-structured interviews with providers (n=30) completed between March and May 2020.Video visits were adopted rapidly; 65 (98%) clinicians integrated video visits into their workflow within the first 6 implementation weeks and 92% of all visits were conducted via video. Video visits were largely considered acceptable by clinicians, although various technological issues impacted satisfaction. Video visits were reported to be more convenient for patients, families, and/or caregivers than in-person visits; however, access to technology, the patient's technological capacity, and language difficulties were considered barriers. Many clinicians expressed optimism about future utilization of video visits in neurology. They believed that video visits promote continuity of care and can be incorporated into their practice long-term, although several insisted that they can never replace the in-person examination.Video visits are an important addition to clinical care in ambulatory neurology and are anticipated to remain a permanent supplement to in-person visits, promoting patient care continuity, and flexibility for patients and clinicians alike.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/24328

    View details for PubMedID 33245699

  • Pilot of the Life-Sustaining Treatment Decisions Initiative Among Veterans With Serious Illness. The American journal of hospice & palliative care Giannitrapani, K. F., Walling, A. M., Garcia, A. n., Foglia, M. n., Lowery, J. S., Lo, N. n., Bekelman, D. n., Brown-Johnson, C. n., Haverfield, M. n., Festa, N. n., Shreve, S. T., Gale, R. C., Lehmann, L. S., Lorenz, K. A. 2020: 1049909120923595


    Prior to national spread, the Department of Veterans Affairs implemented a pilot of the life-sustaining treatment decisions initiative (LSTDI) to promote proactive goals of care conversations (GoCC) with seriously ill patients, including policy and practice standards, an electronic documentation template and order set, and implementation support.To describe a 2-year pilot of the LSTDI at 4 demonstration sites.Prospective observational study.A total of 6664 patients who had at least one GoCC.Descriptive statistics characterized patient demographics, goals of care, LST decisions, and risk of hospitalization or mortality among patients with at least one GoCC. Participants were on average 71.4 years old, 93.2% male, 87.1% white, and 64.7% urban; 27.3% died by the end of the pilot period. Fifteen percent lacked decision-making capacity (DMC). Nonmutually exclusive goals included to be cured (7.6%), to prolong life (34%), to improve/maintain quality of life (61.5%), to be comfortable (53%), to obtain support for family/caregiver (8.4%), to achieve life goals (2.1%), and other (10.5%). Many GoCCs resulted in a do not resuscitate (DNR) order (58.8%). Patients without DMC were more likely to have comfort-oriented goals (77.3% vs 48.8%) and a DNR (84% vs 52.6%). Chart abstraction supported content validity of GoCC documentation.The pilot demonstrated that standardizing practices for eliciting and documenting GoCCs resulted in customized documentation of goals of care and LST decisions of a large number of seriously ill patients and established the feasibility of spreading standardized practices throughout a large integrated health care system.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1049909120923595

    View details for PubMedID 32383388

  • Smoking and Unemployment: A Photo Elicitation Project. Tobacco use insights Michalek, A. K., Wong, S. L., Brown-Johnson, C. G., Prochaska, J. J. 2020; 13: 1179173X20921446


    Research has documented higher smoking prevalence with unemployment and greater difficulty with gaining re-employment for those who smoke. Using photo elicitation methods, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of the connection between job-seeking and tobacco use.Unemployed daily smokers (18 men, 1 woman) were recruited from the San Francisco Employment Development Department (EDD) and provided disposable cameras with 27 exposures and a list of 20 photo prompts related to job-seeking and tobacco. Study staff reviewed the photos with the participants and audio-recorded their narratives. The photos and narratives were coded for themes.Of 363 photos, the most frequent photo imagery related to transportation (n = 56, 15.4%), work or education (n = 39, 10.7%), and littered cigarettes (n = 39, 10.7%). Narrated themes centered on motivators to quit smoking (255 mentions from 15 participants); people, places, and things associated with smoking (248 mentions, 16 participants); and motivators to secure work (157 mentions, 13 participants). The intersection of smoking and unemployment received 92 mentions from 11 participants, with 60 mentions (8 participants) identifying smoking as a barrier to re-employment.Both motivators to quit and associated smoking cues were salient in the environments of job-seeking smokers. Struggles with quitting and perceptions that smoking is harming re-employment success suggest the potential for offering tobacco treatment in EDD settings. With permission, the photos and themes have been incorporated into a tobacco treatment intervention for job-seeking smokers.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1179173X20921446

