Professional Education

  • Hematology fellowship, Keio University (2012)
  • Doctor of Medicine, Keio University (2008)

All Publications

  • Simplified Intrafemoral Injections Using Live Mice Allow for Continuous Bone Marrow Analysis. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Nakauchi, Y., Ediriwickrema, A., Martinez-Krams, D., Zhao, F., Rangavajhula, A., Karigane, D., Majeti, R. 2023


    Despite the complexity of hematopoietic cell transplantation in humans, researchers commonly perform intravenous or intrafemoral (IF) injections in mice. In murine models, this technique has been adapted to enhance the seeding efficiency of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). This paper describes a detailed step-by-step technical procedure of IF injection and the following bone marrow (BM) aspiration in mice that allows for serial characterization of cells present in the BM. This method enables the transplantation of valuable samples with low cell numbers that are particularly difficult to engraft by intravenous injection. This procedure facilitates the creation of xenografts that are critical for pathological analysis. While it is easier to access peripheral blood (PB), the cellular composition of PB does not reflect the BM, which is the niche for HSPCs. Therefore, procedures providing access to the BM compartment are essential for studying hematopoiesis. IF injection and serial BM aspiration, as described here, allow for the prospective retrieval and characterization of cells enriched in the BM, such as HSPCs, without sacrificing the mice.

    View details for DOI 10.3791/65874

    View details for PubMedID 38009738

  • RUNX1 loss renders hematopoietic and leukemic cells dependent on interleukin-3 and sensitive to JAK inhibition. The Journal of clinical investigation Fan, A. C., Nakauchi, Y., Bai, L., Azizi, A., Nuno, K. A., Zhao, F., Köhnke, T., Karigane, D., Cruz-Hernandez, D., Reinisch, A., Khatri, P., Majeti, R. 2023


    Disease-initiating mutations in the transcription factor RUNX1 occur as germline and somatic events that cause leukemias with particularly poor prognosis. However, the role of RUNX1 in leukemogenesis is not fully understood and effective therapies for RUNX1-mutant leukemias remain elusive. Here, we use primary patient samples and a RUNX1 knockout model in primary human hematopoietic cells to investigate how RUNX1 loss contributes to leukemic progression and to identify targetable vulnerabilities. Surprisingly, we found that RUNX1 loss decreased proliferative capacity and stem cell function. However, RUNX1-deficient cells selectively upregulated the interleukin-3 (IL-3) receptor. Exposure to IL-3, but not other JAK/STAT cytokines, rescued RUNX1 KO proliferative and competitive defects. Further, we demonstrated that RUNX1 loss repressed JAK/STAT signaling and rendered RUNX1-deficient cells sensitive to JAK inhibitors. Our study identifies a dependency of RUNX1-mutant leukemias on IL-3/JAK/STAT signaling, which may enable these aggressive blood cancers to be targeted with existing agents.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI167053

    View details for PubMedID 37581927

  • Targeting IDH1-Mutated Pre-Leukemic Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Myeloid Disease, Including CCUS and AML Landberg, N., Koehnke, T., Nakauchi, Y., Fan, A., Karigane, D., Thomas, D., Majeti, R. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 2234-2235
  • The cell type specific 5hmC landscape and dynamics of healthy human hematopoiesis and TET2-mutant pre-leukemia. Blood cancer discovery Nakauchi, Y., Azizi, A., Thomas, D., Corces, M. R., Reinisch, A., Sharma, R., Cruz Hernandez, D., Kohnke, T., Karigane, D., Fan, A., Martinez-Krams, D., Stafford, M., Kaur, S., Dutta, R., Phan, P., Ediriwickrema, A., McCarthy, E., Ning, Y., Phillips, T., Ellison, C. K., Guler, G. D., Bergamaschi, A., Ku, C., Levy, S., Majeti, R. 2022


    The conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a key step in DNA demethylation that is mediated by ten-eleven-translocation (TET) enzymes, which require ascorbate/vitamin C. Here, we report the 5hmC landscape of normal hematopoiesis and identify cell type-specific 5hmC profiles associated with active transcription and chromatin accessibility of key hematopoietic regulators. We utilized CRISPR/Cas9 to model TET2 loss-of-function mutations in primary human HSPCs. Disrupted cells exhibited increased colonies in serial replating, defective erythroid/megakaryocytic differentiation, and in vivo competitive advantage and myeloid skewing coupled with reduction of 5hmC at erythroid-associated gene loci. Azacitidine and ascorbate restored 5hmC abundance and slowed or reverted the expansion of TET2-mutant clones in vivo. These results demonstrate the key role of 5hmC in normal hematopoiesis and TET2-mutant phenotypes and raise the possibility of utilizing these agents to further our understanding of pre-leukemia/clonal hematopoiesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/2643-3230.BCD-21-0143

