Celina Yong, MD, MBA, MSc is Director of Interventional Cardiology at the Palo Alto VA Medical Center and an Assistant Professor in the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine at Stanford. Dr. Yong completed her medical training at Stanford School of Medicine and her internal medicine residency at the University of California, San Francisco. She completed her cardiology and interventional cardiology fellowships at Stanford, including serving as Chief Fellow. As a Marshall Scholar, she completed a Masters in Health Policy, Planning and Financing from the London School of Economics and an MBA from Oxford.

Dr. Yong’s current research focuses on understanding and reducing inequities in cardiovascular care for patients, as well as resolving gender imbalances in the medical profession itself. She is actively involved in clinical trials of novel devices for percutaneous coronary and structural intervention, and performs structural and coronary interventions at the Palo Alto VA Hospital.

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Director, Interventional Cardiology, Palo Alto VA Healthcare System (2019 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Diversity Investigator Award, Stanford Department of Medicine (2020-pres)
  • HSR&D Career Development Award, Veterans Health Administration (2019-pres)
  • McCormick Faculty Award, Stanford University (2017-2019)
  • AHA Mentored Clinical & Population Research Award, American Heart Association (2016-2019)
  • ACCF/Merck Cardiovascular Research Fellow, American College of Cardiology Foundation (2013-2014)
  • Edwin Alderman Award for Excellent in Clinical Research, Stanford University (2013)
  • Women's Career & Leadership Award, American College of Cardiology (2013)
  • Women in Cardiology Award for Excellence, American Heart Association (2012)
  • U.S. Delegate, International Academy of Achievement Summit (2004)
  • Soros Fellow, Paul & Daisy Soros Fellowship for New Americans (2003-2005)
  • British Marshall Scholar, Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission (2001-2003)
  • Truman Scholar, Harry S. Truman Scholarship Foundation (2000)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Fellow, American College of Cardiology (2021 - Present)
  • Fellow, American Heart Association, Council on Quality Care and Outcomes Research (QCOR) (2021 - Present)
  • Fellow, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) (2021 - Present)
  • Section Editor, Journal of the American College of Cardiology FIT/Early Career Section (2020 - Present)
  • Board of Directors, American College of Cardiology, California Chapter (2018 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship, Stanford University School of Medicine, Interventional Cardiology (2015)
  • Fellowship, Stanford University School of Medicine, Cardiology (2013)
  • Residency, University of California, San Francisco, Internal Medicine (2010)
  • MD, Stanford School of Medicine (2007)
  • MBA, Oxford University (2003)
  • MSc, London School of Economics, Health Policy, Planning & Financing (2002)
  • BS, University of California, Berkeley, Molecular Environmental Biology (2001)

Clinical Trials

  • Safety and Efficacy Study of the Medtronic CoreValve® System in the Treatment of Severe, Symptomatic Aortic Stenosis in Intermediate Risk Subjects Who Need Aortic Valve Replacement (SURTAVI). Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with severe, symptomatic Aortic Stenosis (AS) at intermediate surgical risk by randomizing patients to either Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement (SAVR) or TAVI with the Medtronic CoreValve® System. Single Arm: The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of transcatheter aortic valve implementation (TAVI) in patients with severe symptomatic Aortic Stenosis (AS) at intermediate surgical risk with TAVI. This is a non-randomized phase of the pivotal clinical trial.

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  • A Comparison of Fractional Flow Reserve-Guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery in Patients With Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether Fractional flow reserve (FFR, (coronary pressure wire-based index for assessing the ischemic potential of a coronary lesion)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) will result in similar outcomes to coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact William F Fearon, MD, 650-725-2621.

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  • Disrupt CAD III With the Shockwave Coronary IVL System Not Recruiting

    The study design is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, global IDE study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Shockwave Medical Coronary Intravascular Lithotripsy (IVL) System in de novo, calcified, stenotic coronary arteries prior to stenting. Disrupt CAD III is being conducted as a staged pivotal study.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Safety & Efficacy Study of the Medtronic CoreValve® System-Treatment of Symptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis With Significant Comorbidities in Extreme Risk Subjects Who Need Aortic Valve Replacement Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Medtronic CoreValve® System for the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in subjects with significant comorbidities in whom the risk of surgical aortic valve replacement has a predicted operative mortality or serious, irreversible morbidity risk of ≥50% at 30 days.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Safety and Efficacy Continued Access Study of the Medtronic CoreValve® System in the Treatment of Symptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis in Very High Risk Subjects and High Risk Subjects Who Need Aortic Valve Replacement Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Medtronic CoreValve® System in the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in subjects who have a predicted very high risk and high risk for aortic valve surgery.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Safety and Efficacy Study of the Medtronic CoreValve® System in the Treatment of Symptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis in High Risk and Very High Risk Subjects Who Need Aortic Valve Replacement Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Medtronic CoreValve® System in the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in subjects who have a predicted high risk for aortic valve surgery and/or very high risk for aortic valve surgery.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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Graduate and Fellowship Programs

All Publications

  • How Gold Is the Gold Standard for Machine Learning-Based CT-FFR? JACC. Cardiovascular imaging Yong, C. M., Fearon, W. F. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.10.002

    View details for PubMedID 34801451

  • Addressing Functional Biases in Procedural Environments. Annals of surgery Soegaard Ballester, J. M., Han, J. J., Yong, C. M. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000005211

    View details for PubMedID 34520425

  • Gender Differences in the Pursuit of Cardiac Electrophysiology Training in North America. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Abdulsalam, N., Gillis, A. M., Rzeszut, A. K., Yong, C. M., Duvernoy, C. S., Langan, M., West, K., Velagapudi, P., Killic, S., O'Leary, E. L. 2021; 78 (9): 898-909


    BACKGROUND: Despite the increase in the number of female physicians across most specialties within cardiology,<10% of clinical cardiac electrophysiology (EP) fellows are women.OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the factors that influence fellows-in-training (FITs) to pursue EP as a career choice and whether this differs by gender.METHODS: The authors conducted an online multiple-choice survey through the American College of Cardiology to assess the decision factors that influence FITs in the United States and Canada to pursue cardiovascular subspecialties.RESULTS: A total of 933 (30.5%) FITs completed the survey; 129 anticipated specializing in EP, 259 in interventional cardiology (IC), and 545 in a different field or were unsure. A total of 1 in 7 (14%) FITs indicated an interest in EP. Of this group, more men chose EP than women (84% vs 16%; P< 0.001). The most important factor that influenced FITs to pursue EP was a strong interest in the field. Women were more likely to be influenced by having a female role model (P=0.001) compared with men. After excluding FITs interested in IC, women who deselected EP were more likely than men to be influenced by greater interest in another field (P = 0.004), radiation concerns (P = 0.001), lack of female role models (P = 0.001), a perceived "old boys' club" culture (P = 0.001) and discrimination/harassment concerns (P=0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Women are more likely than men to be negatively influenced by many factors when it comes to pursuing EP as a career choice. Addressing those factors will help decrease the gender disparity in the field.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.06.033

    View details for PubMedID 34446162

  • Addressing Equity and More in 2021: Call From Fellows-in-Training & Early Career SectionEditors. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Han, J. J., Vaduganathan, M., Yong, C. M. 2021; 77 (10): 1372–73