    View details for PubMedID 32669882

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7338730

  • Negotiating Lay and Clinical Issues: Implementing a Lay Navigation Program in Cancer Care. Journal of oncology practice Holdsworth, L. M., Zionts, D., Wang, S., Veruttipong, D., Brown-Johnson, C., Asch, S. M., Rosenthal, E. L., Winget, M. 2019: JOP1900339


    PURPOSE: Patients with cancer face daunting coordination problems at a vulnerable time. Lay navigation programs offer 1 approach to address these problems, but how to best implement these programs presents challenges. We sought to describe those implementation challenges at 1 academic cancer center to inform future efforts.METHODS: We performed a mixed methods study using standard implementation outcomes 1 year after program initiation. Quantitative data from the electronic medical record and qualitative data from in-depth interviews, focus groups, and ethnographic observations were included in analyses. The study took place at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center across 12 tumor-specific clinics.RESULTS: Supportive care concerns, scheduling, and clinical-related issues were the most frequent issues navigators encountered. Effective navigation required continuous, time-consuming, invisible work, including building and maintaining a broad knowledge base of resources and health system processes, as well as cultivating relationships with diverse and changing clinical teams. The acceptability and appropriateness of lay navigator activities were mixed among clinic and social work staff, related to negotiating lines between clinical and nonclinical care.CONCLUSION: After 1 year of implementation, lay navigators still found it difficult to interpret and prioritize complex patient needs in a way that all clinical staff found appropriate. Negotiating these issues has made it difficult to develop the strong relationships with clinical teams that are needed for an integrated approach to patient care. To successfully coordinate patient care, it seems that lay navigation programs should be integrated with clinical teams to provide more seamless patient care.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JOP.19.00339

    View details for PubMedID 31693450

  • CFIR simplified: Pragmatic application of and adaptations to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) for evaluation of a patient-centered care transformation within a learning health system LEARNING HEALTH SYSTEMS Safaeinili, N., Brown-Johnson, C., Shaw, J. G., Mahoney, M., Winget, M. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lrh2.10201

    View details for Web of Science ID 000487784900001

  • A Rapid Qualitative Synthesis of Insights from the Veterans Administration Life-Sustaining Treatment Decisions Initiative (LSTDI) National Implementation Brown-Johnson, C., Lo, N., Giannitrapani, K., Lowery, J., Foglia, M., Walling, A., Bekelman, D., Lorenz, K. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: 456
  • Transdisciplinary Strategies for Physician Wellness: Qualitative Insights from Diverse Fields. Journal of general internal medicine Schwartz, R. n., Haverfield, M. C., Brown-Johnson, C. n., Maitra, A. n., Tierney, A. n., Bharadwaj, S. n., Shaw, J. G., Azimpour, F. n., Thadaney Israni, S. n., Verghese, A. n., Zulman, D. M. 2019


    While barriers to physician wellness have been well detailed, concrete solutions are lacking.We looked to professionals across diverse fields whose work requires engagement and interpersonal connection with clients. The goal was to identify effective strategies from non-medical fields that could be applied to preserve physician wellness.We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 professionals outside the field of clinical medicine whose work involves fostering effective connections with individuals.Professionals from diverse professions, including the protective services (e.g., police officer, firefighter), business/finance (e.g., restaurateur, salesperson), management (e.g., CEO, school principal), education, art/design/entertainment (e.g., professional musician, documentary filmmaker), community/social services (e.g., social worker, chaplain), and personal care/services (e.g., massage therapist, yoga instructor).Interviews covered strategies that professionals use to initiate and maintain relationships, practices that cultivate professional fulfillment and preserve wellness, and techniques that facilitate emotional presence during interactions. Data were coded using an inductive thematic analysis approach.Professionals identified self-care strategies at both institutional and individual levels that support wellness. Institutional-level strategies include scheduling that allows for self-care, protected time to connect with colleagues, and leadership support for debriefing after traumatic events. Individual strategies include emotionally protective distancing techniques and engagement in a bidirectional exchange that is central to interpersonal connection and professional fulfillment.In this exploratory study, the purposive sampling technique and single representative per occupation could limit the generalizability of findings.Across diverse fields, professionals employ common institutional and personal wellness strategies that facilitate meaningful engagement, support collegiality, and encourage processing after intense events. The transdisciplinary nature of these wellness strategies highlights universal underpinnings that support wellbeing in those engaging in people-oriented professions.

