All Publications

  • Neosagittal Suture Formation after Endoscopic Sagittal Strip Craniectomy: A Case Report and Literature Review. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Rochlin, D. H., Mittermiller, P. A., Menard, R. M. 2021; 9 (1): e3368


    The fate of the excised synostotic suture in craniosynostosis remains relatively understudied. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of neosagittal suture formation following endoscopic excision of a pathology-proven synostotic suture, with CT demonstration of complete reossification in the areas adjacent to the neosagittal suture. We additionally review the existing literature on neosuture formation that has been published over the past 50 years. We conclude that continued investigation is warranted, both through histological comparison of normal and neosutures and through studies to determine clinical risk factors, as this may improve our understanding of the underlying mechanism of pathologic premature suture fusion in craniosynostosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000003368

    View details for PubMedID 33564591

  • A Call for Consideration of Gender Identity in Venous Thromboembolism Risk Assessment. Annals of surgery Rochlin, D. H., Morrison, S. D., Kuzon, W. M. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SLA.0000000000004654

    View details for PubMedID 33234794

  • Commentary on: Spare Roof Technique Versus Component Dorsal Hump Reduction: A Randomized Prospective Study in 250 Primary Rhinoplasties, Aesthetic and Functional Outcomes. Aesthetic surgery journal Gruber, R. P., Rochlin, D., McClure, K. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1093/asj/sjaa253

    View details for PubMedID 33184633

  • Separating Fact From Fiction: A Nationwide Longitudinal Examination of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Following Treatment of Dupuytren Contracture. Hand (New York, N.Y.) Rochlin, D. H., Sheckter, C. C., Satteson, E. S., Swan, C. C., Fox, P. M., Curtin, C. 2020: 1558944720963915


    BACKGROUND: One of the most feared complications following treatment of Dupuytren contracture is complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This study aims to provide a national perspective on the incidence of CRPS following treatment of Dupuytren contracture and identify patient factors to target for risk reduction.METHODS: Using the Truven MarketScan databases from 2007 to 2016, individuals aged ≥18 years who developed CRPS within 1 year of treatment of Dupuytren contracture were identified using the International Classification of Disease diagnosis code for CRPS. Predictor variables included: age, sex, employment status, region, type of procedure, and concurrent carpal tunnel surgery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze outcomes.RESULTS: In all, 48327 patients received treatment for Dupuytren contracture, including collagenase injection (13.6%); percutaneous palmar fasciotomy (10.3%); open palmar fasciotomy (3.9%); palmar fasciectomy with 0 (10.8%), 1 (29.2%), or multiple (19.6%) digit releases; or a combination of these procedures (12.8%). One hundred forty-five patients (0.31%) were diagnosed with CRPS at a mean of 3.4 months (standard deviation, 2.3) following treatment. Significant predictors of CRPS included female sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.02; P < .001), Southern region (OR, 1.80; P = .022), long-term disability status (OR, 4.73; P = .035), palmar fasciectomy with release of 1 (OR, 5.91; P = .003) or >1 digit (OR, 13.32; P < .001), or multiple concurrent procedures for Dupuytren contracture (OR, 8.23; P = .001).CONCLUSIONS: Based on national commercial claims data, there is a lower incidence of CRPS following treatment of Dupuytren contracture than previously reported. Risk factors identified should help with preoperative counseling and assist clinicians in targeting risk reduction measures.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1558944720963915

    View details for PubMedID 33081519

  • Nationwide Perioperative Analysis of Endoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Craniosynostosis: Equal Access, Unequal Outcomes. The Journal of craniofacial surgery Rochlin, D. H., Sheckter, C. C., Lorenz, H. P., Khosla, R. K. 2020


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate national differences in inpatient outcomes and predictors of treatment type for endoscopic versus open surgery for craniosynostosis, with particular consideration of racial, socioeconomic, and geographic factors. The 2016 Kids' Inpatient Database was queried to identify patients aged 3 years or younger who underwent craniectomy for craniosynostosis. Multivariable regression modeled treatment type based on patient-level (gender, race, income, comorbidities, payer) and facility-level (bed size, region, teaching status) variables, and was used to assess outcomes. The weighted sample included 474 patients, of whom 81.9% (N = 388) of patients underwent open repair and 18.1% (N = 86) underwent endoscopic repair. A total of 81.1% of patients were under 1 year of age and 12.0% were syndromic. Patients were more likely to be treated open if they were older (odds ratio [OR] 3.07, P = 0.005) or syndromic (OR 8.56, P = 0.029). Patients who underwent open repair were more likely to receive transfusions (OR 2.86, P = 0.021), and have longer lengths of stay (OR 1.02, P < 0.001) and more costly hospitalizations (OR 5228.78, P = 0.018). Complications did not significantly vary between procedure type. The authors conclude that United States national data confirm benefits of endoscopic surgery, including a lower risk of transfusion, shorter hospital stay, and lower hospital costs, without a significant change in the rate of inpatient complications. Racial, socioeconomic, and geographic factors were not significantly associated with treatment type or perioperative surgical outcomes. Future studies are needed to further investigate the influence of such variables on access to craniofacial care.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007178

    View details for PubMedID 33055558

  • Adult Cranioplasty and Perioperative Patient Safety: Does Plastic Surgery Facility Volume Matter? The Journal of craniofacial surgery Rochlin, D. H., Sheckter, C. C., Khosla, R. K., Lorenz, H. P. 2020


