Professional Education

  • Master of Science, Chang Gung University (2002)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Rochester (2013)
  • Bachelor of Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University (2000)

Stanford Advisors

Journal Articles

  • Astroglial-derived periostin promotes axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. journal of neuroscience Shih, C., Lacagnina, M., Leuer-Bisciotti, K., Pröschel, C. 2014; 34 (7): 2438-2443


    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a cascade of tissue responses leading to cell death, axonal degeneration, and glial scar formation, exacerbating the already hostile environment and further inhibiting axon regeneration. Overcoming these inhibitory cues and promoting axonal regeneration is one of the primary targets in developing a cure for SCI. Previously, we demonstrated that transplantation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced astrocytes derived from embryonic glial-restricted precursors (GDAs(BMP)) promotes extensive axonal growth and motor function recovery in a rodent spinal cord injury model. Here, we identify periostin (POSTN), a secreted protein, as a key component of GDA(BMP)-induced axonal regeneration. POSTN is highly expressed by GDAs(BMP) and the perturbation of POSTN expression by shRNA diminished GDA(BMP)-induced neurite extension in vitro. We also found that recombinant POSTN is sufficient to overcome the inhibitory effect of scar-associated molecules and promote neurite extension in vitro by signaling through focal adhesion kinase and Akt. Furthermore, transplantation of POSTN-deficient GDAs(BMP) into the injured rat spinal cord resulted in compromised axonal regeneration, indicating that POSTN plays an essential role in GDA(BMP)-mediated axonal regeneration. This finding reveals not only one of the major mechanisms underlying GDA(BMP)-dependent recovery from SCI, but also the potential of POSTN as a therapeutic agent for traumatic injury of the CNS.

    View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2947-13.2014

    View details for PubMedID 24523534

  • Delayed transplantation of precursor cell-derived astrocytes provides multiple benefits in a rat model of Parkinsons. EMBO molecular medicine Proschel, C., Stripay, J. L., Shih, C. H., Munger, J. C., Noble, M. D. 2014


    In addition to dopaminergic neuron loss, it is clear that Parkinson disease includes other pathological changes, including loss of additional neuronal populations. As a means of addressing multiple pathological changes with a single therapeutically-relevant approach, we employed delayed transplantation of a unique class of astrocytes, GDAs(BMP), that are generated in vitro by directed differentiation of glial precursors. GDAs(BMP) produce multiple agents of interest as treatments for PD and other neurodegenerative disorders, including BDNF, GDNF, neurturin and IGF1. GDAs(BMP) also exhibit increased levels of antioxidant pathway components, including levels of NADPH and glutathione. Delayed GDA(BMP) transplantation into the 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat striatum restored tyrosine hydroxylase expression and promoted behavioral recovery. GDA(BMP) transplantation also rescued pathological changes not prevented in other studies, such as the rescue of parvalbumin(+) GABAergic interneurons. Consistent with expression of the synaptic modulatory proteins thrombospondin-1 and 2 by GDAs(BMP), increased expression of the synaptic protein synaptophysin was also observed. Thus, GDAs(BMP) offer a multimodal support cell therapy that provides multiple benefits without requiring prior genetic manipulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/emmm.201302878

    View details for PubMedID 24477866

  • Transplantation of Specific Human Astrocytes Promotes Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury PLOS ONE Davies, S. J., Shih, C., Noble, M., Mayer-Proschel, M., Davies, J. E., Proschel, C. 2011; 6 (3)