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.02.001

    View details for PubMedID 33706881

  • DOES STUDY SUBJECT DIVERSITY INFLUENCE CARDIOLOGY RESEARCH SITE PERFORMANCE?: INSIGHTS FROM 2 U.S. NATIONAL CORONARY STENT REGISTRIES. American heart journal Batchelor, W. B., Damluji, A. A., Yong, C., Fiuzat, M., Barnett, S. D., Kandzari, D. E., Sherwood, M. W., Epps, K. C., Tehrani, B. N., Allocco, D. J., Meredith, I. T., Lindenfeld, J., O'Connor, C. M., Mehran, R. 2021


    BACKGROUND: Minorities and women are underrepresented in cardiovascular research. Whether their higher enrollment can be predicted or influences research site performance is unclear.METHODS: We evaluated 104 sites that enrolled 4,184 patients in the U.S. Platinum Diversity (PD) and Promus Element Plus (PE Plus) studies (2012 to 2016). Research sites were ranked from lowest to highest minority and female enrollment, respectively. United States Census bureau division and core-based statistical area (CBSA) populations were determined for each site and the following study performance metrics compared across quartiles of minority and female enrollment, respectively: (1) study subject enrollment rate (SER), (2) time to first patient enrolled, (3) rate of follow-up visits not done, (4) rate of follow-up visits out of window, and (5) protocol deviation rate (PDR). Multivariable regression was used to predict ER and PDR.RESULTS: Minority enrollment varied by region (p=0.025) and population (p=0.024) with highest recruitment noted in the Pacific, West South Central, South Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic and East North Central divisions. Female enrollment bore no relationship to region (p=0.67) or population (p=0.40). Median SER was similar in sites with the highest vs. lowest quartile of minority enrollment (4 vs. 5 patients per month, respectively, p=0.78) and women (4 vs. 4, respectively, p=0.21). Median PDR was lower in sites with the highest vs. lowest minority enrollment (0.23 vs. 0.50 PDs per patient per month, p=0.01) and women (0.37 vs. 0.28, p=0.04). However, this relationship did not persist after multivariable adjustment. All other site performance metrics were comparable across quartiles of minority and female enrollment.CONCLUSIONS: Minority, but not female enrollment, correlated with research site region and surrounding population. High enrollment of minorities and women did not influence study performance metrics, supporting continued efforts to increase clinical trial diversity.TRIAL REGISTRATION: The PD and PE Plus studies are registered at under identifiers NCT02240810 and NCT01589978, respectively. KEY POINTS Question: Does the enrollment of more Blacks, Hispanics and women in U.S. cardiovascular research studies influence the overall rate of study subject enrollment and/or other key study site performance metrics and can diverse enrollment be predicted?FINDINGS: In this pooled analysis of 104 sites that enrolled 4,184 patients in the Platinum Diversity and Promus Element Plus Post-Approval Studies, we found that the enrollment of higher proportions of underrepresented minorities and women was univariately associated with lower protocol deviation rates while having no effect on other site performance metrics. A site's geographic location and surrounding population predicted minority, but not female enrollment. Meaning: These findings suggest that cardiovascular research subject diversity may be predicted from site characteristics and enhanced without compromising key study performance metrics. These insights help inform future strategies aimed at improving clinical trial diversity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2021.02.003

    View details for PubMedID 33636137

  • Temporal Trends in the Proportion of Women Physician Speakers at Major Cardiovascular Conferences. Circulation Yong, C. M., Balasubramanian, S., Douglas, P. S., Agarwal, P., Birgersdotter-Green, U., Gummidipundi, S., Batchelor, W., Duvernoy, C. S., Harrington, R. A., Mehran, R. 2021; 143 (7): 755–57

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.052663

    View details for PubMedID 33587663

  • Cardiovascular Procedural Deferral and Outcomes over COVID-19 Pandemic Phases: A Multi-Center Study. American heart journal Yong, C. M., Spinelli, K. J., Chiu, S. T., Jones, B., Penny, B., Gummidipundi, S., Beach, S., Perino, A., Turakhia, M., Heidenreich, P., Gluckman, T. J. 2021


    The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine cardiovascular care, with unclear impact on procedural deferrals and associated outcomes across diverse patient populations.Cardiovascular procedures performed at 30 hospitals across six Western states in two large, non-profit healthcare systems (Providence St. Joseph Health and Stanford Healthcare) from December 2018-June 2020 were analyzed for changes over time. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was compared across pandemic phases with multivariate logistic regression.Among 36,125 procedures (69% percutaneous coronary intervention, 13% coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 10% transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and 8% surgical aortic valve replacement), weekly volumes changed in two distinct phases after the initial inflection point on February 23, 2020: an initial period of significant deferral (COVID I: March 15 to April 11) followed by recovery (COVID II: April 12 onwards). Compared to pre-COVID, COVID I patients were less likely to be female (p=0.0003), older (p<0.0001), Asian or Black (p=0.02), or Medicare insured (p<0.0001), and COVID I procedures were higher acuity (p<0.0001), but not higher complexity. In COVID II, there was a trend towards more procedural deferral in regions with a higher COVID-19 burden (p=0.05). Compared to pre-COVID, there were no differences in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality during both COVID phases.Significant decreases in cardiovascular procedural volumes occurred early in the COVID-19 pandemic, with disproportionate impacts by race, gender, and age. These findings should inform our approach to future healthcare disruptions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2021.06.011

    View details for PubMedID 34181910

  • When to Believe Unexpected Results for Ticagrelor or Prasugrel: Never Rarely Sometimes Always. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions Bittl, J. A., Yong, C. M., Sharma, G. 2020; 13 (19): 2248–50

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcin.2020.08.012

    View details for PubMedID 33032713

  • Heterogeneity of Treatment and Outcomes Among Asians With Coronary Artery Disease in the United States. Journal of the American Heart Association Manjunath, L., Chung, S., Li, J., Shah, H., Palaniappan, L., Yong, C. M. 2020: e014362


    Background Prior data demonstrate significant heterogeneity regarding coronary artery disease risk factors and outcomes among Asians in the United States, but no studies have yet examined coronary artery disease treatment patterns or outcomes among disaggregated Asian American subgroups. Methods and Results From a total of 772882 patients with known race/ethnicity and sex who received care from a mixed-payer healthcare organization in Northern California between 2006 and 2015, a retrospective analysis was conducted on 6667 adults with coronary artery disease. Logistic regression was used to examine medical and procedural therapies and outcomes by race/ethnicity, with adjustment for age, sex, income, and baseline comorbidities. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Chinese were more likely to undergo stenting (50.9% versus 60.8%, odds ratio [OR] 1.39 [95% CI, 1.04-1.87], p=0.005), whereas Filipinos were more likely to receive bypass surgery (6.9% versus 20.5%, OR 2.65 [95% CI, 1.75-4.01], P<0.0001). After stenting, Chinese, Filipinos, and Japanese were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to be prescribed clopidogrel (86.2%, 83.0%, and 91.4% versus 74.5%, ORs 1.86 [95% CI, 1.13-3.04], 1.86 [95% CI, 1.01-3.44], and 4.37 [95% CI, 1.02-18.67], respectively, P<0.0001). Lastly, Chinese and Asian Indians were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to be diagnosed with a myocardial infarction within 1year postangiography (15.6% and 17.4% versus 11.2%, ORs 1.49 [95% CI, 1.02-2.19] and 1.68 [95% CI, 1.21-2.34], respectively, P<0.0001). Conclusions Disaggregation of Asian Americans with coronary artery disease into individual racial/ethnic subgroups reveals significant variability in treatment patterns and outcomes. Further investigation into these differences may expose important opportunities to mitigate disparities and improve quality of care in this diverse population.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.119.014362

