Multi-dimensional band structure spectroscopy in the synthetic frequency dimension.
Light, science & applications
2023; 12 (1): 158
The concept of synthetic dimensions in photonics provides a versatile platform in exploring multi-dimensional physics. Many of these physics are characterized by band structures in more than one dimensions. Existing efforts on band structure measurements in the photonic synthetic frequency dimension however are limited to either one-dimensional Brillouin zones or one-dimensional subsets of multi-dimensional Brillouin zones. Here we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a method to fully measure multi-dimensional band structures in the synthetic frequency dimension. We use a single photonic resonator under dynamical modulation to create a multi-dimensional synthetic frequency lattice. We show that the band structure of such a lattice over the entire multi-dimensional Brillouin zone can be measured by introducing a gauge potential into the lattice Hamiltonian. Using this method, we perform experimental measurements of two-dimensional band structures of a Hermitian and a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. The measurements reveal some of the general properties of point-gap topology of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian in more than one dimensions. Our results demonstrate experimental capabilities to fully characterize high-dimensional physical phenomena in the photonic synthetic frequency dimension.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41377-023-01196-1
View details for PubMedID 37369684
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10300075
Artificial Non-Abelian Lattice Gauge Fields for Photons in the Synthetic Frequency Dimension.
Physical review letters
2023; 130 (8): 083601
Non-Abelian gauge fields give rise to nontrivial topological physics. Here we develop a scheme to create an arbitrary SU(2) lattice gauge field for photons in the synthetic frequency dimension using an array of dynamically modulated ring resonators. The photon polarization is taken as the spin basis to implement the matrix-valued gauge fields. Using a non-Abelian generalization of the Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian as a specific example, we show that the measurement of the steady-state photon amplitudes inside the resonators can reveal the band structures of the Hamiltonian, which show signatures of the underlying non-Abelian gauge field. These results provide opportunities to explore novel topological phenomena associated with non-Abelian lattice gauge fields in photonic systems.
View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.083601
View details for PubMedID 36898123
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