    View details for PubMedID 31037542

  • Transdisciplinary Strategies for Physician Wellness: Qualitative Insights from Diverse Fields Journal of General Internal Medicine Schwartz, R., Haverfield, M. C., Brown-Johnson, C., Maitra, A., Tierney, A., Bharadwaj, S., Shaw, J. G., Azimpour, F., Thadaney Israni, S., Verghese, A., Zulman, D. M. 2019


    While barriers to physician wellness have been well detailed, concrete solutions are lacking.We looked to professionals across diverse fields whose work requires engagement and interpersonal connection with clients. The goal was to identify effective strategies from non-medical fields that could be applied to preserve physician wellness.We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 professionals outside the field of clinical medicine whose work involves fostering effective connections with individuals.Professionals from diverse professions, including the protective services (e.g., police officer, firefighter), business/finance (e.g., restaurateur, salesperson), management (e.g., CEO, school principal), education, art/design/entertainment (e.g., professional musician, documentary filmmaker), community/social services (e.g., social worker, chaplain), and personal care/services (e.g., massage therapist, yoga instructor).Interviews covered strategies that professionals use to initiate and maintain relationships, practices that cultivate professional fulfillment and preserve wellness, and techniques that facilitate emotional presence during interactions. Data were coded using an inductive thematic analysis approach.Professionals identified self-care strategies at both institutional and individual levels that support wellness. Institutional-level strategies include scheduling that allows for self-care, protected time to connect with colleagues, and leadership support for debriefing after traumatic events. Individual strategies include emotionally protective distancing techniques and engagement in a bidirectional exchange that is central to interpersonal connection and professional fulfillment.In this exploratory study, the purposive sampling technique and single representative per occupation could limit the generalizability of findings.Across diverse fields, professionals employ common institutional and personal wellness strategies that facilitate meaningful engagement, support collegiality, and encourage processing after intense events. The transdisciplinary nature of these wellness strategies highlights universal underpinnings that support wellbeing in those engaging in people-oriented professions.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-019-04913-y

  • Health after cancer: Early patient experience in a pilot survivorship clinic embedded in primary care. Schapira, L., Winget, M., Wu, S., Kim, J., Brown-Johnson, C. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2018
  • Primary Care 2.0: Design of a Transformational Team-Based Practice Model to Meet the Quadruple Aim. American journal of medical quality : the official journal of the American College of Medical Quality Brown-Johnson, C. G., Chan, G. K., Winget, M., Shaw, J. G., Patton, K., Hussain, R., Olayiwola, J. N., Chang, S., Mahoney, M. 2018: 1062860618802365


    A new transformational model of primary care is needed to address patient care complexity and provider burnout. An 18-month design effort (2015-2016) included the following: (1) Needs Finding, (2) Integrated Facility Design, (3) Design Process Assessment, and (4) Development of Evaluation. Initial outcome metrics were assessed. The design team successfully applied Integrated Facility Design to primary care transformation design; qualitative survey results suggest that design consensus was facilitated by team-building activities. Initial implementation of Quadruple Aim-related outcome metrics showed positive trends. Redesign processes may benefit from emphasis on team building to facilitate consensus and increased patient involvement to incorporate patient voices successfully.

    View details for PubMedID 30409021

  • FOSTERING PATIENT-PROVIDER CONNECTION DURING CLINICAL ENCOUNTERS: INSIGHTS FROM NON-MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS Schwartz, R., Brown-Johnson, C., Haverfield, M. C., Tierney, A. A., Bharadwaj, S., Zionts, D. L., Romero, I., Piccininni, G., Shaw, J. G., Thadaney, S., Azimpour, F., Verghese, A., Zulman, D. M. SPRINGER. 2018: S200
  • Latino Adults' Perspectives on Treating Tobacco Use Via Social Media. JMIR mHealth and uHealth Anguiano, B., Brown-Johnson, C., Rosas, L. G., Pechmann, C., Prochaska, J. J. 2017; 5 (2)


    Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States, and in California they outnumber non-Hispanic whites. Smoking cessation programs tailored for Latino culture, and this population's specific smoking patterns, are needed. Online social networks for smoking cessation have high potential for Latinos, but have not been tested to date.Building a research program on social media apps for cancer prevention in diverse populations, this qualitative study assessed acceptability of tobacco treatment that was distributed via social media for Latino smokers.We conducted three focus groups with Latino adults who were former and current smokers recruited from Santa Clara County, California in 2015 (N=32). We assessed participants' smoking histories, attempts to quit, social media exposure, and receptivity to a social media-based smoking cessation intervention. Audio transcripts were translated and coded for themes.Participants reported factors driving their tobacco use and motivations to quit, and emphasized the importance of community and family in influencing their smoking initiation, cravings and triggers, attempts to quit, and abstinence. Participants valued the communal aspect of social media and suggested strategically tailoring groups based on key features (eg, age, gender, language preference). Participants reported preferring visual, educational, and motivational messages that were connected with existing services.Participants generally voiced acceptability of a social media-delivered intervention to help them quit smoking, viewed the intervention as well-equipped for catering to the strong community orientation of Latinos, and suggested that the platform was able to address variation within the population through strategic group creation. As a group member reflected, "Podemos hacerlo juntos" (We can do it together).

    View details for DOI 10.2196/mhealth.6684

    View details for PubMedID 28179217

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5322200

  • Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California. Preventive medicine reports Maglalang, D. D., Brown-Johnson, C., Prochaska, J. J. 2016; 4: 29-32


    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.05.011

    View details for PubMedID 27413658

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4929057

  • Electronic Release of Pathology and Radiology Results to Patients: Opinions and Experiences of Oncologists. Journal of oncology practice / American Society of Clinical Oncology Winget, M., Haji-Sheikhi, F., Brown-Johnson, C., Rosenthal, E. L., Sharp, C., Buyyounouski, M. K., Asch, S. M. 2016; 12 (8): e792-9


    There is an emerging standard to provide patients rapid electronic access to elements of their medical records. Although surveys of patients generally support it, this practice is controversial among oncologists, because few empiric data are available for scenarios of potentially life-threatening conditions like cancer. We report the views of oncologists about patient electronic access to radiology and pathology results that could potentially indicate disease progression.Four months before oncologists were surveyed, final results of radiology/pathology reports were routinely made available to patients online through a secure portal after a 7-day, hold to provide clinicians time to review and communicate results with the patients. Mixed methods were used to assess physician attitudes and experiences toward this change.One hundred twenty-nine oncologists were surveyed, and 82 (64%) responded. A small majority (54%) responded that the release of reports was somewhat or very beneficial for patients who received normal radiology/pathology results before discussion with a physician, but 87% said it was somewhat or very harmful for patients to receive abnormal results before discussion. Forty-nine percent reported that release of reports had a somewhat or very negative impact on communication with their patients.Almost half of oncologists reported that sharing digital radiology and pathology records had a negative impact on their communication with patients. Patient surveys in similar cancer populations would complement the physician perspective. Efforts are needed to improve consensus among oncologists and patients on how to best communicate such results in a timely fashion.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JOP.2016.011098

    View details for PubMedID 27382001

  • Validity and reliability of the internalized stigma of smoking inventory: An exploration of shame, isolation, and discrimination in smokers with mental health diagnoses. The American journal on addictions / American Academy of Psychiatrists in Alcoholism and Addictions Brown-Johnson, C. G., Cataldo, J. K., Orozco, N., Lisha, N. E., Hickman, N. J., Prochaska, J. J. 2015; 24 (5): 410-8