    View details for PubMedID 32390539

  • Picking Up the Torch: Our Mission as the New FIT & EC Section Editors. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Yong, C. M., Han, J. J., Vaduganathan, M. n. 2020; 76 (2): 221–22

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.06.020

    View details for PubMedID 32646572

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7338029

  • COVID-19: The Isolation That Has Brought Us Together. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Yong, C. n. 2020; 75 (20): 2639–41

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.04.014

    View details for PubMedID 32439014

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7159867

  • Sex Differences in Oral Anticoagulation and Outcomes of Stroke and Intracranial Bleeding in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation. Journal of the American Heart Association Yong, C. M., Tremmel, J. A., Lansberg, M. G., Fan, J. n., Askari, M. n., Turakhia, M. P. 2020: e015689


    Background Female sex is an independent predictor of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Older data suggest undertreatment with anticoagulation among women compared with men. However, it is unknown if novel therapies and updated guidelines have impacted sex differences in AF treatment and outcomes. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective cohort study of 2.3 million women and men with a new diagnosis of AF and CHA2DS2-VASc ≥2 from Marketscan US commercial claims data from 2008 to 2015 to determine whether women with AF remain undertreated and whether this difference mediates observed differences in outcomes. There were 358 649 patients with newly diagnosed AF (43% women). Compared with men, women were older, with higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores, and higher comorbidity burden (P<0.0001 for all). Oral anticoagulation-eligible women with CHA2DS2-VASc scores ≥2 were more likely to not receive anticoagulation (50.0% women versus 43.9% men). Women, compared with men, had a higher risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.32; P<0.0001) and hospitalization (aHR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05-1.07, P<0.0001) but had a lower risk of intracranial bleeding (aHR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99, P=0.03). In mediation analysis, nonreceipt of oral anticoagulation partially mediated the observed increased risk of stroke and decreased risk of intracranial bleeding in women. Conclusions In the care of newly diagnosed AF in the United States, women, compared with men, are less likely to receive oral anticoagulation. This appears to mediate the increased risk of both stroke and hospitalization but also appears to mediate lower observed intracranial bleeding risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.120.015689

    View details for PubMedID 32394763

  • Integrating the ABC-Bleeding Risk Score Into Practice. JAMA network open Yong, C. M., Bittl, J. A. 2020; 3 (9): e2016126

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16126

    View details for PubMedID 32936295

  • Cardiac Procedural Deferral during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic. Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions Yong, C. M., Ang, L. n., Welt, F. G., Gummidipundi, S. n., Henry, T. D., Pinto, D. S., Cox, D. n., Wang, P. n., Asch, S. n., Mahmud, E. n., Fearon, W. F. 2020


    We aimed to examine factors impacting variability in cardiac procedural deferral during the COVID-19 pandemic and assess cardiologists' perspectives regarding its implications.Unprecedented cardiac procedural deferral was implemented nationwide during the COVID-19 pandemic.A web-based survey was administered by SCAI and the ACC Interventional Council to cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) directors and interventional cardiologists across the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic.Among 414 total responses, 48 states and 360 unique cardiac catheterization laboratories were represented, with mean inpatient COVID-19 burden 16.4+21.9%. There was a spectrum of deferral by procedure type, varying by both severity of COVID-19 burden and procedural urgency (p<0.001). Percutaneous coronary intervention volumes dropped by 55% (p<0.0001) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement volumes dropped by 64%, (p=0.004), with cardiologists reporting an increase in late presenting ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarctions and deaths among patients waiting for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Almost 1/3 of catheterization laboratories had at least one interventionalist testing positive for COVID-19. Salary reductions did not influence procedural deferral or speed of reinstituting normal volumes. Pandemic preparedness improved significantly over time, with the most pressing current problems focused on inadequate testing and staff health risks.During the COVID-19 pandemic, cardiac procedural deferrals were associated with procedural urgency and severity of hospital COVID-19 burden. Yet patients did not appear to be similarly influenced, with cardiologists reporting increases in late presenting ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarctions independent of local COVID-19 burden. The safety and importance of seeking healthcare during this pandemic deserves emphasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ccd.29262

    View details for PubMedID 32882075

  • Sex Differences in the Pursuit of Interventional Cardiology as a Subspecialty Among CardiovascularFellows-in-Training. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions Yong, C. M., Abnousi, F., Rzeszut, A. K., Douglas, P. S., Harrington, R. A., Mehran, R., Grines, C., Altin, S. E., Duvernoy, C. S., American College of Cardiology Women in Cardiology Leadership Council (ACC WIC), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Women in Innovations (SCAI WIN) 2019


    OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to determine the factors that influence fellows-in-training (FITs) to pursue a career in interventional cardiology (IC) and how these differ by sex.BACKGROUND: Despite increases in the proportion of women across numerous medical and surgical specialties over the last decade, IC still ranks at the bottom in terms of representation of women. It is unclear why this maldistribution persists.METHODS: An online survey of cardiovascular FITs was conducted under the direction of the American College of Cardiology Women in Cardiology Leadership Council to assess FIT perspectives regarding subspecialty choices.RESULTS: Of 574 respondents, 33% anticipated specializing in IC. Men were more likely to choose IC than women (39% men, 17% women, odds ratio: 3.98 [95% confidence interval: 2.38 to 6.68]; p< 0.001). Men were more likely to be married (p= 0.005) and have children (p= 0.002). Among married FITs, male IC FITs were more likely to have spouses who do not work (p= 0.003). Although men were more likely to be influenced by positive attributes to pursue IC, women were significantly more likely to be influenced negatively against pursuing the field by attributes including greater interest in another field (p= 0.001), little job flexibility (p= 0.02), physically demanding nature of job (p=0.004), radiation during childbearing (p< 0.001), "old boys' club" culture (p< 0.001), lack of female role models (p< 0.001), and sex discrimination (p< 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Many factors uniquely dissuade women from pursuing IC compared with men, largely related to the culture of IC as a subspecialty. Targeted resolution of these specific factors may provide the most impact in reducing sex imbalances in the field.