    Repairing trauma to the central nervous system by replacement of glial support cells is an increasingly attractive therapeutic strategy. We have focused on the less-studied replacement of astrocytes, the major support cell in the central nervous system, by generating astrocytes from embryonic human glial precursor cells using two different astrocyte differentiation inducing factors. The resulting astrocytes differed in expression of multiple proteins thought to either promote or inhibit central nervous system homeostasis and regeneration. When transplanted into acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord, astrocytes generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein promoted significant recovery of volitional foot placement, axonal growth and notably robust increases in neuronal survival in multiple spinal cord laminae. In marked contrast, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by exposure to ciliary neurotrophic factor both failed to promote significant behavioral recovery or similarly robust neuronal survival and support of axon growth at sites of injury. Our studies thus demonstrate functional differences between human astrocyte populations and suggest that pre-differentiation of precursor cells into a specific astrocyte subtype is required to optimize astrocyte replacement therapies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show functional differences in ability to promote repair of the injured adult central nervous system between two distinct subtypes of human astrocytes derived from a common fetal glial precursor population. These findings are consistent with our previous studies of transplanting specific subtypes of rodent glial precursor derived astrocytes into sites of spinal cord injury, and indicate a remarkable conservation from rat to human of functional differences between astrocyte subtypes. In addition, our studies provide a specific population of human astrocytes that appears to be particularly suitable for further development towards clinical application in treating the traumatically injured or diseased human central nervous system.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0017328

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287933300017

    View details for PubMedID 21407803

  • Direct regulation of androgen receptor-associated protein 70 by thyroid hormone and its receptors ENDOCRINOLOGY Tai, P., Huang, Y., Shih, C., Chen, R., Chen, C., Chen, W., Wang, C., Lin, K. 2007; 148 (7): 3485-3495


    Thyroid hormone (T3) regulates multiple physiological processes during development, growth, differentiation, and metabolism. Most T3 actions are mediated via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) that are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. The effects of T3 treatment on target gene regulation was previously examined in TRalpha1-overexpressing hepatoma cell lines (HepG2-TRalpha1). Androgen receptor (AR)-associated protein 70 (ARA70) was one gene found to be up-regulated by T3. The ARA70 is a ligand-dependent coactivator for the AR and was significantly increased by 4- to 5-fold after T3 treatment by Northern blot analyses in the HepG2-TRalpha1 stable cell line. T3 induced a 1- to 2-fold increase in the HepG2-TRbeta1 stable cell line. Both stable cell lines attained the highest fold expression after 24 h treatment with 10 nM T3. The ARA70 protein was increased up to 1.9-fold after T3 treatment in HepG2-TRalpha1 cells. Similar findings were obtained in thyroidectomized rats after T3 application. Cycloheximide treatment did not suppress induction of ARA70 transcription by T3, suggesting that this regulation is direct. A series of deletion mutants of ARA70 promoter fragments in pGL2 plasmid were generated to localize the thyroid hormone response element (TRE). The DNA fragments (-234/-190 or +56/+119) gave 1.55- or 2-fold enhanced promoter activity by T3. Thus, two TRE sites exist in the upstream-regulatory region of ARA70. The TR-TRE interaction was further confirmed with EMSAs. Additionally, ARA70 could interfere with TR/TRE complex formation. Therefore, the data indicated that ARA70 suppresses T3 signaling in a TRE-dependent manner. These experimental results suggest that T3 directly up-regulates ARA70 gene expression. Subsequently, ARA70 negatively regulates T3 signaling.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/en.2006-1239

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247302300052

    View details for PubMedID 17412801

  • Reticulon 3 binds the 2C protein of enterovirus 71 and is required for viral replication JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Tang, W., Yang, S., Wu, B., Jheng, J., Chen, Y., Shih, C., Lin, K., Lai, H., Tang, P., Horng, J. 2007; 282 (8): 5888-5898


    Enterovirus 71 is an enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. The 2C protein of poliovirus, a relative of enterovirus 71, is essential for viral replication. The poliovirus 2C protein is associated with host membrane vesicles, which form viral replication complexes where viral RNA synthesis takes place. We have now identified a host-encoded 2C binding protein called reticulon 3, which we found to be associated with the replication complex through direct interaction with the enterovirus 71-encoded 2C protein. We observed that the N terminus of the 2C protein, which has both RNA- and membrane-binding activity, interacted with reticulon 3. This region of interaction was mapped to its reticulon homology domain, whereas that of 2C was encoded by the 25th amino acid, isoleucine. Reticulon 3 could also interact with the 2C proteins encoded by other enteroviruses, such as poliovirus and coxsackievirus A16, implying that it is a common factor for such viral replication. Reduced production of reticulon 3 by RNA interference markedly reduced the synthesis of enterovirus 71-encoded viral proteins and replicative double-stranded RNA, reducing plaque formation and apoptosis. Furthermore, reintroduction of nondegradable reticulon 3 into these knockdown cells rescued enterovirus 71 infectivity, and viral protein and double-stranded RNA synthesis. Thus, reticulon 3 is an important component of enterovirus 71 replication, through its potential role in modulation of the sequential interactions between enterovirus 71 viral RNA and the replication complex.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M611145200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244482300085