    Cranioplasty lies at the intersection of neurosurgery and plastic surgery, though little is known about the impact of plastic surgery involvement. The authors hypothesized that adult cranioplasty patients at higher volume plastic surgery facilities would have improved inpatient outcomes. Adult cranioplasty encounters were extracted from the National Inpatient Sample from 2012 to 2014 based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. Regression models included the following variables: age, gender, race/ethnicity, Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, payer, hospital size, region, and urban/teaching status. Outcomes included odds of receiving a flap, perioperative patient safety indicators, and mortality. The weighted sample included 49,305 encounters with diagnoses of neoplasm (31.2%), trauma (56.4%), infection (5.2%), a combination of these diagnoses (3.9%), or other diagnoses (3.2%). There were 1375 inpatient mortalities, of which 10 (0.7%) underwent a flap procedure. On multivariable regression, higher volume plastic surgery facilities and all diagnoses except uncertain neoplasm were associated with an increased likelihood of a flap procedure during the admission for cranioplasty, using benign neoplasm as a reference (P < 0.001). Plastic surgery facility volume was not significantly associated with likelihood of a patient safety indicator event. The highest volume plastic surgery quartile was associated with lower likelihood of inpatient mortality (P = 0.008). These findings support plastic surgery involvement in adult cranioplasty and suggest that these patients are best served at high volume plastic surgery facilities.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007177

    View details for PubMedID 33055559

  • "Venous Thromboembolism Following Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction: A Longitudinal Analysis of 12,778 Patients". Plastic and reconstructive surgery Rochlin, D. H., Sheckter, C. C., Pannucci, C., Momeni, A. 2020


    BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a dreaded complication following microsurgical breast reconstruction. While the high-risk nature of the procedure is well-known, a thorough analysis of modifiable risk factors has not been performed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the association of such factors with the postoperative occurrence of VTE longitudinally.METHODS: Using the Truven MarketScan Database, a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent microsurgical breast reconstruction from 2007-2015 and who developed postoperative VTE within 90 days of reconstruction was performed. Predictor variables included: age, timing of reconstruction, body mass index, history of radiation, history of VTE, Elixhauser comorbidity score, and length of stay (LOS). Univariate analyses were performed, in addition to logistic and zero-inflated Poisson regressions to evaluate predictors of VTE and changes in VTE over the study period, respectively.RESULTS: 12,778 women were identified, of which 167 (1.3%) developed VTE. The majority of VTEs (67.1%) occurred post-discharge with no significant change from 2007-2015. Significant predictors of VTE included Elixhauser score (p<0.01), history of VTE (p<0.03), and LOS (p<0.001). Compared to patients who developed a VTE during the inpatient stay, patients who developed a post-discharge VTE had a lower mean Elixhauser score (p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative VTE continues to be an inadequately addressed problem as evidenced by a stable incidence over the study period. Identification of modifiable risk factors, such as LOS, provide potential avenues for intervention. As the majority of VTEs occur post-discharge, future studies are warranted to investigate the role for an intervention in this period.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000007051

    View details for PubMedID 32453267

  • The rise of non-traumatic extremity compartment syndrome in light of the opioid epidemic. The American journal of emergency medicine Sheckter, C. C., Cebron, U., Suarez, P., Rochlin, D., Tedesco, D., Hernandez-Boussard, T., Curtin, C. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajem.2020.01.020

    View details for PubMedID 32005410

  • Health Care Is Failing the Most Vulnerable Patients: Three Underused Solutions. Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974) Rochlin, D. H., Lee, C. M., Scheuter, C. n., Platchek, T. n., Kaplan, R. M., Milstein, A. n. 2020: 33354920954496

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0033354920954496

    View details for PubMedID 32962512

  • Immediate Targeted Nipple-Areolar Complex Reinnervation: Improving Outcomes in Gender-affirming Mastectomy. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Rochlin, D. H., Brazio, P. n., Wapnir, I. n., Nguyen, D. n. 2020; 8 (3): e2719


    Female-to-male mastectomy often renders the chest skin and nipple-areolar complex (NAC) insensate. We propose a new technique of preserving the intercostal nerves and using them to reinnervate the NAC after mastectomy.We performed a prospective analysis of transmasculine patients who underwent female-to-male mastectomy. The technique involves dissecting out the lateral intercostal nerves to length and performing a neurorrhaphy to nerve stumps at the base of the NAC. Sensory outcomes, as assessed with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, were compared to a cohort of patients who underwent mastectomy without neurotization.Ten patients with a mean age of 17.5 years (range: 16-19 years) underwent mastectomy. The final follow-up was a mean of 15.4 ± 4.3 months for the treated group and 40.7 ± 12.9 months for the control group. Compared to control patients, treated patients had significant improvement in sensation at the nipple (P ≤ 0.0002), areola (P = 0.0001), and peripheral breast skin (P = 0.0001). For treated patients, there was no statistically significant difference in sensation between preoperative and postoperative sensation in all tested areas at final follow-up.This proof of concept study suggests that immediate reinnervation of the NAC after mastectomy enhances recovery of NAC sensation in patients undergoing female-to-male mastectomy and may be further generalized to women undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000002719

    View details for PubMedID 32537367

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7253256

  • Prevalence of Ganglion Cyst Formation After Wrist Arthroscopy: A Retrospective Longitudinal Analysis of 2420 Patients. Hand (New York, N.Y.) Rochlin, D. H., Perrault, D. n., Sheckter, C. C., Fox, P. n., Yao, J. n. 2020: 1558944720939203