    View details for PubMedID 30660463

  • The efficacy and safety of cangrelor in single vessel vs multi vessel percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from CHAMPION PHOENIX. Clinical cardiology Yong, C. M., Sundaram, V. n., Abnousi, F. n., Olivier, C. B., Yang, J. n., Stone, G. W., Steg, P. G., Michael Gibson, C. n., Hamm, C. W., Price, M. J., Deliargyris, E. N., Prats, J. n., White, H. D., Harrington, R. A., Bhatt, D. L., Mahaffey, K. W. 2019


    The intravenous, rapidly acting P2Y12 inhibitor cangrelor reduces the rate of ischemic events during PCI with no significant increase in severe bleeding. However, the efficacy and safety of cangrelor compared with clopidogrel in patients treated with single vessel (SV)-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or multi vessel (MV)-PCI remains unexplored.We studied the modified intention-to-treat population of patients from the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial who were randomized to either cangrelor or clopidogrel. We used logistic regression and propensity score matching to evaluate the effect of cangrelor compared with clopidogrel on the primary efficacy outcome (composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis) at 48 hours. The safety outcome was moderate or severe Global Utilization of Streptokinase and tPA for Occluded Arteries bleeding at 48 hours.Cangrelor isas efficacious and safe as clopidogrel in both SVand MV PCI.Among 10 854 patients, 9204 (85%) underwent SV- and 1650 (15%) MV-PCI. After adjustment, cangrelor was associated with similar reductions vs clopidogrel in the primary efficacy outcome in patients undergoing SV-PCI (4.5% vs 5.2%; odds ratio [OR] 0.81 [0.66-0.98]) or MV-PCI (6.1% vs 9.8%, OR 0.59 [0.41-0.85]; Pint 0.14). Similar results were observed after propensity score matching (SV-PCI: 5.5% vs 5.9%, OR 0.93 [0.74-1.18]; MV-PCI: 6.2% vs 8.9%, OR 0.67 [0.44-1.01]; Pint 0.17). There was no evidence of heterogeneity in the treatment effect of cangrelor compared with clopidogrel for the safety outcome.In patients undergoing SV- or MV-PCI, cangrelor was associated with similar relative risk reductions in ischemic complications and no increased risk of significant bleeding compared with clopidogrel, which highlights the expanding repertoire of options for use in complex PCI.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/clc.23221

    View details for PubMedID 31254472

  • A novel noninvasive method for remote heart failure monitoring: the EuleriAn video Magnification apPLications In heart Failure studY (AMPLIFY). NPJ digital medicine Abnousi, F., Kang, G., Giacomini, J., Yeung, A., Zarafshar, S., Vesom, N., Ashley, E., Harrington, R., Yong, C. 2019; 2: 80


    Current remote monitoring devices for heart failure have been shown to reduce hospitalizations but are invasive and costly; accurate non-invasive options remain limited. The EuleriAn Video Magnification ApPLications In Heart Failure StudY (AMPLIFY) pilot aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a novel noninvasive method that uses Eulerian video magnification. Video recordings were performed on the neck veins of 50 patients who were scheduled for right heart catheterization at the Palo Alto VA Medical Center. The recorded jugular venous pulsations were then enhanced by applying Eulerian phase-based motion magnification. Assessment of jugular venous pressure was compared across three categories: (1) physicians who performed bedside exams, (2) physicians who reviewed both the amplified and unamplified videos, and (3) direct invasive measurement of right atrial pressure from right heart catheterization. Motion magnification reduced inaccuracy of the clinician assessment of central venous pressure compared to the gold standard of right heart catheterization (mean discrepancy of -0.80cm H2O; 95% CI -2.189 to 0.612, p=0.27) when compared to both unamplified video (-1.84cm H2O; 95% CI -3.22 to -0.46, p=0.0096) and the bedside exam (-2.90cm H2O; 95% CI -4.33 to 1.40, p=0.0002). Major categorical disagreements with right heart catheterization were significantly reduced with motion magnification (12%) when compared to unamplified video (25%) or the bedside exam (27%). This novel method of assessing jugular venous pressure improves the accuracy of the clinical exam and may enable accurate remote monitoring of heart failure patients with minimal patient risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41746-019-0159-0

    View details for PubMedID 31453375

  • Prevalence, Treatment, and Outcomes Among Asian Subgroups With Coronary Artery Disease Manjunath, L., Chung, S., Li Jiang, Palaniappan, L., Yong, C. M. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2018
  • Racial Differences in Quality of Care and Outcomes After Acute Coronary Syndrome. The American journal of cardiology Yong, C. M., Ungar, L., Abnousi, F., Asch, S. M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018


    Guideline adherence and variation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) outcomes by race in the modern era of drug-eluting stents (DES) are not well understood. Previous studies also fail to capture rapidly growing minority populations, such as Asians. A retrospective analysis of 689,238 hospitalizations for ACS across all insurance types from 2008 to 2011 from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database was performed to determine whether quality of ACS care and mortality differ by race (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, or Native American), with adjustment for patient clinical and demographic characteristics and clustering by hospital. We found that black patients had the lowest in-hospital mortality rates (5% vs 6% to 7% for other races, p<0.0001, odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97 to 1.07), despite low rates of timely angiography in ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and lower use of DES (30% vs 38% to 40% for other races, p<0.0001). In contrast, Asian patients had the highest in-hospital mortality rates (7% vs 5% to 7% for other races, p<0.0001, odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.20, relative to white patients), despite higher rates of timely angiography in ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and the highest use of DES (74% vs 63% to 68% for other races, p<0.0001). Asian patients had the worst in-hospital mortality outcomes after ACS, despite high use of early invasive treatments. Black patients had better in-hospital outcomes despite receiving less guideline-driven care.

    View details for PubMedID 29655881

  • THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF CANGRELOR FOR PATIENTS UNDERGOING SINGLE VESSEL VERSUS MULTI VESSEL PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION: INSIGHTS FROM THE CHAMPION PHOENIX TRIAL Olivier, C., Abnousi, F., Sundaram, V., Yang, J., Stone, G., Steg, P., Gibson, C., Hamm, C., Price, M., Deliargyris, E., Prats, J., White, H., Harrington, R., Bhatt, D., Mahaffey, K., Yong, C., CHAMPION PHOENIX Investigators ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: 29
  • Association of insurance type with receipt of oral anticoagulation in insured patients with atrial fibrillation: A report from the American College of Cardiology NCDR PINNACLE registry AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Yong, C. M., Liu, Y., Apruzzese, P., Doros, G., Cannon, C. P., Maddox, T. M., Gehi, A., Hsu, J. C., Lubitz, S. A., Virani, S., Turakhia, M. P., ACC PINNACLE Investigators 2018; 195: 50–59
  • Cangrelor reduces the risk of ischemic complications in patients with single-vessel and multi-vessel disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial. American heart journal Abnousi, F., Sundaram, V., Yong, C. M., Prats, J., Deliargyris, E. N., Stone, G. W., Hamm, C. W., Steg, P. G., Gibson, C. M., White, H. D., Price, M. J., Généreux, P., Desai, M., Yang, L., Ding, V. Y., Harrington, R. A., Bhatt, D. L., Mahaffey, K. W. 2017; 188: 147-155


    To examine the safety and efficacy of cangrelor in patients with single-vessel disease (SVD) and multi-vessel disease (MVD).Cangrelor, an intravenous, rapidly acting P2Y12 inhibitor, is superior to clopidogrel in reducing ischemic events among patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).We studied a modified intention to treat population of patients with SVD and MVD from the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial. The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia-driven revascularization (IDR), and stent thrombosis (ST) at 48hours. The key safety outcome was non-coronary artery bypass grafting GUSTO severe bleeding at 48hours.Among 10,921 patients, 5,220 (48%) had SVD and 5,701 (52%) had MVD. MVD patients were older and more often had diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, prior stroke, and prior MI. After adjustment, MVD patients had similar rates of 48-hour death/MI/IDR/ST (6.3% vs 4.2%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.6 [95% CI 0.42-6.06]) and GUSTO severe bleeding (0.1% vs 0.2%, P=.67) compared with SVD patients. Consistent with overall trial findings, cangrelor use reduced ischemic complications in patients with both SVD (3.9% vs 4.5%; OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.65-1.12) and MVD (5.5% vs 7.2%; OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.6-0.92, P-interaction=.43). GUSTO severe bleeding outcomes were not significantly increased with cangrelor or clopidogrel in either SVD or MVD patients.In the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, MVD and SVD patients had similar ischemic outcomes at 48hours and 30days. Cangrelor consistently reduced ischemic complications in both SVD and MVD patients without a significant increase in GUSTO severe bleeding. CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2017.02.031