    View details for PubMedID 17182608

  • Myogenic basic helix-loop-helix proteins regulate the expression of peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha ENDOCRINOLOGY Chang, J. H., Lin, K. H., Shih, C. H., Chang, Y. J., Chi, H. C., Chen, S. L. 2006; 147 (6): 3093-3106


    Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), a transcriptional coactivator, is selectively expressed in slow-twitch fibers in skeletal muscle. Ectopic expression of the PGC-1alpha gene in either a cell or an animal has been shown to promote fast to slow fiber-type switch. The expression of PGC-1alpha in muscle is regulated by myocyte enhancer factor 2 and Forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma, two transcription factors implicated in terminal muscle differentiation. In this study we found that PGC-1alpha expression was activated during terminal muscle differentiation in both C2C12 and Sol8 myoblasts. Using retrovirus-mediated MyoD overexpression in C3H10T1/2 cells, we also demonstrated that MyoD, the master regulator of terminal differentiation, could activate PGC-1alpha expression in vivo. Our transient transfection results also show that myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, especially MyoD, can activate PGC-1alpha expression by targeting its promoter. Myogenic bHLH protein target sites on PGC-1alpha promoter were localized to a short region (-49 to approximately +2) adjacent to the transcription start site, which contains two putative E boxes. Mutation of either site significantly reduced MyoD-mediated transactivation in the cells, suggesting that both sites are required for myogenic bHLH protein-mediated activation. However, only one site, the E2 box, was directly bound by glutathione-S-transferase-MyoD protein in EMSAs. Our results indicate that myogenic bHLH proteins not only are involved in lineage determination and terminal differentiation, but also are directly implicated in activation of the key fiber-type and metabolic switch gene, PGC-1alpha.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/en.2005-1317

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237621200065

    View details for PubMedID 16527841

  • Thyroid hormone receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation of fibrinogen and coagulation proteins ENDOCRINOLOGY SHIH, C. H., Chen, S. L., Yen, C. C., Huang, Y. H., Chen, C. D., Lee, Y. S., Lin, K. H. 2004; 145 (6): 2804-2814


    Thyroid hormone (T(3)) regulates growth, development, and differentiation. These activities are mediated by the nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), which belong to the steroid/TR superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. The effect of T(3) treatment on target gene regulation was investigated in a TRalpha-overexpressing hepatoma cell line (HepG2-TRalpha), by performing cDNA microarrays. We demonstrate that 148 of the 7597 genes represented were up-regulated by T(3), including fibrinogen and several other components of the coagulation factor system. To confirm the microarray results, fibrinogen and a small number of the blood clotting components were further investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. The T(3)-induction ratios observed with quantitative RT-PCR for factors such as thrombin (8-fold), coagulation factor X (4.9-fold), and hepatoglobin (30-fold) were similar to those observed by the cDNA microarray analysis. Further investigation, using HepG2-TRalpha (cell lines, revealed a 2- to 3-fold induction of fibrinogen transcription after 24 h of T(3) treatment. In addition, T(3) treatment increased the level of fibrinogen protein expression 2.5- to 6-fold at 48 h. The protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, did not inhibit the induction of fibrinogen by T(3), indicating that this regulation was direct. Furthermore, transcription run-on experiments indicate that the induction of fibrinogen by T(3) is regulated largely at the level of transcription. Similar observations were made on the regulation of fibrinogen by T(3) using rats that received surgical thyroidectomy (TX) as an in vivo model. These results suggest that T(3) plays an important role in the process of blood coagulation and inflammation and may contribute to the understanding of the association between thyroid diseases and the misregulation of the inflammatory and clotting profile evident in the circulatory system of these patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/en.2003-1372

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221639300033

    View details for PubMedID 14977860