From saliva to SNP: non-invasive, point-of-care genotyping for precision medicine applications using recombinase polymerase amplification and giant magnetoresistive nanosensors.
Lab on a chip
Genetic testing is considered a cornerstone of the precision medicine paradigm. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been shown to provide insights into several important issues, including therapy selection and drug responsiveness. However, a scarcity of widely deployable and cost-effective genotyping tools has limited the integration of precision medicine into routine clinical practice. The objective of our work was to develop a portable, cost-effective, and automated platform that performs SNP genotyping at the point-of-care (POC). Using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and giant magnetoresistive (GMR) nanosensors, we present a highly automated and multiplexed point-of-care platform that utilizes direct saliva for the qualitative genotyping of four SNPs (rs4633, rs4680, rs4818, rs6269) along the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT), which is associated with the modulation of pain sensitivity and perioperative opioid use. Using this approach, we successfully amplify, detect, and genotype all four of the SNPs, demonstrating 100% accordance between the experimental results obtained using the automated RPA and GMR genotyping assay and the results obtained using a COMT PCR genotyping assay that was formerly validated using pyrosequencing. This automated, portable, and multiplexed RPA and GMR assay shows great promise as a solution for SNP genotyping at the POC and reinforces the broad applications of magnetic nanotechnology in biomedicine.
View details for DOI 10.1039/d2lc00233g
View details for PubMedID 35537344
Diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2 detection: A comprehensive review of the FDA-EUA COVID-19 testing landscape.
Biosensors & bioelectronics
2020; 165: 112454
The rapidly spreading outbreak of COVID-19 disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. As of June 17, 2020, this virus has infected over 8.2 million people but ranges in symptom severity, making it difficult to assess its overall infection rate. There is a need for rapid and accurate diagnostics to better monitor and prevent the spread of COVID-19. In this review, we present and evaluate two main types of diagnostics with FDA-EUA status for COVID-19: nucleic acid testing for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and serological assays for detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgM patient antibodies, along with the necessary sample preparation for accurate diagnoses. In particular, we cover and compare tests such as the CDC 2019-nCoV RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel, Cellex's qSARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test, and point-of-care tests such as Abbott's ID NOW COVID-19 Test. Antibody testing is especially important in understanding the prevalence of the virus in the community and to identify those who have gained immunity. We conclude by highlighting the future of COVID-19 diagnostics, which include the need for quantitative testing and the development of emerging biosensors as point-of-care tests.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2020.112454
View details for PubMedID 32729549