Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • A unified model for photophysical and electro-optical properties of Green Fluorescent Proteins. Journal of the American Chemical Society Lin, C. Y., Romei, M. G., Oltrogge, L. M., Mathews, I. I., Boxer, S. G. 2019


    Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) have become indispensable imaging and optogenetic tools. Their absorption and emission properties can be optimized for specific applications. Currently, no unified framework exists to comprehensively describe these photophysical properties, namely the absorption maxima, emission maxima, Stokes shifts, vibronic progressions, extinction coefficients, Stark tuning rates, and spontaneous emission rates, especially one that includes the effects of the protein environment. In this work, we study the correlations among these properties from systematically tuned GFP environmental mutants and chromophore variants. Correlation plots reveal monotonic trends, suggesting all these properties are governed by one underlying factor dependent on the chromophore's environment. By treating the anionic GFP chromophore as a mixed-valence compound existing as a superposition of two resonance forms, we argue that this underlying factor is defined as the difference in energy between the two forms, or the driving force, which is tuned by the environment. We then introduce a Marcus-Hush model with the bond length alternation vibrational mode, treating the GFP absorption band as an intervalence charge transfer band. This model explains all the observed strong correlations among photophysical properties; related subtopics are extensively discussed in Supporting Information. Finally, we demonstrate the model's predictive power by utilizing the additivity of the driving force. The model described here elucidates the role of the protein environment in modulating photophysical properties of the chromophore, providing insights and limitations for designing new GFPs with desired phenotypes. We argue this model should also be generally applicable to both biological and non-biological polymethine dyes.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.9b07152

    View details for PubMedID 31450887

  • Mechanism and bottlenecks in strand photodissociation of split green fluorescent proteins (GFPs). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Lin, C., Both, J., Do, K., Boxer, S. G. 2017


    Split GFPs have been widely applied for monitoring protein-protein interactions by expressing GFPs as two or more constituent parts linked to separate proteins that only fluoresce on complementing with one another. Although this complementation is typically irreversible, it has been shown previously that light accelerates dissociation of a noncovalently attached β-strand from a circularly permuted split GFP, allowing the interaction to be reversible. Reversible complementation is desirable, but photodissociation has too low of an efficiency (quantum yield <1%) to be useful as an optogenetic tool. Understanding the physical origins of this low efficiency can provide strategies to improve it. We elucidated the mechanism of strand photodissociation by measuring the dependence of its rate on light intensity and point mutations. The results show that strand photodissociation is a two-step process involving light-activated cis-trans isomerization of the chromophore followed by light-independent strand dissociation. The dependence of the rate on temperature was then used to establish a potential energy surface (PES) diagram along the photodissociation reaction coordinate. The resulting energetics-function model reveals the rate-limiting process to be the transition from the electronic excited-state to the ground-state PES accompanying cis-trans isomerization. Comparisons between split GFPs and other photosensory proteins, like photoactive yellow protein and rhodopsin, provide potential strategies for improving the photodissociation quantum yield.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1618087114

    View details for PubMedID 28242710

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5358378

  • Isolation and Identification of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing-Related Micro-RNAs by Functionalized Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Transistor SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Chen, K., Pan, C., Li, K., Huang, Y., Lu, C., Tang, C., Su, Y., Tseng, L., Tseng, K., Lin, C., Chen, C., Lin, S., Chen, Y. 2015; 5


    Many transcribed RNAs are non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), which bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNAs to regulate the translation efficacy. Therefore, identifying the miRNAs expressed in cells/organisms aids in understanding genetic control in cells/organisms. In this report, we determined the binding of oligonucleotides to a receptor-modified silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) by monitoring the changes in conductance of the SiNW-FET. We first modified a SiNW-FET with a DNA probe to directly and selectively detect the complementary miRNA in cell lysates. This SiNW-FET device has 7-fold higher sensitivity than reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in detecting the corresponding miRNA. Next, we anchored viral p19 proteins, which bind the double-strand small RNAs (ds-sRNAs), on the SiNW-FET. By perfusing the device with synthesized ds-sRNAs of different pairing statuses, the dissociation constants revealed that the nucleotides at the 3'-overhangs and pairings at the terminus are important for the interactions. After perfusing the total RNA mixture extracted from Nicotiana benthamiana across the device, this device could enrich the ds-sRNAs for sequence analysis. Finally, this bionanoelectronic SiNW-FET, which is able to isolate and identify the interacting protein-RNA, adds an additional tool in genomic technology for the future study of direct biomolecular interactions.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep17375

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365425900002

    View details for PubMedID 26616332

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4663627