    View details for PubMedID 35532363

  • p38alpha plays differential roles in hematopoietic stem cell activity dependent on aging contexts. The Journal of biological chemistry Sorimachi, Y., Karigane, D., Ootomo, Y., Kobayashi, H., Morikawa, T., Otsu, K., Kubota, Y., Okamoto, S., Goda, N., Takubo, K. 2021: 100563


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their progeny sustain lifetime hematopoiesis. Aging alters HSC function, number, and composition and increases risk of hematological malignancies, but how these changes occur in HSCs remains unclear. Signaling via p38MAPK has been proposed as a candidate mechanism underlying induction of HSC aging. Here, using genetic models of both chronological and premature aging, we describe a multimodal role for p38alpha, the major p38MAPK isozyme in hematopoiesis, in HSC aging. We report that p38alpha regulates differentiation bias and sustains transplantation capacity of HSCs in the early phase of chronological aging. However, p38alpha decreased HSC transplantation capacity in the late progression phase of chronological aging. Furthermore, co-deletion of p38alpha in mice deficient in Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (Atm), a model of premature aging, exacerbated aging-related HSC phenotypes seen in Atm single mutant mice. Overall, these studies provide new insight into multiple functions of p38MAPK, which both promotes and suppresses HSC aging context-dependently.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100563

    View details for PubMedID 33745970

  • Detection of residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia utilizing genomic next generation sequencing reveals persistence of differentiated Ph+ B cells but not bone marrow stem/progenitors. Leukemia & lymphoma Karigane, D., Kasahara, H., Shiroshita, K., Fujita, S., Kobayashi, H., Tamaki, S., Yamazaki, R., Yahagi, K., Yatabe, Y., Kondoh, N., Arai, T., Katagiri, H., Shimizu, N., Sakurai, M., Kikuchi, T., Kato, J., Shimizu, T., Hayakawa, T., Yaguchi, T., Matsushita, M., Nakajima, H., Kawakami, Y., Murata, M., Mori, T., Sasaki, T., Okamoto, S., Takubo, K. 2020: 1–9


    Persistence of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) results in the recurrence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after the administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Thus, the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) with LSC potential can improve prognosis. Here, we analyzed 115 CML patients and found that CD25 was preferentially expressed on the phenotypic stem and progenitor cells (SPCs), and TKI therapy decreased the number of CD25-positive cells in the SPC fraction. To detect MRD harboring BCR-ABL1 fusion DNA, we developed a highly-sensitive method using patient-specific primers and next-generation sequencing. By using this method, we identified that in patients who achieved molecular remission, almost all residual CD25-positive SPCs were BCR-ABL1-negative. Moreover, in some patients BCR-ABL1 was detectable in peripheral B cells but not in SPCs. We conclude that CD25 marks LSCs at diagnosis but does not mark MRD following TKI treatment and that analysis of peripheral B cells can allow sensitive detection of MRD.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10428194.2020.1837366

    View details for PubMedID 33106061

  • Sufficiency for inducible Caspase-9 safety switch in human pluripotent stem cells and disease cells. Gene therapy Nishimura, T., Xu, H., Iwasaki, M., Karigane, D., Saavedra, B., Takahashi, Y., Suchy, F. P., Monobe, S., Martin, R. M., Ohtaka, M., Nakanishi, M., Burrows, S. R., Cleary, M. L., Majeti, R., Shibuya, A., Nakauchi, H. 2020


    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have promising potential for opening new avenues in regenerative medicine. However, since the tumorigenic potential of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a major safety concern for clinical transplantation, inducible Caspase-9 (iC9) is under consideration for use as a fail-safe system. Here, we used targeted gene editing to introduce the iC9 system into human iPSCs, and then interrogated the efficiency of inducible apoptosis with normal iPSCs as well as diseased iPSCs derived from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-iPSCs). The iC9 system induced quick and efficient apoptosis to iPSCs in vitro. More importantly, complete eradication of malignant cells without AML recurrence was shown in disease mouse models by using AML-iPSCs. In parallel, it shed light on several limitations of the iC9 system usage. Our results suggest that careful use of the iC9 system will serve as an important countermeasure against posttransplantation adverse events in stem cell transplantation therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41434-020-0179-z

    View details for PubMedID 32704085

  • Invasive hepatic mucormycosis: A case report and review of the literature. Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy Karigane, D., Kikuchi, T., Sakurai, M., Kato, J., Yamane, Y., Hashida, R., Abe, R., Hatano, M., Hasegawa, N., Wakayama, M., Shibuya, K., Okamoto, S., Mori, T. 2019; 25 (1): 50-53


