Dr. Lee is a Clinical Instructor in the Department of Neurosurgery. After receiving her A.B. in Biology at Harvard College and M.S.E. in Biomedical Engineering at Johns Hopkins University, Dr. Lee obtained her MD and PhD in Neuroscience at Stanford University. Dr. Lee completed neurosurgery residency at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston with a clinical focus on skull base pathology and research on tumor-neuron interactions. In her fellowship at Stanford, Dr. Lee will be working with Dr. Juan Fernandez-Miranda to obtain specialized surgical training in advanced endoscopic endonasal and open skull base techniques, with the ultimate goal of providing comprehensive treatment to patients with a range of brain tumors, skull base pathology and pituitary lesions.

Clinical Focus

  • Neurosurgery

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Residency: Massachusetts General Neurological Surgery Residency (2022) MA
  • Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (2015) CA

All Publications

  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase Inhibition Sequesters NAD+ to Potentiate the Metabolic Lethality of Alkylating Chemotherapy in IDH-Mutant Tumor Cells. Cancer discovery Nagashima, H., Lee, C. K., Tateishi, K., Higuchi, F., Subramanian, M., Rafferty, S., Melamed, L., Miller, J. J., Wakimoto, H., Cahill, D. P. 2020; 10 (11): 1672-1689


    NAD+ is an essential cofactor metabolite and is the currency of metabolic transactions critical for cell survival. Depending on tissue context and genotype, cancer cells have unique dependencies on NAD+ metabolic pathways. PARPs catalyze oligomerization of NAD+ monomers into PAR chains during cellular response to alkylating chemotherapeutics, including procarbazine or temozolomide. Here we find that, in endogenous IDH1-mutant tumor models, alkylator-induced cytotoxicity is markedly augmented by pharmacologic inhibition or genetic knockout of the PAR breakdown enzyme PAR glycohydrolase (PARG). Both in vitro and in vivo, we observe that concurrent alkylator and PARG inhibition depletes freely available NAD+ by preventing PAR breakdown, resulting in NAD+ sequestration and collapse of metabolic homeostasis. This effect reversed with NAD+ rescue supplementation, confirming the mechanistic basis of cytotoxicity. Thus, alkylating chemotherapy exposes a genotype-specific metabolic weakness in tumor cells that can be exploited by PARG inactivation. SIGNIFICANCE: Oncogenic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes IDH1 or IDH2 initiate diffuse gliomas of younger adulthood. Strategies to maximize the effectiveness of chemotherapy in these tumors are needed. We discover alkylating chemotherapy and concurrent PARG inhibition exploits an intrinsic metabolic weakness within these cancer cells to provide genotype-specific benefit.See related commentary by Pirozzi and Yan, p. 1629.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1611.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0226

    View details for PubMedID 32606138

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7642007

  • Nonlinearities between inhibition and T-type calcium channel activity bidirectionally regulate thalamic oscillations. eLife Lu, A. C., Lee, C. K., Kleiman-Weiner, M., Truong, B., Wang, M., Huguenard, J., Beenhakker, M. P. 2020; 9


    Absence seizures result from 3-5 Hz generalized thalamocortical oscillations that depend on highly regulated inhibitory neurotransmission in the thalamus. Efficient reuptake of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is essential, and reuptake failure worsens human seizures. Here, we show that blocking GABA transporters (GATs) in acute rat brain slices containing key parts of the thalamocortical seizure network modulates epileptiform activity. As expected, we found that blocking either GAT1 or GAT3 prolonged oscillations. However, blocking both GATs unexpectedly suppressed oscillations. Integrating experimental observations into single-neuron and network-level computational models shows how a non-linear dependence of T-type calcium channel gating on GABAB receptor activity regulates network oscillations. Receptor activity that is either too brief or too protracted fails to sufficiently open T-type channels necessary for sustaining oscillations. Only within a narrow range does prolonging GABAB receptor activity promote channel opening and intensify oscillations. These results have implications for therapeutics that modulate inhibition kinetics.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.59548

    View details for PubMedID 32902384

  • Comparison of porcine and bovine collagen dural substitutes in posterior fossa decompression for Chiari I malformation in adults. World neurosurgery Lee, C. K., Mokhtari, T. n., Connolly, I. D., Li, G. n., Shuer, L. M., Chang, S. D., Steinberg, G. K., Gephart, M. H. 2017