    Dorsal wrist ganglion cysts arise from the leakage of synovial fluid through tears in the scapholunate ligament and/or dorsal wrist capsule. An analogous disruption of the dorsal capsule is created with routine portal placement during wrist arthroscopy. We hypothesized that wrist arthroscopy would predispose to wrist ganglions.Using the Truven MarketScan Outpatient Services Database from 2015 to 2016, patients who underwent wrist arthroscopy and developed an ipsilateral wrist ganglion were identified. Exclusion criteria included ganglion diagnosis preceding arthroscopy and bilateral pathology. Postoperative ganglion diagnosis was modeled with logistic regression. Predictor variables included age, gender, comorbidities, and arthroscopic procedure.In all, 2420 patients underwent wrist arthroscopy. Thirty (1.24%) were diagnosed with an ipsilateral wrist ganglion at a mean time of 4.0 months (standard deviation: 2.4, range: 0.2-9.0). Significant predictors of ganglion diagnosis included female gender (odds ratio [OR]: 4.0, P < .01) and triangular fibrocartilage complex and/or joint debridement (OR: 0.13, P < .01). By comparison, among all 24,718,751 outpatients who had not undergone wrist arthroscopy, 39,832 patients had a diagnosis of a wrist ganglion cyst (0.16%).Wrist arthroscopy is associated with a postoperative rate of ganglion cyst formation that is nearly 8 times the rate in the general population. Additional studies are needed to investigate techniques that minimize the risk of this complication.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1558944720939203

    View details for PubMedID 32935572

  • Timing of Flap Surgery in Acute Burn Patients Does Not Affect Complications. Journal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association Perrault, D. n., Rochlin, D. n., Pham, C. n., Momeni, A. n., Karanas, Y. n., Sheckter, C. C. 2020


    Pedicled and free flaps are occasionally necessary to reconstruct complex wounds in acute burn patients. Flap coverage has classically been delayed for concern of progressive tissue necrosis and flap failure. We aim to investigate flap complications in primary burn care leveraging national US data.Acute burn patients with known % total body surface area(TBSA) were extracted from the Nationwide/National Inpatient Sample from 2002-2014 based on International Classification of Disease (ICD) Codes 9th edition. Variables included age, gender, race, Elixhauser index, %TBSA, mechanism, inhalation injury, and location of burn. Flap complication was defined by ICD-9 procedure code 86.75, return to OR for flap revision. Multivariable analysis evaluated predictors of flap compromise using stepwise logistic regression with backwards elimination.The weighted sample included 306,924 encounters of which 526 received a flap (0.17%). 7.8% of flap encounters sustained electric injury compared to 2.7% of non-flap encounters (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.95-7.24, p<0.001). The mean hospital day of flap procedure was 10.1 (SD 10.7) days. Flap complications occurred in 6.4% of cases. The timing of flap coverage was not associated with complications. The only independent predictor of flap complication was electrical injury (OR 40.49, 95% OR 2.98-550.64, p=0.005).Electrical injury was an independent predictor of flap complications compared to other mechanisms. Flap timing was not associated with return to surgery for complications. This suggests that the use of flaps is safe in acute burn care to achieve burn wound closure with an understanding that electrical injuries may warrant particular consideration to avoid failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbcr/iraa096

    View details for PubMedID 32582915

  • Endoscopic Spring-Mediated Distraction for Unilambdoid Craniosynostosis. The Journal of craniofacial surgery Mittermiller, P. A., Rochlin, D. H., Menard, R. M. 2020


    Craniosynostosis treatment modalities have changed over time. These have included open calvarial remodeling, suturectomy with helmet molding, hand-powered distraction devices, and spring-mediated distraction. Implantable springs were first described for their use in treatment of craniosynostosis 1998 (Lauritzen et al, Plast Reconstr Surg 121;2008:545-554). They have been used for the correction of craniosynostosis involving single and multiple sutures and have been placed through both endoscopic and open approaches. Their use for correction of lambdoid synostosis has been previously only described using an open approach (Arnaud et al, Child Nerv Syst 28;2012:1545-1549). The senior author has performed spring-mediated distraction for treating unilambdoid craniosynostosis using an endoscopic approach, which is described below and has not previously been reported by other authors.A retrospective analysis of our series of endoscopic unilambdoid synostosis repairs is included in this article. Patients were analyzed based on patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes. The operation commences by approaching the lambdoid suture endoscopically through a 2- to 3-cm incision lateral to the lambdoid suture. Burr holes are placed on either side of the suture and a suturectomy is performed. Springs are bent preoperatively to a predetermined force. Two springs are placed across the suturectomy defect and the skin is closed. The patient is monitored for improvement in head shape and cranial X-rays are performed to measure the degree of distraction.Seven patients underwent endoscopic spring-mediated distraction for unilambdoid craniosynostosis. The average age at the time of operation was 9.4 months. The median force of each spring placed was 7.0 N. The median length of hospital stay after spring placement was 2 days. Springs were removed at 5.6 months on average. Five patients had X-rays immediately after placement and prior to removal. Each spring expanded an average distance of 15.3 mm. There were no surgical complications. Three patients had both preoperative and postoperative computed tomography scans available. The angle of the cranial base, calculated by comparing foramen magnum to cribriform plate angles, improved 5.8° (12.3 preoperatively to 6.6 postoperatively).Endoscopic spring-mediated distraction is a safe and effective method of treatment for unilambdoid craniosynostosis. The series represents the largest experience with this technique. The approach can be considered in all patients with unilambdoid synostosis given the efficacious improvement in vault remodeling, low patient morbidity, short operating time, and minimal inpatient stay.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006988