    De-normalization of smoking as a public health strategy may create shame and isolation in vulnerable groups unable to quit. To examine the nature and impact of smoking stigma, we developed the Internalized Stigma of Smoking Inventory (ISSI), tested its validity and reliability, and explored factors that may contribute to smoking stigma.We evaluated the ISSI in a sample of smokers with mental health diagnoses (N = 956), using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and assessed construct validity.Results reduced the ISSI to eight items with three subscales: smoking self-stigma related to shame, felt stigma related to social isolation, and discrimination experiences. Discrimination was the most commonly endorsed of the three subscales. A multivariate generalized linear model predicted 21-30% of the variance in the smoking stigma subscales. Self-stigma was greatest among those intending to quit; felt stigma was highest among those experiencing stigma in other domains, namely ethnicity and mental illness-based; and smoking-related discrimination was highest among women, Caucasians, and those with more education.Smoking stigma may compound stigma experiences in other areas. Aspects of smoking stigma in the domains of shame, isolation, and discrimination were related to modeled stigma responses, particularly readiness to quit and cigarette addiction, and were found to be more salient for groups where tobacco use is least prevalent.The ISSI measure is useful for quantifying smoking-related stigma in multiple domains. (Am J Addict 2015;24:410 -418).

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ajad.12215

    View details for PubMedID 25930661

  • Development and usability evaluation of the mHealth Tool for Lung Cancer (mHealth TLC): a virtual world health game for lung cancer patients. Patient education and counseling Brown-Johnson, C. G., Berrean, B., Cataldo, J. K. 2015; 98 (4): 506-11


    To test the feasibility and usability of mHealth TLC, an interactive, immersive 3-dimensional iPad health game that coaches lung cancer patients toward assertive communication strategies during first-person virtual clinics visits.We observed players and conducted semi-structured interviews. Research questions focused on scenario believability, the impact of technical issues, transparency of game goals, and potential of mHealth TLC to decrease lung cancer stigma (LCS) and improve patient-clinician communication.Eight users confirmed mHealth TLC to be: (1) believable, (2) clinic-appropriate, and (3) helpful in support of informed healthcare consumers. Concerns were expressed about emotionally charged content and plans to use mHealth TLC in clinic settings as opposed to at home.Although the dialog and interactions addressed emotionally charged issues, players were able to engage, learn, and benefit from role-play in a virtual world. Health games have the potential to improve patient-clinician communication, and mHealth TLC specifically may decrease LCS, and promote optimal self-management.Process reflection revealed the need for health games to be created by experienced game developers in collaboration with health care experts. To prepare for this best practice, research institutions and game developers interested in health games should proactively seek out networking and collaboration opportunities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pec.2014.12.006

    View details for PubMedID 25620075

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4451946

  • Applying linguistic methods to understanding smoking-related conversations on Twitter TOBACCO CONTROL Sanders-Jackson, A., Brown, C. G., Prochaska, J. J. 2015; 24 (2): 136-138


    Social media, such as Twitter, have become major channels of communication and commentary on popular culture, including conversations on our nation's leading addiction: tobacco. The current study examined Twitter conversations following two tobacco-related events in the media: (1) President Obama's doctor announcing that he had quit smoking and (2) the release of a photograph of Miley Cyrus (a former Disney child star) smoking a cigarette. With a focus on high-profile individuals whose actions can draw public attention, we aimed to characterise tobacco-related conversations as an example of tobacco-related public discourse and to present a novel methodology for studying social media.Tweets were collected 11-13 November 2011 (President Obama) and 1-3 August 2011 (Miley Cyrus) and analysed for relative frequency of terms, a novel application of a linguistic methodology.The President Obama data set (N=2749 tweets) had conversations about him quitting tobacco as well as a preponderance of information on political activity, links to websites, racialised terms and mention of marijuana. Websites and terms about Obama's smoke-free status were most central to the conversation. In the Miley Cyrus data (N=4746 tweets), terms that occurred with the greatest relative frequency were positive, emotional and supportive of quitting (eg, love, and please), with words such as 'love' most central to the conversation.People are talking about tobacco-related issues on Twitter, and semantic network analysis can be used to characterise on-line conversations. Future interventions may be able to harness social media and major current events to raise awareness of smoking-related issues.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051243

    View details for Web of Science ID 000350337500013

    View details for PubMedID 24227540

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4103964

  • Shame-based appeals in a tobacco control public health campaign: potential harms and benefits. Tobacco control Brown-Johnson, C. G., Prochaska, J. J. 2015; 24 (5): 419–20

    View details for PubMedID 26293382

  • Encouraging and supporting smoking cessation in the workforce. Occupational and environmental medicine Prochaska, J. J., Brown-Johnson, C. G. 2014; 71 (6): 385-387

    View details for DOI 10.1136/oemed-2014-102145

    View details for PubMedID 24759972