    Mucormycosis generally develops under immunocompromised conditions, including hematological malignancies and solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although mucormycosis usually affects the lungs and paranasal sinuses, sporadic cases of invasive mucormycosis of the liver have been reported. We hereby report a patient with myelofibrosis who developed hepatic mucormycosis diagnosed by post-mortem examination. An extensive literature review identified 13 reported cases of hepatic mucormycosis, including ours, without lung involvement. Most of the underlying diseases or conditions were hematological malignancies and solid organ transplantation. Three cases had splenic lesions and four had gastrointestinal lesions, suggesting the possibility of translocation to the liver and/or spleen from the gastrointestinal tracts. Hepatic mucormycosis should be recognized as one of the presentations of invasive mucormycosis, especially when hepatic nodules are found in immunocompromised patients such as those with hematological malignancy or recipients of solid organ transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jiac.2018.06.013

    View details for PubMedID 30057341

  • Successful treatment of breakthrough disseminated Trichosporon asahii fungemia in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia receiving itraconazole prophylaxis. Medical mycology case reports Karigane, D., Sakurai, M., Matsuyama, E., Ide, K., Yamamoto-Takeuchi, S., Inazumi, T., Kohashi, S. 2018; 20: 1-3


    We encountered a case of a 73-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia who developed Trichosporon asahii systemic infection while on itraconazole prophylaxis during severe neutropenia. Cryptococcal antigen was useful for diagnosis. Although itraconazole was ineffective in protecting against trichosporonosis, treatment was successful with voriconazole following liposomal amphotericin B.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mmcr.2017.11.006

    View details for PubMedID 29264110

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5726745

  • CXorf48 is a potential therapeutic target for achieving treatment-free remission in CML patients. Blood cancer journal Matsushita, M., Ozawa, K., Suzuki, T., Nakamura, M., Nakano, N., Kanchi, S., Ichikawa, D., Matsuki, E., Sakurai, M., Karigane, D., Kasahara, H., Tsukamoto, N., Shimizu, T., Mori, T., Nakajima, H., Okamoto, S., Kawakami, Y., Hattori, Y. 2017; 7 (9): e601


    Although the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has improved overall survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), about half of the patients eventually relapse after cessation of TKIs. In contrast, the remainder of the patients maintain molecular remission without TKIs, indicating that the patients' immune system could control proliferation of TKI-resistant leukemic stem cells (LSCs). However, the precise mechanism of immunity against CML-LSCs is not fully understood. We have identified a novel immune target, CXorf48, expressed in LSCs of CML patients. Cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) induced by the epitope peptide derived from CXorf48 recognized CD34+CD38- cells obtained from the bone marrow of CML patients. We detected CXorf48-specific CTLs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CML patients who have discontinued imatinib after maintaining complete molecular remission for more than 2 years. Significantly, the relapse rate of CXorf48-specific CTL-negative patients was 63.6%, compared to 0% in CXorf48-specific CTL-positive patients. These results indicate that CXorf48 could be a promising therapeutic target of LSCs for immunotherapy to obtain durable treatment-free remission in CML patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bcj.2017.84

    View details for PubMedID 28862699

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5709753

  • Metabolic regulation of hematopoietic and leukemic stem/progenitor cells under homeostatic and stress conditions. International journal of hematology Karigane, D., Takubo, K. 2017


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exhibit multilineage differentiation and self-renewal activities that maintain the entire hematopoietic system during an organism's lifetime. These abilities are sustained by intrinsic transcriptional programs and extrinsic cues from the microenvironment or niche. Recent studies using metabolomics technologies reveal that metabolic regulation plays an essential role in HSC maintenance. Metabolic pathways provide energy and building blocks for other factors functioning at steady state and in stress. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of metabolic regulation in HSCs relevant to cell cycle quiescence, symmetric/asymmetric division, and proliferation following stress and lineage commitment, and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting metabolic factors or pathways to treat hematological malignancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12185-017-2261-x

    View details for PubMedID 28540498

  • Effects of calcineurin inhibitors on sodium excretion in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. International journal of hematology Saburi, M., Kohashi, S., Kato, J., Koda, Y., Sakurai, M., Toyama, T., Kikuchi, T., Karigane, D., Yuda, S., Yamane, Y., Hashida, R., Abe, R., Nakazato, T., Hirahashi, J., Ogata, M., Okamoto, S., Mori, T. 2017