    View details for PubMedID 32804827

  • Blossom smart expander technology for tissue expander-based breast reconstruction facilitates shorter duration to full expansion: A pilot study. Archives of plastic surgery Choi, Y. K., Rochlin, D. H., Nguyen, D. H. 2020; 47 (5): 419–27


    This study evaluated the Blossom system, an innovative self-filling, rate-controlled, pressure-responsive saline tissue expander (TE) system. We investigated the feasibility of utilizing this technology to facilitate implant-based and combined flap with implant-based breast reconstruction in comparison to conventional tissue expansion.In this prospective, single-center, single-surgeon pilot study, participants underwent either implant-based breast reconstruction or a combination of autologous flap and implantbased breast reconstruction. Outcome measures included time to full expansion, complications, total expansion volume, and pain scores.Fourteen patients (TEs; n=22), were included in this study. The mean time to full expansion was 13.4 days (standard error of the mean [SEM], 1.3 days) in the combination group and 11.7 days (SEM, 1.4 days) in the implant group (P=0.78). The overall major complication rate was 4.5% (n=1). No statistically significant differences were found in the complication rate between the combination group and the implant group. The maximum patient-reported pain scores during the expansion process were low, but were significantly higher in the combination group (mean, 2.00±0.09) than in the implant group (mean, 0.29±0.25; P=0.005).The reported average duration for conventional subcutaneous TE expansion is 79.4 days, but this pilot study using the Blossom system achieved an average expansion duration of less than 14 days in both groups. The Blossom system may accommodate single-stage breast reconstruction. The overall complication rate of this study was 4.5%, which is promising compared to the reported complication rates of two-stage breast reconstruction with TEs (20%-45%).

    View details for DOI 10.5999/aps.2020.00535

    View details for PubMedID 32971593

  • The association of burn patient volume with patient safety indicators and mortalityin the US. Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries Sheckter, C. C., Pham, C., Rochlin, D., Maan, Z. N., Karanas, Y., Curtin, C. 2019


    INTRODUCTION: Clinical volume has been associated with rate of complications and mortality for various conditions and procedures. We aim to analyze the relationship between annual hospital burn admission, patient safety indicators (PSI), line infections, and inpatient mortality. We hypothesize that high facility volume will correlate with better outcomes.METHODS: All burn admissions with complete data for total body surface area (TBSA) and depth were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002-2011. Predictor variables included age, gender, comorbidities, %TBSA, burn depth, and inhalation injury. Surgically relevant PSIs were drawn from the Healthcare Cost & Utilization Project and included: sepsis, venous thromboembolic disease, hemorrhage, pneumonia, and wound complications. Outcomes were analyzed with regression models.RESULTS: Of the 57,468 encounters included, 3.1% died, 6.3% experienced >1 PSI event, and 0.3% experienced a catheter-associated urinary tract infections or central line associated blood stream infections. The most frequent PSI was pneumonia followed by sepsis and VTE. Annual hospital burn admission volume was independently associated with decreased odds of mortality (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-0.99, p<0.001) and PSIs (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-0.99, p=0.031). There was no significant correlation with line infections. In both mortality and PSI models, age, %TBSA, inhalation injuries, and Elixhauser comorbidity score were significantly associated with adverse outcomes (p<0.05).CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between higher hospital volume and decreased likelihood of patient safety indicators and mortality. There was no observed relationship with line infections. These findings could inform future verification policies of US burn centers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.burns.2019.11.009

    View details for PubMedID 31843281

  • Homelessness and Inpatient Burn Outcomes in the United States JOURNAL OF BURN CARE & RESEARCH Kiwanuka, H., Maan, Z. N., Rochlin, D., Curtin, C., Karanas, Y., Sheckter, C. C. 2019; 40 (5): 633–38
  • A Budget Impact Analysis of the Collaborative Care Model for Treating Opioid Use Disorder in Primary Care JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE Lee, C., Scheuter, C., Rochlin, D., Platchek, T., Kaplan, R. M. 2019; 34 (9): 1693–94
  • The role of economic analyses in promoting adoption of behavioral and psychosocial interventions in clinical settings. Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association Jacobsen, P. B., Prasad, R., Villani, J., Lee, C., Rochlin, D., Scheuter, C., Kaplan, R. M., Freedland, K. E., Manber, R., Kanaan, J., Wilson, D. K. 2019; 38 (8): 680–88


    In this report, we offer three examples of how economic data could promote greater adoption of behavioral and psychosocial interventions in clinical settings where primary or specialty medical care is delivered to patients. The examples are collaborative care for depression, chronic pain management, and cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia. These interventions illustrate differences in the availability of cost and cost-effectiveness data and in the extent of intervention adoption and integration into routine delivery of medical care. Collaborative care has been widely studied from an economic perspective, with most studies demonstrating its relative cost-effectiveness per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and some studies demonstrating its potential for cost neutrality or cost savings. The success of collaborative care for depression can be viewed as a model for how to promote greater adoption of other interventions, such as psychological therapies for chronic pain and insomnia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

    View details for DOI 10.1037/hea0000774

    View details for PubMedID 31368752

  • Successful treatment of lymphedema in a vasculopath and neuropathic patient. Journal of surgical oncology Inchauste, S., Zelones, J., Rochlin, D., Nguyen, D. H. 2019


