Professional Education


  • Bachelor of Science, Calif Polytechnic State Univ, S.L.O. (2007)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington (2014)

Stanford Advisors


All Publications


  • Lysosomal Disorders Drive Susceptibility to Tuberculosis by Compromising Macrophage Migration CELL Berg, R. D., Levitte, S., O'Sullivan, M. P., O'Leary, S. M., Cambier, C. J., Cameron, J., Takaki, K. K., Moens, C. B., Tobin, D. M., Keane, J., Ramakrishnan, L. 2016; 165 (1): 139-152

    Abstract

    A zebrafish genetic screen for determinants of susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum identified a hypersusceptible mutant deficient in lysosomal cysteine cathepsins that manifests hallmarks of human lysosomal storage diseases. Under homeostatic conditions, mutant macrophages accumulate undigested lysosomal material, which disrupts endocytic recycling and impairs their migration to, and thus engulfment of, dying cells. This causes a buildup of unengulfed cell debris. During mycobacterial infection, macrophages with lysosomal storage cannot migrate toward infected macrophages undergoing apoptosis in the tuberculous granuloma. The unengulfed apoptotic macrophages undergo secondary necrosis, causing granuloma breakdown and increased mycobacterial growth. Macrophage lysosomal storage similarly impairs migration to newly infecting mycobacteria. This phenotype is recapitulated in human smokers, who are at increased risk for tuberculosis. A majority of their alveolar macrophages exhibit lysosomal accumulations of tobacco smoke particulates and do not migrate to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The incapacitation of highly microbicidal first-responding macrophages may contribute to smokers' susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2016.02.034

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372785600016

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4819607

  • Host Evasion and Exploitation Schemes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CELL Cambier, C. J., Falkow, S., Ramakrishnan, L. 2014; 159 (7): 1497-1509

    Abstract

    Tuberculosis, an ancient disease of mankind, remains one of the major infectious causes of human death. We examine newly discovered facets of tuberculosis pathogenesis and explore the evolution of its causative organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis from soil dweller to human pathogen. M. tuberculosis has coevolved with the human host to evade and exploit host macrophages and other immune cells in multiple ways. Though the host can often clear infection, the organism can cause transmissible disease in enough individuals to sustain itself. Tuberculosis is a near-perfect paradigm of a host-pathogen relationship, and that may be the challenge to the development of new therapies for its eradication.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347922500006

    View details for PubMedID 25525872