    View details for PubMedID 28577670

  • Impact of Baseline Stroke Risk and Bleeding Risk on Warfarin International Normalized Ratio Control in Atrial Fibrillation (from the TREAT-AF Study) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Hellyer, J. A., Azarbal, F., Than, C. T., Fan, J., Schmitt, S. K., Yang, F., Frayne, S. M., Phibbs, C. S., Yong, C., Heidenreich, P. A., Turakhia, M. P. 2017; 119 (2): 268-274


    Warfarin prevents stroke and prolongs survival in patients with atrial fibrillation and flutter (AF, collectively) but can cause hemorrhage. The time in international normalized ratio (INR) therapeutic range (TTR) mediates stroke reduction and bleeding risk. This study sought to determine the relation between baseline stroke, bleeding risk, and TTR. Using data from The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in Atrial Fibrillation (TREAT-AF) retrospective cohort study, national Veterans Health Administration records were used to identify patients with newly diagnosed AF from 2003 to 2012 and subsequent initiation of warfarin. Baseline stroke and bleeding risk was determined by calculating CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores, respectively. Main outcomes were first-year and long-term TTR and INR monitoring rate. In 167,190 patients, the proportion of patients with TTR (>65%) decreased across increasing strata of CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED. After covariate adjustment, odds of achieving TTR >65% were significantly associated with high CHA2DS2-VASc or HAS-BLED score. INR monitoring rate was similar across risk strata. In conclusion, increased baseline stroke and bleeding risk is associated with poor INR control, despite similar rates of INR monitoring. These findings may paradoxically limit warfarin's efficacy and safety in high-risk patients and may explain observed increased bleeding and stroke rates in this cohort.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.09.045

    View details for PubMedID 27836133

  • Breaking the Catheterization Laboratory Ceiling. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Yong, C. M. 2017; 69 (21): 2668–71

    View details for PubMedID 28545642

  • Asians suffer the highest in-hospital mortality rates after acute coronary syndrome despite high use of early invasive procedures Yong, C., Abnousi, F., Asch, S., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2016: B40
  • Racial Differences in Quality of Anticoagulation Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation (from the TREAT-AF Study) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Yong, C., Azarbal, F., Abnousi, F., Heidenreich, P. A., Schmitt, S., Fan, J., Than, C. T., Ullal, A. J., Yang, F., Phibbs, C. S., Frayne, S. M., Ho, P. M., Shore, S., Mahaffey, K. W., Turakhia, M. P. 2016; 117 (1): 61-68


    The influence of race on quality of anticoagulation control is not well described. We examined the association between race, international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring intensity, and INR control in warfarin-treated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we performed a retrospective cohort study of 184,161 patients with a new diagnosis of AF/flutter from 2004 to 2012 who received any VHA prescription within 90 days of diagnosis. The primary predictor was race, ascertained from multiple VHA and linked Medicare demographic files. The primary outcome was first-year and long-term time in therapeutic range (TTR) of INR 2.0 to 3.0. Secondary outcomes were INR monitoring intensity and warfarin persistence. Of the 116,021 patients who received warfarin in the cohort, INR monitoring intensity was similar across racial groups. However, TTR was lowest in blacks and highest in whites (first year 0.49 ± 0.23 vs 0.57 ± 0.21, p <0.001; long term 0.52 ± 0.20 vs 0.59 ± 0.18, p <0.001); 64% of whites and 49% of blacks had long-term TTR >55% (p <0.001). After adjusting for site and patient-level covariates, black race was associated with lower first-year and long-term TTRs (4.2% and 4.1% below the conditional mean, relative to whites; p <0.0001 for both). One-year warfarin persistence was slightly lower in blacks compared to whites (58% vs 60%, p <0.0001). In conclusion, in patients with AF anticoagulated with warfarin, differences in INR control are most evident among blacks, underscoring the need to determine if other types of intensive management or warfarin alternatives may be necessary to improve anticoagulation among vulnerable AF populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.09.047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000368048900010

  • Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association. Circulation Young, D. R., Hivert, M. F., Alhassan, S. n., Camhi, S. M., Ferguson, J. F., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Lewis, C. E., Owen, N. n., Perry, C. K., Siddique, J. n., Yong, C. M. 2016; 134 (13): e262–79


    Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that indicates greater time spent in sedentary behavior is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults such that some countries have disseminated broad guidelines that recommend minimizing sedentary behaviors. Research examining the possible deleterious consequences of excess sedentary behavior is rapidly evolving, with the epidemiology-based literature ahead of potential biological mechanisms that might explain the observed associations. This American Heart Association science advisory reviews the current evidence on sedentary behavior in terms of assessment methods, population prevalence, determinants, associations with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, potential underlying mechanisms, and interventions. Recommendations for future research on this emerging cardiovascular health topic are included. Further evidence is required to better inform public health interventions and future quantitative guidelines on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular health outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000440

    View details for PubMedID 27528691

  • Cangrelor Improves Ischemic Outcomes In Patients With Multivessel Disease And Single Vessel Disease Undergoing PCI: Insights From The CHAMPION PHOENIX Trial Abnousi, F., Sundaram, V., Prats, J., Deliargyris, E. N., Stone, G. W., Hamm, C., Steg, P. G., Gibson, C., White, H. D., Price, M. J., Yong, C., Desai, M., Harrington, R., Bhatt, D. L., Mahaffey, K. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2015: B35
  • The Evolution of Temporary Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices: a Review of the Options and Evidence in Cardiogenic Shock CURRENT CARDIOLOGY REPORTS Abnousi, F., Yong, C. M., Fearon, W., Banerjee, D. 2015; 17 (6)


    Temporary percutaneous mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices were introduced in the 1960s and have developed into a diverse portfolio of options currently available for left, right, and biventricular support. Patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and patients with cardiogenic shock in particular may benefit from these options. In this review, we will discuss the currently available devices and the evidence supporting their use in cardiogenic shock.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11886-015-0594-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353514800004

    View details for PubMedID 25899658

  • Socioeconomic Inequalities in Quality of Care and Outcomes Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Modern Era of Drug Eluting Stents JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Yong, C. M., Abnousi, F., Asch, S. M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 3 (6)


    The rapidly changing landscape of percutaneous coronary intervention provides a unique model for examining disparities over time. Previous studies have not examined socioeconomic inequalities in the current era of drug eluting stents (DES).We analyzed 835 070 hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project across all insurance types from 2008 to 2011, examining whether quality of care and outcomes for patients with ACS differed by income (based on zip code of residence) with adjustment for patient characteristics and clustering by hospital. We found that lower-income patients were less likely to receive an angiogram within 24 hours of a ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (69.5% for IQ1 versus 73.7% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 0.79 [0.68 to 0.91]) or within 48 hours of a Non-STEMI (47.6% for IQ1 versus 51.8% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 0.86 [0.75 to 0.99]). Lower income was associated with less use of a DES (64.7% for IQ1 versus 71.2% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 0.83 [0.74 to 0.93]). However, no differences were found for coronary artery bypass surgery. Among STEMI patients, lower-income patients also had slightly increased adjusted mortality rates (10.8% for IQ1 versus 9.4% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 1.17 [1.11 to 1.25]). After further adjusting for time to reperfusion among STEMI patients, mortality differences across income groups decreased.For the most well accepted procedural treatments for ACS, income inequalities have faded. However, such inequalities have persisted for DES use, a relatively expensive and until recently, controversial revascularization procedure. Differences in mortality are significantly associated with differences in time to primary PCI, suggesting an important target for understanding why these inequalities persist.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.114.001029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345067600027