    This is a case report of a 68-year-old male with stage III right lower extremity lymphedema following right inguinal lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. He developed peripheral neuropathy and radiation-induced right femoral artery thrombosis, treated with saphenous vein graft. He underwent three vascularized lymph node transfers (VLNTs) to the upper medial thigh, posterior calf, and ankle with placement of nanofibrillar collagen scaffolds. Three months after surgery, he had volume reduction, less neuropathic pain, and improved ambulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.25590

    View details for PubMedID 31228351

  • The role of adjunct nanofibrillar collagen scaffold implantation in the surgical management of secondary lymphedema: Review of the literature and summary of initial pilot studies. Journal of surgical oncology Rochlin, D. H., Inchauste, S., Zelones, J., Nguyen, D. H. 2019


    Secondary lymphedema is a worldwide affliction that exacts a significant public health burden. This review examines the etiology, presentation, and management of secondary lymphedema. In addition, emerging adjunctive strategies are explored, specifically evidence from animal and pilot human studies regarding implantation of a collagen nanofibrillar scaffold (BioBridge; Fibralign Corporation, Union City, CA) in promoting lymphangiogenesis, preventing and treating lymphedema, and enhancing outcomes with lymphaticovenous anastomosis and vascularized lymph node transfer.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.25576

    View details for PubMedID 31209884

  • The Pushback Pharyngeal Flap: An 18-Year Experience. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Rochlin, D. H., Mittermiller, P. A., Sheckter, C. C., Menard, R. M. 2019; 143 (6): 1246e–1254e


    BACKGROUND: The pharyngeal flap is one of the oldest and most popular techniques for correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency. The authors describe a large series using a technique that combines a pharyngeal flap with a palate pushback to avoid common causes of operative failure while restoring the velopharyngeal mechanism.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of patients who underwent a pushback pharyngeal flap by a single surgeon from 2000 to 2017. All patients had a preoperative nasoendoscopy diagnostic of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Operative technique involved elevation of the hard palate mucosa through a retroalveolar incision, passage of the flap through the nasopharyngeal mucosa opening, and inset with sutures through the hard palate mucosa.RESULTS: There were 40 patients with a median age of 9.7 years. Preoperative closure patterns were predominately coronal (85.7 percent), with poor posterior wall motion and an average gap size of 27.5 mm. Postoperative complications included flap dehiscence (n = 1), transient dysphagia (n = 2), obstructive sleep apnea (n = 4), and a palatal fistula and/or persistent velopharyngeal insufficiency that required further surgery (n = 6). At an average of 2.5 years postoperatively, 91.7 percent of patients achieved adequate velopharyngeal function, with significant improvements in the majority of speech metrics (p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: The pushback pharyngeal flap is a safe and effective technique for treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Advantages include high, secure inset with prevention of palatal scar contracture and shortening.CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000005645

    View details for PubMedID 31136490

  • Cost impact of sobering centers on national health care spending in the United States. Translational behavioral medicine Scheuter, C., Rochlin, D. H., Lee, C., Milstein, A., Kaplan, R. M. 2019


    Acute alcohol intoxication is responsible for a sizable share of emergency department visits. Intoxicated individuals without other medical needs may not require the high level of care provided by an emergency department. We estimate the impact on U.S. health care spending if individuals with uncomplicated, acute alcohol intoxication were treated in sobering centers instead of the emergency department. We performed a budget impact analysis from the perspective of the U.S. health care system based on published and gray literature reports. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Monte Carlo modeling with random variation for three variables (cost of an emergency department visit, cost of a sobering center visit, and start-up costs per sobering center visit) and the percentage of cases diverted from emergency departments to sobering centers. Outcomes were expressed in terms of national savings in 2017 U.S. dollars. Assuming a diversion rate of 50% based on previous studies, national savings range from $230 million to $1.0 billion annually. In the Monte Carlo modeling, we found annual national savings of $99.02 million (95% CI: $95.89-$102.19 million), $792.34 million (95% CI: $767.09-$817.58 million), and $1,185.51 million (95% CI: $1,150.64-$1,226.37 million) with diversion rates of 5%, 40%, and 60%, respectively. Implementing sobering centers as a treatment alternative for individuals with uncomplicated acute alcohol intoxication could yield substantial cost savings for the U.S. health care system.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/tbm/ibz075

    View details for PubMedID 31116401

  • The Power of Patient Norms Postoperative Pathway Associated With Shorter Hospital Stay After Free Autologous Breast Reconstruction Rochlin, D. H., Leon, D., Yu, C., Long, C., Nazerali, R., Lee, G. K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2019: S320–S324
  • The Power of Patient Norms: Postoperative Pathway Associated With Shorter Hospital Stay After Free Autologous Breast Reconstruction. Annals of plastic surgery Rochlin, D. H., Leon, D. S., Yu, C., Long, C., Nazerali, R., Lee, G. K. 2019; 82 (5S Suppl 4): S320–S324


