I am currently pursuing a PhD in Neuroscience with Krishna Shenoy in the Neural Prosthetics Systems lab. I am interested the neural basis of movement and motor feedback control. Towards this end, I am engaged in collaborative research employing multielectrode array recordings, optogenetic and electrical stimulation, haptic feedback devices, and high dimensional modeling of population dynamics.
Honors & Awards
Graduate Research Fellowship, National Science Foundation (2009-2012)
Stanford Graduate Fellowship, Stanford University (2009-2014)
NSF IGERT Research Fellowship, Stanford Center for Mind, Brain, and Computation (2012-present)
Doctor of Philosophy, Stanford University, NEURS-PHD (2017)
Bachelor of Elec Engineering, Princeton University, Electrical Engineering (2009)
The need for calcium imaging in nonhuman primates: New motor neuroscience and brain-machine interfaces.
A central goal of neuroscience is to understand how populations of neurons coordinate and cooperate in order to give rise to perception, cognition, and action. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are an attractive model with which to understand these mechanisms in humans, primarily due to the strong homology of their brains and the cognitively sophisticated behaviors they can be trained to perform. Using electrode recordings, the activity of one to a few hundred individual neurons may be measured electrically, which has enabled many scientific findings and the development of brain-machine interfaces. Despite these successes, electrophysiology samples sparsely from neural populations and provides little information about the genetic identity and spatial micro-organization of recorded neurons. These limitations have spurred the development of all-optical methods for neural circuit interrogation. Fluorescent calcium signals serve as a reporter of neuronal responses, and when combined with post-mortem optical clearing techniques such as CLARITY, provide dense recordings of neuronal populations, spatially organized and annotated with genetic and anatomical information. Here, we advocate that this methodology, which has been of tremendous utility in smaller animal models, can and should be developed for use with NHPs. We review here several of the key opportunities and challenges for calcium-based optical imaging in NHPs. We focus on motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface design as representative domains of opportunity within the larger field of NHP neuroscience.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.expneurol.2016.08.003
View details for PubMedID 27511294
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5154795
A coaxial optrode as multifunction write-read probe for optogenetic studies in non-human primates.
Journal of neuroscience methods
2013; 219 (1): 142-154
Advances in optogenetics have led to first reports of expression of light-gated ion-channels in non-human primates (NHPs). However, a major obstacle preventing effective application of optogenetics in NHPs and translation to optogenetic therapeutics is the absence of compatible multifunction optoelectronic probes for (1) precision light delivery, (2) low-interference electrophysiology, (3) protein fluorescence detection, and (4) repeated insertion with minimal brain trauma.Here we describe a novel brain probe device, a "coaxial optrode", designed to minimize brain tissue damage while microfabricated to perform simultaneous electrophysiology, light delivery and fluorescence measurements in the NHP brain. The device consists of a tapered, gold-coated optical fiber inserted in a polyamide tube. A portion of the gold coating is exposed at the fiber tip to allow electrophysiological recordings in addition to light delivery/collection at the tip.Coaxial optrode performance was demonstrated by experiments in rodents and NHPs, and characterized by computational models. The device mapped opsin expression in the brain and achieved precisely targeted optical stimulation and electrophysiology with minimal cortical damage.Overall, combined electrical, optical and mechanical features of the coaxial optrode allowed a performance for NHP studies which was not possible with previously existing devices.Coaxial optrode is currently being used in two NHP laboratories as a major tool to study brain function by inducing light modulated neural activity and behavior. By virtue of its design, the coaxial optrode can be extended for use as a chronic implant and multisite neural stimulation/recording.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2013.06.011
View details for PubMedID 23867081
Principles for applying optogenetic tools derived from direct comparative analysis of microbial opsins.
2012; 9 (2): 159-172
Diverse optogenetic tools have allowed versatile control over neural activity. Many depolarizing and hyperpolarizing tools have now been developed in multiple laboratories and tested across different preparations, presenting opportunities but also making it difficult to draw direct comparisons. This challenge has been compounded by the dependence of performance on parameters such as vector, promoter, expression time, illumination, cell type and many other variables. As a result, it has become increasingly complicated for end users to select the optimal reagents for their experimental needs. For a rapidly growing field, critical figures of merit should be formalized both to establish a framework for further development and so that end users can readily understand how these standardized parameters translate into performance. Here we systematically compared microbial opsins under matched experimental conditions to extract essential principles and identify key parameters for the conduct, design and interpretation of experiments involving optogenetic techniques.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nmeth.1808
View details for PubMedID 22179551
- Principles for applying optogenetic tools derived from direct comparative analysis of microbial opsins NATURE METHODS 2012; 9 (2): 159-172
Neocortical excitation/inhibition balance in information processing and social dysfunction
2011; 477 (7363): 171-178
Severe behavioural deficits in psychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia have been hypothesized to arise from elevations in the cellular balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I balance) within neural microcircuitry. This hypothesis could unify diverse streams of pathophysiological and genetic evidence, but has not been susceptible to direct testing. Here we design and use several novel optogenetic tools to causally investigate the cellular E/I balance hypothesis in freely moving mammals, and explore the associated circuit physiology. Elevation, but not reduction, of cellular E/I balance within the mouse medial prefrontal cortex was found to elicit a profound impairment in cellular information processing, associated with specific behavioural impairments and increased high-frequency power in the 30-80 Hz range, which have both been observed in clinical conditions in humans. Consistent with the E/I balance hypothesis, compensatory elevation of inhibitory cell excitability partially rescued social deficits caused by E/I balance elevation. These results provide support for the elevated cellular E/I balance hypothesis of severe neuropsychiatric disease-related symptoms.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature10360
View details for Web of Science ID 000294603900027
View details for PubMedID 21796121