    View details for PubMedID 25398888

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4338689

  • Justification of an Introductory Electrocardiogram Teaching Mnemonic by Demonstration of its Prognostic Value AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Soofi, M., Yong, C., Froelicher, V. 2014; 127 (12): 1202-1207


    With diminishing time afforded to electrocardiography in the medical curriculum, we have found Sibbitt's simple mnemonic, the Diagonal Line Lead Rule, for a pattern recognition approach to 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation to be appreciated by students. However, it still lacks universal acceptance because its clinical utility has not been documented. The study objective was to demonstrate the clinical utility of the Diagonal Line Lead ECG Teaching Rule.After excluding ECGs of high-risk patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and QRS durations greater than 120 ms, the initial ECGs of the remaining 43,798 patients were scored according to the Diagonal Line Lead Rule. A total of 45,497 patients from the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System were referred for a routine initial resting ECG from 1987 to 1999. We determined cardiovascular mortality with 8 years of follow-up.In patients with normal QRS duration, diagnostic Q-wave or T-wave inversions isolated to the diagonal line leads showed no increased risk of cardiovascular death. Q-wave or T-wave inversion in any other lead was significantly associated with cardiovascular death with an age-adjusted Cox hazard of 2.6 (confidence interval, 2.4-2.8; P < .0001) and an annual cardiovascular mortality rate of 3.0%. Leads V4-V6, I, and aVL were especially significant predictors of cardiovascular death, with a Cox hazard greater than 3.Our analysis demonstrates the prognostic power and clinical utility of a simple mnemonic for 12-lead ECG interpretation that can facilitate ECG teaching and interpretation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.07.016

    View details for PubMedID 25065339

  • Transcatheter CoreValve valve-in-valve implantation in a stentless porcine aortic valve for severe aortic regurgitation. Clinical case reports Yong, C. M., Buchbinder, M., Giacomini, J. C. 2014; 2 (6): 281-285


    We describe the first valve-in-valve Corevalve transcatheter aortic valve replacement in the St. Jude Toronto stentless porcine aortic valve in the United States, which enabled this 59-year-old patient with a history of bacterial endocarditis and aortic regurgitation to avoid heart transplant with complete resolution of his severe left ventricular dysfunction.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ccr3.113

    View details for PubMedID 25548631

  • Is the J Wave or the ST Slope Malignant ... or Neither? JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Yong, C., Froelicher, V., Wagner, G. 2014; 63 (17): 1811–12

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.09.076

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335312200023

    View details for PubMedID 24315921

  • Patterns and prognosis of all components of the J-wave pattern in multiethnic athletes and ambulatory patients. American heart journal Muramoto, D., Yong, C. M., Singh, N., Aggarwal, S., Perez, M., Ashley, E., Hadley, D., Froelicher, V. 2014; 167 (2): 259-266


    Despite recent concern about the significance of the J-wave pattern (also often referred to as early repolarization) and the importance of screening in athletes, there are limited rigorous prognostic data characterizing the 3 components of the J-wave pattern (ST elevation, J waves, and QRS slurs). We aim to assess the prevalence, patterns, and prognosis of the J-wave pattern among both stable clinical and athlete populations.We retrospectively studied 4,041 electrocardiograms from a multiethnic clinical population from 1997 to 1999 at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System. We also examined preparticipation electrocardiograms of 1,114 Stanford University varsity athletes from 2007 to 2008. Strictly defined criteria for components of the J-wave pattern were examined. In clinical subjects, prognosis was assessed using the end point of cardiovascular death after 7 years of follow-up.Components of the J-wave pattern were most prevalent in males; African Americans; and, particularly, athletes, with the greatest variations demonstrated in the lateral leads. ST elevation was the most common. Inferior J waves and slurs, previously linked to cardiovascular risk, were observed in 9.6% of clinical subjects and 12.3% of athletes. J waves, slurs, or ST elevation was not associated with time to cardiovascular death in clinical subjects, and ST-segment slope abnormalities were not prevalent enough in conjunction with them to reach significance.J waves, slurs, or ST elevation was not associated with increased hazard of cardiovascular death in our large multiethnic, ambulatory population. Even subsets of J-wave patterns, recently proposed to pose a risk of arrhythmic death, occurred at such a high prevalence as to negate their utility in screening.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.10.027

    View details for PubMedID 24439988

  • Racial Disparities in Warfarin Time in INR Therapeutic Range in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Findings From the TREAT-AF Study Yong, C., Xu, X., Than, C., Ullal, A., Schmitt, S., Azarbal, F., Heidenreich, P., Turakhia, M. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2013
  • To the editor- blind men and the J wave-confusing aspects of the 2013 HRS Statement on Inherited Arrhythmic Diseases. Heart rhythm Yong, C., Froelicher, V., Wagner, G. 2013; 10 (11): e81-2

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2013.09.057

    View details for PubMedID 24055948

  • Prognostic implications of the J wave ECG patterns. Journal of electrocardiology Yong, C. M., Perez, M., Froelicher, V. 2013; 46 (5): 408-410

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2013.06.010

    View details for PubMedID 23870660

  • Variability in quantitative and qualitative analysis of intravascular ultrasound and frequency domain optical coherence tomography. Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions Abnousi, F., Waseda, K., Kume, T., Otake, H., Kawarada, O., Yong, C. M., Fitzgerald, P. J., Honda, Y., Yeung, A. C., Fearon, W. F. 2013; 82 (3): E192-9


    BACKGROUND: Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is an intravascular imaging technique now available in the United States. However, the importance of level of training required for analysis using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and FD-OCT is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate inter- and intra-observer variability between expert and beginner analysts interpreting IVUS and FD-OCT images. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two independent expert analysts and two independent beginner analysts evaluated a total of 226 ± 2 stent cross-sections with IVUS and 232 ± 2 stent cross-sections with FD-OCT in 14 patients after stenting. Inter- and intra-observer variability for determining stent volume index (VI), as well as identifying incomplete stent apposition and dissection were assessed. The inter- and intra-observer variability of stent VI was minimal for both beginner and expert analysts regardless of imaging technology (random variability: 0.38 vs. 0.05 mm(3) /mm for IVUS, 0.26 vs. 0.08 mm(3) /mm for FD-OCT). Although qualitative IVUS analysis at the patient level revealed no significant difference between beginners and experts, this was not the case for FD-OCT. The number of overall qualitative findings noted by beginner and expert analysts were more variable (overestimated or underestimated) with FD-OCT. CONCLUSION: Despite varying levels of training, the increased resolution of FD-OCT compared to IVUS provides better detection and less variability in quantitative image analysis. On the contrary, this increased resolution not only increases the rate but also the variability of detection of qualitative image analysis, especially for beginner analysts. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ccd.24871

    View details for PubMedID 23412754

  • J wave patterns and ST elevation in women. Journal of electrocardiology Yong, C. M., Zarafshar, S., Froelicher, V. 2013; 46 (5): 417-423

