Neurite Development and Repair in Worms and Flies.
Annual review of neuroscience
How the nervous system is wired has been a central question of neuroscience since the inception of the field, and many of the foundational discoveries and conceptual advances have been made through the study of invertebrate experimental organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Although many guidance molecules and receptors have been identified, recent experiments have shed light on the many modes of action for these pathways. Here, we summarize the recent progress in determining how the physical and temporal constraints of the surrounding environment provide instructive regulations in nervous system wiring. We use Netrin and its receptors as an example to analyze the complexity of how they guide neurite outgrowth. In neurite repair, conserved injury detection and response-signaling pathways regulate gene expression and cytoskeletal dynamics. We also describe recent developments in the research on molecular mechanisms of neurite regeneration in worms and flies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 42 is July 8, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
View details for PubMedID 30883262
Structural mechanisms of selectivity and gating in anion channelrhodopsins.
Both designed and natural anion-conducting channelrhodopsins (dACRs and nACRs, respectively) have been widely applied in optogenetics (enabling selective inhibition of target-cell activity during animal behaviour studies), but each class exhibits performance limitations, underscoring trade-offs in channel structure-function relationships. Therefore, molecular and structural insights into dACRs and nACRs will be critical not only for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of these light-gated anionchannels, but also to create next-generation optogenetic tools. Here we report crystal structures of the dACR iC++, along with spectroscopic, electrophysiological and computational analyses that provide unexpected insights into pH dependence, substrate recognition, channel gating and ion selectivity of both dACRs and nACRs. These results enabled us to create an anion-conducting channelrhodopsin integrating the key features of large photocurrent and fast kinetics alongside exclusive anion selectivity.
View details for PubMedID 30158697
PTRN-1, a microtubule minus end-binding CAMSAP homolog, promotes microtubule function in Caenorhabditis elegans neurons.
In neuronal processes, microtubules (MTs) provide structural support and serve as tracks for molecular motors. While it is known that neuronal MTs are more stable than MTs in non-neuronal cells, the molecular mechanisms underlying this stability are not fully understood. In this study, we used live fluorescence microscopy to show that the C. elegans CAMSAP protein PTRN-1 localizes to puncta along neuronal processes, stabilizes MT foci, and promotes MT polymerization in neurites. Electron microscopy revealed that ptrn-1 null mutants have fewer MTs and abnormal MT organization in the PLM neuron. Animals grown with a MT depolymerizing drug caused synthetic defects in neurite branching in the absence of ptrn-1 function, indicating that PTRN-1 promotes MT stability. Further, ptrn-1 null mutants exhibited aberrant neurite morphology and synaptic vesicle localization that is partially dependent on dlk-1. Our results suggest that PTRN-1 represents an important mechanism for promoting MT stability in neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01498.001.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.01498
View details for PubMedID 24569477
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3932522