    Posterior fossa decompression surgeries for Chiari malformations are susceptible to post-operative complications such as pseudomeningocele, external cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and meningitis. Various dural substitutes have been employed to improve surgical outcomes.This study examined whether the collagen matrix dural substitute type correlated with the incidence of post-operative complications following posterior fossa decompression in adult patients with Chiari I malformations.A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 81 adult patients who underwent an elective decompressive surgery for treatment of symptomatic Chiari I malformations, with duraplasty involving a dural substitute derived from either bovine or porcine collagen matrix. Demographics and treatment characteristics were correlated with surgical outcomes.A total of 81 patients were included in the study. Compared to bovine dural substitute, porcine dural substitute was associated with a significantly higher risk of pseudomeningocele occurrence (OR 5.78, 95% CI 1.65-27.15; P = .01) and a higher overall complication rate (OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.23-12.71; P = .03) by univariate analysis. There was no significant difference in the rate of meningitis, repeat operations, or overall complication rate between the two dural substitutes. In addition, estimated blood loss was a significant risk factor for meningitis (P = .03). Multivariate analyses again demonstrated that porcine dural substitute was associated with pseudomeningocele occurrence, though the association with higher overall complication rate did not reach significance.Dural substitutes generated from porcine collagen, compared to those from bovine collagen, were associated with a higher likelihood of pseudomeningocele development in adult patients undergoing Chiari I malformation decompression and duraplasty.

    View details for PubMedID 28838875

  • Modulation of Short-Term Plasticity in the Corticothalamic Circuit by Group III Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE Kyuyoung, C. L., Huguenard, J. R. 2014; 34 (2): 675-687


    Recurrent connections in the corticothalamic circuit underlie oscillatory behavior in this network and range from normal sleep rhythms to the abnormal spike-wave discharges seen in absence epilepsy. The propensity of thalamic neurons to fire postinhibitory rebound bursts mediated by low-threshold calcium spikes renders the circuit vulnerable to both increased excitation and increased inhibition, such as excessive excitatory cortical drive to thalamic reticular (RT) neurons or heightened inhibition of thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons by RT. In this context, a protective role may be played by group III metabotropic receptors (mGluRs), which are uniquely located in the presynaptic active zone and typically act as autoreceptors or heteroceptors to depress synaptic release. Here, we report that these receptors regulate short-term plasticity at two loci in the corticothalamic circuit in rats: glutamatergic cortical synapses onto RT neurons and GABAergic synapses onto TC neurons in somatosensory ventrobasal thalamus. The net effect of group III mGluR activation at these synapses is to suppress thalamic oscillations as assayed in vitro. These findings suggest a functional role of these receptors to modulate corticothalamic transmission and protect against prolonged activity in the network.

    View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1477-13.2014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329791300032

    View details for PubMedID 24403165

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3870944

  • Martinotti Cells: Community Organizers NEURON Lee, C. K., Huguenard, J. R. 2011; 69 (6): 1042-1045


    The specificity of connections made by inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex is not well understood. In this issue of Neuron, Fino and Yuste (2011) use an enhanced version of two-photon glutamate uncaging, which preserves inhibitory synaptic transmission, to demonstrate that somatostatin-positive interneurons form densely convergent connections onto pyramidal cells in layer 2/3 of mouse frontal cortex.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.03.003

    View details for PubMedID 21435551

  • Mutations in POMT1 are found in a minority of patients with Walker-Warburg syndrome AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART A Currier, S. C., Lee, C. K., Chang, B. S., Bodell, A. L., Pai, G. S., Job, L., Lagae, L. G., Al-Gazali, L. I., Eyaid, W. M., Enns, G., Dobyns, W. B., Walsh, C. A. 2005; 133A (1): 53-57


    Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive disorder of infancy characterized by hydrocephalus, agyria, retinal dysplasia, congenital muscular dystrophy, and over migration of neurons through a disrupted pial surface resulting in leptomeningeal heterotopia. Although previous work identified mutations in the o-mannosyl transferase, POMT1, in 6 out of 30 WWS families [Beltran-Valero de Bernabe et al., 2002], the incidence of POMT1 mutations in WWS is not known. We sequenced the entire coding region of POMT1 in 30 consecutive, unselected patients with classic WWS. Two novel heterozygous mutations were found in two patients from non-consanguineous parents, whereas 28 other patients failed to show any POMT1 mutations. One patient was found to be heterozygous for a transition, g.1233T > A, which predicts p.Y352X. A second patient was found also to be heterozygous for a transition g.1790C > G, which predicts p.S537R. As an additional determination of the frequency of the POMT1 mutations in WWS, we tested for linkage of WWS to POMT1 in six consanguineous families. All six demonstrated heterozygosity and negative LOD scores at the POMT1 locus. From these data we show that POMT1 is an uncommon cause of WWS, the incidence of coding region mutations in this population of WWS being less than 7%. We conclude that while the incidence of POMT1 mutations in WWS can be as high as 20% as reported by Beltran-Valero de Bernabe et al. [2002] and it can be as low as approximately 7%, as reported here.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajmg.a.30487

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226619200010

    View details for PubMedID 15637732