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2013.06.027

    View details for PubMedID 23981308

  • The Electrocardiogram at a Crossroads CIRCULATION Yong, C. M., Froelicher, V., Wagner, G. 2013; 128 (1): 79-82

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003557

    View details for PubMedID 23817483

  • A novel stress echocardiography pattern for myocardial bridge with invasive structural and hemodynamic correlation. Journal of the American Heart Association Lin, S., Tremmel, J. A., Yamada, R., Rogers, I. S., Yong, C. M., Turcott, R., McConnell, M. V., Dash, R., Schnittger, I. 2013; 2 (2)


    Patients with a myocardial bridge (MB) and no significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) may experience angina presumably from ischemia, but noninvasive assessment has been limited and the underlying mechanism poorly understood. This study seeks to correlate a novel exercise echocardiography (EE) finding for MBs with invasive structural and hemodynamic measurements.Eighteen patients with angina and an EE pattern of focal end-systolic to early-diastolic buckling in the septum with apical sparing were prospectively enrolled for invasive assessment. This included coronary angiography, left anterior descending artery (LAD) intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and intracoronary pressure and Doppler measurements at rest and during dobutamine stress. All patients were found to have an LAD MB on IVUS. The ratios of diastolic intracoronary pressure divided by aortic pressure at rest (Pd/Pa) and during dobutamine stress (diastolic fractional flow reserve [dFFR]) and peak Doppler flow velocity recordings at rest and with stress were successfully performed in 14 patients. All had abnormal dFFR (≤0.75) at stress within the bridge, distally or in both positions, and on average showed a more than doubling in peak Doppler flow velocity inside the MB at stress. Seventy-five percent of patients had normalization of dFFR distal to the MB, with partial pressure recovery and a decrease in peak Doppler flow velocity.A distinctive septal wall motion abnormality with apical sparing on EE is associated with a documented MB by IVUS and a decreased dFFR. We posit that the septal wall motion abnormality on EE is due to dynamic ischemia local to the compressed segment of the LAD from the increase in velocity and decrease in perfusion pressure, consistent with the Venturi effect.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.113.000097

    View details for PubMedID 23591827

  • Multivessel coronary artery disease predicts mortality, length of stay, and pressor requirements after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society Yong, C. M., Sharma, M. n., Ochoa, V. n., Abnousi, F. n., Roberts, J. n., Bass, N. M., Niemann, C. U., Shiboski, S. n., Prasad, M. n., Tavakol, M. n., Ports, T. A., Gregoratos, G. n., Yeghiazarians, Y. n., Boyle, A. J. 2010; 16 (11): 1242–48


    The optimal preoperative cardiac evaluation strategy for patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) undergoing liver transplantation remains unknown. Patients are frequently referred for cardiac catheterization, but the effects of coronary artery disease (CAD) on posttransplant mortality are also unknown. We sought to determine the contribution of CAD and multivessel CAD in particular to posttransplant mortality. We performed a retrospective study of ESLD patients undergoing cardiac catheterization before liver transplant surgery between August 1, 2004 and August 1, 2007 to determine the effects of CAD on outcomes after transplantation. Among 83 patients who underwent left heart catheterization, 47 underwent liver transplantation during the follow-up period. Twenty-one of all ESLD patients who underwent liver transplantation (45%) had CAD. Fifteen of the transplant patients with CAD (71%) had multivessel disease. Among transplant patients, the presence of multivessel CAD (versus no CAD) was predictive of mortality (27% versus 4%, P = 0.046), increased length of stay (22 versus 15 days, P = 0.050), and postoperative pressor requirements (27% versus 4%, P = 0.029). Interestingly, neither the presence of any CAD nor the severity of stenosis in any single coronary artery predicted mortality. Furthermore, none of the traditional clinical predictors (age, gender, diabetes, creatinine, ejection fraction, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score) were predictive of mortality among transplant recipients. In conclusion, multivessel CAD is associated with higher mortality after liver transplantation when it is documented angiographically before transplantation, even in the absence of severe coronary artery stenosis. This study provides preliminary evidence showing that there may be significant prognostic value in coronary angiography as a part of the pretransplant workup.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lt.22152

    View details for PubMedID 21031539

  • Factor Xa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes and venous thromboembolism. Current vascular pharmacology Yong, C. M., Boyle, A. J. 2010; 8 (1): 5–11


    As an alternative to the inconvenient and labor intensive traditional anticoagulants, Factor Xa inhibitors may offer new options for the prevention and treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Fondaparinux, an indirect FXa inhibitor, has equivalent efficacy but decreased bleeding risk. It has been recommended by the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) as the preferred anticoagulant in ACS patients with higher bleeding risk managed with a noninvasive strategy. Based on the composite results of several clinical trials, fondaparinux is also recommended for VTE prevention in the setting of major orthopedic surgery. Rivaroxaban, a direct FXa inhibitor, appears to have at least equal efficacy and safety to established anticoagulants in the prevention of VTE. With advantages such as oral administration and a wide therapeutic window, it may provide a useful alternative to current anticoagulants. Ongoing studies are exploring its use in treatment of VTE and ACS, as well as prevention of stroke among patients with atrial fibrillation. In this review, we examine the key recent studies on efficacy and safety of FXa inhibitors in ACS and VTE management.

    View details for PubMedID 19485937

  • Severe H1N1-Associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: A case series. The American journal of medicine Lai, A. R., Keet, K. n., Yong, C. M., Diaz, J. V. 2010; 123 (3): 282–85.e2


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from novel influenza A virus (H1N1) infection remains uncommon.We describe the clinical profiles of adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to microbiologically confirmed H1N1 admitted to a medical intensive care unit in San Francisco, California over a 2-month period.Between June 1 and July 31, 2009, 7 patients (age range: 25-66 years; 4 patients under the age of 40 years; 6 male; 1 pregnant) were diagnosed with H1N1, with 5 of 6 (83%) having initial false-negative rapid testing. All developed respiratory failure complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome, with 4 additionally developing multiorgan dysfunction. All were managed with a lung protective ventilator strategy (average number of days on the ventilator: 16), and 4 patients also required additional rescue therapies for refractory hypoxemia, including very high positive end-expiratory pressure, inhaled epoprostenol, recruitment maneuvers, and prone positioning. Despite these measures, 3 patients (43%) ultimately died.Clinicians should be vigilant for the potential of H1N1 infection to progress to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in a variety of patient demographics, including younger patients without baseline cardiopulmonary disease. A high degree of suspicion is critical, especially with the relative insensitivity of rapid testing, and should prompt empiric antiviral therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.11.004

    View details for PubMedID 20193840

  • Safety of cardiac catheterization in patients with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation. The American journal of cardiology Sharma, M. n., Yong, C. n., Majure, D. n., Zellner, C. n., Roberts, J. P., Bass, N. M., Ports, T. A., Yeghiazarians, Y. n., Gregoratos, G. n., Boyle, A. J. 2009; 103 (5): 742–46


    Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) are predisposed to bleeding complications due to thrombocytopenia, reduced synthesis of coagulation factors, and increased fibrinolytic activity. The exact incidence of vascular access site and bleeding complications related to cardiac catheterization in this group remains unknown. Eighty-eight consecutive patients with ESLD who underwent left-sided cardiac catheterization from August 2004 to February 2007 were identified. Eighty-one patients without known liver disease matched for age, gender, and body mass index who underwent left-sided cardiac catheterization during the same period were chosen as the control group. Vascular complications were defined as hematoma >5 cm, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, or retroperitoneal bleeding. Patients with ESLD had lower baseline mean hematocrit (32.3 +/- 6.0% vs 39.2 +/- 6.2%, p <0.001) and mean platelet count (90.1 +/- 66.3 vs 236.1 +/- 77.1 x 10(9)/L, p <0.001) compared with controls. They also had higher mean serum creatinine (1.9 +/- 1.7 vs 1.2 +/- 0.8 mg/dl, p = 0.002) and mean international normalized ratio (1.6 +/- 0.7 vs 1.1 +/- 0.2, p <0.001). There were more complicated pseudoaneurysms in the patients with liver failure (5.7% [5 of 88]), compared with 0% in controls (p = 0.029). Patients with ESLD had lower starting hemoglobin levels and greater reductions in hemoglobin after cardiac catheterization, resulting in greater need for packed red blood cell transfusion (16% vs 4%, p = 0.008), fresh frozen plasma (51.7% vs 1.2%, p <0.001), and platelet transfusions (48.3% vs 1.2%, p <0.001). Major bleeding was higher in the ESLD group (14.8% vs 3.7%, p = 0.014), driven mainly by the need for blood transfusion. In conclusion, despite severe coagulopathy, left-sided cardiac catheterization may be performed safely in this patient population, with correction of coagulopathy and meticulous attention to procedural technique.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.10.037

    View details for PubMedID 19231345

  • Safety of cardiac catheterization in patients with end-stage liver disease prior to orthotopic liver transplantation Sharma, M., Yong, C., Zellner, C., Ports, T., Yeghiazarians, Y., Boyle, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2008: B96
  • International differences in patient and physician perceptions of "high quality" healthcare: A model from pediatric cardiology AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Garson, A., Yong, C. M., Yock, C. A., McClellan, M. B. 2006; 97 (7): 1073-1075


    Although the quality of health care would logically seem to be a universal concept, this study hypothesized that physicians and their patients could differ in their perceptions of "high-quality care" and that those beliefs might vary by country. Such a mismatch in beliefs may be especially important as clinical practice guidelines developed in the United States are globalized. A survey of 20 statements describing various components of health care delivery and quality was sent to pediatric cardiologists in 33 countries, who ranked the statements in order of priority for ideal health care. Each participating physician administered the questionnaire to the parents of children with congenital heart disease; 554 questionnaires were received and analyzed. A subanalysis of 9 countries with the largest number of responses was done (Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States). Doctors and parents rated the same 4 statements among the top 5: "the doctor is skillful and knowledgeable"; "the doctor explains health problems, tests, and treatments in a way the patient can understand"; "a basic level of healthcare is available to all citizens regardless of their ability to pay"; and "treatment causes the patient to feel physically well." Overall, parents' responses differed more among countries than those of physicians; the magnitude of the difference between parents and physicians varied by country. This discrepancy highlights a potential mismatch between patients' and physicians' views about the desired components of health care delivery, in particular the application of American quality standards for health care to systems in other countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.10.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236708700029

    View details for PubMedID 16563919

  • Standardized assessment of breast cancer surgical scars integrating the Vancouver Scar Scale, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and patients' perspectives. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Truong, P. T., Abnousi, F. n., Yong, C. M., Hayashi, A. n., Runkel, J. A., Phillips, T. n., Olivotto, I. A. 2005; 116 (5): 1291–99


    Currently, there is no standardized, comprehensive method to assess surgical scars after breast cancer surgery. This article evaluates the application of the Vancouver Scar Scale, in conjunction with patients' scar self-rating and scar-related pain, in a cohort of breast cancer patients.Data were prospectively collected in 59 women with breast cancer. Scar assessment comprised: 1. objective rating by pairs of independent observers using the Vancouver Scar Scale; 2. patient's ratings of the scar's physical parameters and overall satisfaction; and 3. pain assessment using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. A total of 212 scar scores (59 pairs of breast/chest wall and 47 pairs of axillary scar scores) were generated by 13 observers: three physicians, five radiation therapists, and five nurses. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach's alpha statistics. Interobserver reliability was evaluated with Spearman's rho and intraclass correlation coefficient computations. Convergent validity of the observer and patient ratings was examined with Spearman's correlation statistics. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify significant factors associated with Vancouver Scar Scale scores and patient satisfaction.The Vancouver Scar Scale, patient self-rating scale, and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.79, 0.64, and 0.72 respectively). Interobserver reliability using the Vancouver Scar Scale was significant with Spearman's correlation coefficients of 0.53 for pliability, 0.47 for scar height, 0.49 for vascularity, 0.54 for pigmentation, and 0.66 for overall score (all p values < 0.001). Significant agreement between observer and patient ratings of scar pliability (p = 0.01) and color (p = 0.001) was demonstrated. Mild to moderate pain was reported by more than 40 percent of patients. Patient satisfaction was significantly associated with self-rating of scar pliability and pain, but not Vancouver Scar Scale scores.The Vancouver Scar Scale is a reliable and valid tool to objectively evaluate scars after breast cancer surgery. Evaluation of scar-related pain and patients' scar rating and satisfaction provide additional information relevant to scar assessment. This integrated approach is feasible in a busy clinical setting to advance care and research in scar management for breast cancer patients.

    View details for PubMedID 16217470

  • Lymphovascular invasion is associated with reduced locoregional control and survival in women with node-negative breast cancer treated with mastectomy and systemic therapy. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Truong, P. T., Yong, C. M., Abnousi, F. n., Lee, J. n., Kader, H. A., Hayashi, A. n., Olivotto, I. A. 2005; 200 (6): 912–21


    The impact of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on postmastectomy locoregional relapse (LRR) and its use in guiding locoregional therapy in node-negative breast cancer are unclear. This study evaluates the association of LVI with relapse and survival in a cohort of women with early-stage breast cancer.The study cohort comprised 763 women with pT1-2, pN0 breast cancer referred from 1989 to 1999 and treated with mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapy without radiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier LRR, distant relapse, and overall survival rates at 7 years were compared between patients with and without LVI. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of LVI for relapse and survival.Median followup was 7.0 years (range 0.34 to 14.9 years). LVI was present in 210 (27.5%) patients. In log-rank comparisons of Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by LVI status, LVI-positive disease was associated with significantly higher risks of LRR (p = 0.006), distant relapse (p = 0.04), and lower overall survival (p = 0.02). In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, LVI was significantly associated with LRR (relative risk [RR] = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.26-4.27; p = 0.007), distance relapse (RR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.00-2.35; p = 0.05), and overall survival (RR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.04-2.07; p = 0.03). In patients with one of the following characteristics: age younger than 50 years, premenopausal status, grade III histology, or estrogen receptor-negative disease, 7-year LRR risks increased threefold from 3% to 5% when LVI was absent, to 15% to 20% in the presence of LVI.LVI is an adverse prognostic factor for relapse and survival in node-negative patients treated with mastectomy and systemic therapy. LVI, in combination with age older than 50 years, premenopausal status, grade III histology, or estrogen receptor-negative disease, identified patient subsets with 7-year LRR risks of approximately 15% to 20%. Prospective research is required to define the role of adjuvant radiotherapy in these patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2005.02.010

    View details for PubMedID 15922205