    Calcineurin inhibitors (CIs) such as cyclosporine A (CSA) and tacrolimus often cause renal dysfunction, resulting in increased serum creatinine, hyperkalemia, and hyperuricemia. However, the effects of CIs on sodium excretion have not been fully elucidated. We retrospectively evaluated the effects of CI administration on sodium excretion in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Fifty consecutive recipients each of allogeneic HSCT receiving either CSA or tacrolimus (100 patients in total) with available data for weekly fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) for a 4-week period after transplantation were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. No significant differences in patient characteristics were observed between CSA and tacrolimus groups except for the type of donor. FENa was significantly higher at the 3rd (1.25 ± 0.80) and 4th weeks (1.53 ± 1.06) after transplantation as compared with that at the 1st week (0.93 ± 0.51; P < 0.01, P < 0.001, respectively) in the tacrolimus group, but not at any time point in the CSA group. In addition, FENa was significantly higher in the tacrolimus group than the CSA group at the 4th week (1.53 ± 1.06 vs. 1.13 ± 0.80; P < 0.05). These results suggest that tacrolimus increases sodium excretion after allogeneic HSCT, and that this effect is minimal with CSA.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12185-017-2253-x

    View details for PubMedID 28516402

  • p38 alpha Activates Purine Metabolism to Initiate Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Cycling in Response to Stress CELL STEM CELL Karigane, D., Kobayashi, H., Morikawa, T., Ootomo, Y., Sakai, M., Nagamatsu, G., Kubota, Y., Goda, N., Matsumoto, M., Nishimura, E. K., Soga, T., Otsu, K., Suematsu, M., Okamoto, S., Suda, T., Takubo, K. 2016; 19 (2): 192-204


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain quiescence by activating specific metabolic pathways, including glycolysis. We do not yet have a clear understanding of how this metabolic activity changes during stress hematopoiesis, such as bone marrow transplantation. Here, we report a critical role for the p38MAPK family isoform p38α in initiating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation during stress hematopoiesis in mice. We found that p38MAPK is immediately phosphorylated in HSPCs after a hematological stress, preceding increased HSPC cycling. Conditional deletion of p38α led to defective recovery from hematological stress and a delay in initiation of HSPC proliferation. Mechanistically, p38α signaling increases expression of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 in HSPCs, leading to altered levels of amino acids and purine-related metabolites and changes in cell-cycle progression in vitro and in vivo. Our studies have therefore uncovered a p38α-mediated pathway that alters HSPC metabolism to respond to stress and promote recovery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2016.05.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000381622000013

    View details for PubMedID 27345838

  • Bacterial c-di-GMP Affects Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitors and Their Niches through STING CELL REPORTS Kobayashi, H., Kobayashi, C. I., Nakamura-Ishizu, A., Karigane, D., Haeno, H., Yamamoto, K. N., Sato, T., Ohteki, T., Hayakawa, Y., Barber, G. N., Kurokawa, M., Suda, T., Takubo, K. 2015; 11 (1): 71-84


    Upon systemic bacterial infection, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) migrate to the periphery in order to supply a sufficient number of immune cells. Although pathogen-associated molecular patterns reportedly mediate HSPC activation, how HSPCs detect pathogen invasion in vivo remains elusive. Bacteria use the second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) for a variety of activities. Here, we report that c-di-GMP comprehensively regulated both HSPCs and their niche cells through an innate immune sensor, STING, thereby inducing entry into the cell cycle and mobilization of HSPCs while decreasing the number and repopulation capacity of long-term hematopoietic stem cells. Furthermore, we show that type I interferon acted as a downstream target of c-di-GMP to inhibit HSPC expansion in the spleen, while transforming growth factor-β was required for c-di-GMP-dependent splenic HSPC expansion. Our results define machinery underlying the dynamic regulation of HSPCs and their niches during bacterial infection through c-di-GMP/STING signaling.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.02.066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352279800008

    View details for PubMedID 25843711

  • Cytomegalovirus enteritis in immunocompetent subjects: a case report and review of the literature. Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy Karigane, D., Takaya, S., Seki, Y., Mastumoto, Y., Onose, A., Kosakai, A., Sugaya, N., Mori, T. 2014; 20 (5): 325-329


    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis (or colitis) is generally diagnosed in immunocompromised patients in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection as well as in recipients of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. CMV enteritis has been reported only sporadically in immunocompetent individuals. We encountered a 76-year-old woman who developed CMV enteritis without any previously identified immunocompromised states. An extensive literature review of 33 cases of CMV enteritis or colitis diagnosed in immunocompetent individuals, including the present case, revealed that the median age of the patients was 68, the accompanying symptoms were diarrhea (76%), abdominal pain (52%), and hematochezia or melena (27%), and that the outcome was generally favorable, including resolution without any treatment in 24% of the patients. CMV enteritis should be recognized more widely as a disease entity not only in immunocompromised patients but also in immunocompetent individuals, especially in elderly populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jiac.2013.12.004

    View details for PubMedID 24751234