    INTRODUCTION: Enhanced recovery after surgery pathways designed to optimize postoperative care have become increasingly popular across multiple surgical specialties with proven benefits. In this retrospective cohort study, we present a comparative evaluation of the impact of protocol-based postoperative care on free autologous breast reconstruction patients.METHODS: With institutional review board approval, we performed a chart review of patients who underwent breast reconstruction with free autologous tissue transfer by a single surgeon from 2006 to 2017. Patients were managed according to a postoperative protocol since 2006 that initially called for discharge home on postoperative day (POD) 4 for unilateral cases and POD 5 for bilateral cases. In May 2015, the protocol was revised to discharge home on POD 3 for all cases. Patients who underwent reconstruction before (2006 to April 2015) and after (May 2015 to 2017) the change in postoperative protocol were compared.RESULTS: A total of 432 patients (647 breasts) underwent free autologous breast reconstruction during the study period. Flaps were predominantly muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (56.3%) or deep inferior epigastric perforator (30.3%) flaps. Average patient age was 51.6 years (range, 29.7-80.3 years). Unilateral reconstructions were performed for 167 patients before and 50 patients after the protocol change; average hospital length of stay (LOS) was 4.5 and 3.4 days, respectively (P < 0.001). Bilateral reconstructions were performed for 153 patients before and 62 patients after the protocol change; average hospital LOS was 5.1 and 3.5 days, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no significant increase in patients with major or minor complications.CONCLUSIONS: Revising our postoperative protocol to reduce expected LOS was associated with an overall faster time to discharge without negative consequences in patients who underwent unilateral and bilateral free autologous breast reconstruction. Use of protocols to guide behavior not only can improve the patient experience by promoting a quicker return home, but may also have the added benefit of decreasing healthcare expenditures through reduced inpatient utilization.

    View details for PubMedID 30973838

  • Preventing Unnecessary Intubations: A 5-Year Regional Burn Center Experience Using Flexible Fiberoptic Laryngoscopy for Airway Evaluation in Patients With Suspected Inhalation or Airway Injury. Journal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association Moshrefi, S., Sheckter, C. C., Shepard, K., Pereira, C., Davis, D. J., Karanas, Y., Rochlin, D. H. 2019; 40 (3): 341–46


    The decision to intubate acute burn patients is often based on the presence of classic clinical exam findings. However, these findings may have poor correlation with airway injury and result in unnecessary intubation. We investigated flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy (FFL) as a means to diagnose upper airway thermal and inhalation injury and guide airway management. A retrospective chart review of all burn patients who underwent FFL from 2013 to 2017 was performed. Their charts were reviewed to determine the indications for FFL including the historical data and physical exam findings that indicated airway injury as well as patient age, TBSA, type and depth of burn injury, carboxyhemoglobin level, and clinical course. Fifty-one patients underwent FFL, with an average TBSA of 6.5% (range 0.5-38.0%) and carboxyhemoglobin level of 3.5%. Burn mechanism was flame (35.3%) or flash (51.0%), with 50% occurring in enclosed spaces. In all cases, the decision to perform FFL was based on physical exam findings meeting criteria for intubation, including facial burns, singed nasal hairs, nasal soot, voice change, throat pain or abnormal sensation, shortness of breath, carbonaceous sputum, wheezing, or stridor. Based on FFL, 9 patients (17.7%) were treated with steroids, 28 patients (54.9%) received supportive care, and 6 patients (11.8%) had repeat FFL for monitoring. One patient was intubated after repeat FFL examination. All patients who underwent FFL met traditional criteria for intubation based on exam, however 98% were monitored without issues based on FFL findings. FFL is a valuable tool that can lead to fewer intubations in acute burn patients with a stable respiratory status for whom history and physical exam suggest upper airway injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jbcr/irz016

    View details for PubMedID 31222272

  • A Budget Impact Analysis of the Collaborative Care Model for Treating Opioid Use Disorder in Primary Care. Journal of general internal medicine Lee, C. M., Scheuter, C., Rochlin, D., Platchek, T., Kaplan, R. M. 2019

    View details for PubMedID 31011978

  • Homelessness and Inpatient Burn Outcomes in the United States. Journal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association Kiwanuka, H., Maan, Z., Rochlin, D., Curtin, C., Karanas, Y., Sheckter, C. C. 2019


    INTRODUCTION: Burn injuries are common in the homeless population. Little is known regarding whether homeless patients experience different outcomes when admitted for burns. We aim to 1) characterize the admitted homeless burn population, and 2) investigate differences in inpatient outcomes between the homeless and non-homeless populations.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Adult patients with complete data for burn characteristics were extracted. Variables included demographic, burn, and facility characteristics. Homelessness was identified with International Classification of Disease 9th edition codes. Outcomes were modeled with regression analysis and included length of stay, total operations, charges, disposition, and patient safety indicators.RESULTS: 43,872 encounters were included of which 0.76% were homeless. Homeless encounters were more likely to be male (p<0.001) and Medicaid-insured (p<0.001). Flame and frostbite injuries were more likely (p<0.001), and the mean %TBSA was smaller (15.0 versus 16.8, p<0.001). After adjustment, homeless patients had greater lengths of stay (11.5 vs. 9.6, p=0.046), greater charges ($73,597 vs. $66,909, p=0.030), fewer operations (p=0.016), and three times higher likelihood leaving against medical advice (p=0.002). There was no difference in patient safety indicators or mortality.CONCLUSION: Homeless burn admissions represent a unique cohort that carries a higher comorbidity burden and experiences longer lengths of stay with greater difficulty in disposition. Ironically, these patients accumulate more charges with limited means to pay. Even though no differences were observed in patient safety indicators or mortality, further research is needed to understand how the challenges within this population affect their recovery.

    View details for PubMedID 30938433

  • Which Stitch? Replacing Anecdote with Evidence in Minor Hand Surgery PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY-GLOBAL OPEN Rochlin, D. H., Sheckter, C. C., Curtin, C. M. 2019; 7 (4)
  • Economic Benefit of "Modern" Nonemergency Medical Transportation That Utilizes Digital Transportation Networks AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Rochlin, D. H., Lee, C., Scheuter, C., Milstein, A., Kaplan, R. M. 2019; 109 (3): 472–74
  • Which Stitch? Replacing Anecdote with Evidence in Minor Hand Surgery. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Rochlin, D. H., Sheckter, C. C., Curtin, C. M. 2019; 7 (4): e2189


    There is currently no consensus on the optimal suture type for palmar skin closure following open carpal tunnel release and trigger finger release. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients in the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs (PAVA) Health Care System who underwent these procedures over a 2-year period to compare 30-day wound outcomes following closure with poliglecaprone 25 (Monocryl), nylon, and chromic gut suture. Out of 312 PAVA cases (133 carpal tunnel release, 179 trigger finger release), incisions closed with Monocryl were significantly less likely to develop dehiscence (Monocryl 2.1%, nylon 10.5%, chromic 10.3%; P = 0.006) and infection (Monocryl 1.6%, nylon 7.4%, chromic 13.8%; P = 0.003), or lead to additional wound-related encounters (Monocryl 8.0%, nylon 16.8%, chromic 24.1%; P = 0.012). On multivariable logistic regression, suture type and diabetes were independent predictors of 30-day wound complications and extra encounters. At PAVA, compared with Monocryl, closures with nylon and chromic were significantly more likely to dehisce and/or become infected [nylon: odds ratio (OR), 5.0; 95% CI, 1.9-13.3 and chromic: OR, 9.3; 95% CI, 2.7-32.4; P = 0.002], and to be associated with an additional encounter (nylon: OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3 and chromic: OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.6-12.9; P = 0.007). This has led to using Monocryl as the standard closure for these cases at PAVA.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000002189

    View details for PubMedID 31321185

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6554153

  • The impact of hospital volume on patient safety indicators following post-mastectomy breast reconstruction in the US. Breast cancer research and treatment Sheckter, C. C., Rochlin, D. n., Kiwanuka, H. n., Curtin, C. n., Momeni, A. n. 2019


    Despite the growing spotlight on value-based care and patient safety, little is known about the influence of patient-, reconstruction-, and facility-level factors on safety events following breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to characterize postoperative complications in light of hospital-level risk factors.Using the National Inpatient Sample, all patients who underwent free flap and prosthetic breast reconstruction from 2012 to 2014 were identified. Predictor variables included patient demographic and clinical characteristics, type and timing of reconstruction, annual hospital reconstructive volume, hospital bed size, hospital setting (rural vs. urban), and length of stay. Patient safety indicators (PSIs) were based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's designation of preventable hospital complications: venous thromboembolism, bleeding, wound complications, pneumonia, and sepsis. Logistic models were used to analyze outcomes.The sample included 103,301 women, of which 27,695 (26.8%) underwent free flap reconstruction. 3.6% of patients experienced ≥ 1 PSI, most commonly wound PSI (4.9% and 2.5% for free flap and prosthetic reconstruction, respectively). Significant predictors of PSIs included rural setting (p < 0.01) and Elixhauser score ≥ 4 (p < 0.01) for the free flap group, and delayed reconstruction (p < 0.01) for the prosthetic group. Annual reconstructive facility volume was not associated with increased odds of PSIs in either prosthetic or free flap reconstruction (p > 0.05).PSIs were associated with rural hospitals and greater comorbidities for patients undergoing reconstruction with free flaps. Annual reconstructive facility volume was not associated with adverse inpatient outcomes with either method of reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10549-019-05361-2

    View details for PubMedID 31338643

  • Single Stage Repair of #30 Facial Cleft with Bone Morphogenic Protein PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY-GLOBAL OPEN Sheckter, C. C., Mittermiller, P., Hung, K., Maan, Z., Rochlin, D., Menard, R. M. 2018; 6 (11)
  • Full-Thickness Chemical Burn From Trifluoroacetic Acid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Rochlin, D. H., Rajasingh, C. M., Karanas, Y. L., Davis, D. J. 2018; 81 (5): 528–30


    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) burns are an ill-defined entity due to a lack of reported sizable burns from this chemical. In this case report of the largest reported burn from TFA, we demonstrate that TFA causes extensive, progressive full-thickness tissue injury that may initially appear superficial. Trifluoroacetic acid does not seem to involve the systemic toxicities that result from hydrofluoric acid burns, and there is no role for calcium gluconate in acute management based on this case. Operative intervention should be staged because wound beds may initially seem healthy yet demonstrate continued necrosis.

    View details for PubMedID 30059387

  • Review of the First 108 Free Flaps at Public Health Concern Trust-NEPAL Hospitals: Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Countries. Annals of plastic surgery Nakarmi, K. K., Rochlin, D. H., Basnet, S. J., Shakya, P., Karki, B., Magar, M. G., Nagarkoti, K. K., Rajbhandari, P. K., Maharjan, D., Prajapati, S. S., Rai, S. M. 2018


    BACKGROUND: Free tissue transfer is one of the most important and essential techniques in reconstructive surgery. The underlying complexity, steep learning curve, high cost, and fear of failure make it very difficult to establish as a regular service in developing countries such as Nepal.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design was used to analyze the challenges with and opportunities for reconstructive surgery in Nepal. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, indications, types of free flaps, hospital stay, complications, and involvement of a microsurgery teaching workshop.RESULTS: A total of 16 microsurgical workshops were carried out by 3 international organizations over the study period (2007-2017). Altogether 108 free flaps in 103 subjects were reviewed during the study period at different hospitals of the Public Health Concern Trust-NEPAL (phect-NEPAL) and National Trauma Center. Of 103 patients, 60 were males and 43 were females with an average age of 34.5 years (range, 8-73 years). The most common indications for microsurgical reconstruction were tumor, trauma, and burns. Radial artery forearm flap, anterolateral thigh flap, and free fibular flap were the most common types of flaps. Ten different types of flaps were performed. Four cases needed more than 1 flap; one of them needed 3 flaps. Flap success rate approached 90%. Four patients died in the hospital postoperatively.CONCLUSION: Reconstructive microsurgery is challenging in Nepal and more generally in developing settings. However, persistent technical support such as training and workshops can make it feasible.

    View details for PubMedID 30161043

  • Trends and inpatient outcomes for palliative care services in major burn patients: A 10-year analysis of the nationwide inpatient sample. Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries Sheckter, C. C., Hung, K., Rochlin, D., Maan, Z., Karanas, Y., Curtin, C. 2018


    INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in critical care and the surgical management of major burns, highly moribund patients are unlikely to survive. Little is known regarding the utilization and effects of palliative care services in this population.METHODS: All major burn hospitalizations were identified within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Patients were characterized by burn, demographic, facility, and diseases factors. Palliative care services were identified with International Classification Disease 9th edition code V6.67. Temporal trends were assessed with Poisson modeling. Inpatient mortality and death without surgical intervention were assessed with logistic regression. Outcomes were stratified by modified Baux scores.RESULTS: 7424 major burns were included; 1.9% received palliative care services. Patients receiving palliation had a mean age of 63.6 years (SD 19.6), mean total body surface area of 62.2% (SD 24.9%), and mean modified Baux score of 127.1 (SD 26.7). Adjusting for covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 1.42 over the 10-year period (95% CI, 1.31-1.54, p<0.001). Independent predictors of palliative consultations included older age, larger burns, deeper burns, and higher Elixhauser comorbidity score. Among patients with modified Baux scores between 100-153, those receiving palliative care services were significantly more likely to die without surgery, OR 3.24 (95% CI 1.13-10.39, p=0.029), with no significant difference in mortality, OR 11.72 (95% CI 0.87-22.57, p=0.051) CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Palliative care services were increasingly used during the study period. Palliative care services in highly moribund burn patients do not impact survival and may decrease the likelihood of surgical intervention in select patients.

    View details for PubMedID 30115531

  • Deepithelialized Skin Reduction Preserves Skin and Nipple Perfusion in Immediate Reconstruction of Large and Ptotic Breasts. Annals of plastic surgery Rochlin, D. H., Nguyen, D. H. 2018


    BACKGROUND: Women with large and/or ptotic breasts are often not considered candidates for nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) and/or immediate breast reconstruction given difficulties avoiding ischemic complications and achieving a favorable aesthetic result. We report a novel technique involving deepithelialized skin reduction to simultaneously reduce the skin envelope and preserve perfusion to the skin and nipple in immediate breast reconstruction for women that fit this high-risk anatomic profile.METHODS: We reviewed cases of NSM and skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate implant-based and free autologous reconstruction by a single plastic surgeon from 2013 to 2017. All patients had at least size C cup breasts (>500 g) and/or grade 3 ptosis. Select patients undergoing NSM had devascularization of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) 1 to 2 months before surgery to promote adaptive circulatory change. After mastectomy, skin reductions were performed via Wise, periareolar, or circumareolar reduction patterns, with infolding of a deepithelialized inferior and periareolar skin flap over a tissue expander or free flap. In NSM, the nipple was advanced superiorly and redirected through a keyhole of deepithelialized skin flap.RESULTS: Patients had an average age of 43.6 years and body mass index of 27.7. A total of 33 breasts in 19 patients (14 bilateral, 5 unilateral) underwent deepithelialized skin reduction. There were 14 NSM and 19 SSM. Reconstructions consisted of 13 tissue expanders exchanged to implants and 20 abdominally-based free flaps. Four patients underwent devascularization of the NAC before NSM. Six (18%) breasts had partial thickness flap loss that healed by delayed primary (n = 1) or secondary (n = 5) intention. Four nipples, all in patients without prior NAC devascularization, had ischemic complications (2 epidermolysis, 12.5%; 2 partial necrosis, 12.5%), which all healed by secondary intention with the exception of 1 case of NAC removal.CONCLUSIONS: Skin reduction with deepithelialization and tissue infolding preserves dermal plexus perfusion and promotes nipple and skin flap survival in immediate implant-based and autologous breast reconstruction after SSM and NSM. This technique can be combined with NAC devascularization to further promote nipple perfusion. Overall, this method offers an acceptable complication rate and the potential to expand the reconstructive options available to women with large and/or ptotic breasts.

    View details for PubMedID 29746276

  • Single Stage Repair of #30 Facial Cleft with Bone Morphogenic Protein. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Sheckter, C. C., Mittermiller, P. n., Hung, K. n., Maan, Z. n., Rochlin, D. n., Menard, R. M. 2018; 6 (11): e1937


    Tessier #30 clefts (median mandibular clefts) represent a spectrum of deformities ranging from a minor cleft in the lower lip to complete clefts of the mandible involving the tongue, lower lip, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilages, and manubrium. Various techniques have been used to address these problems; the most common procedure involving 2 stages: an initial correction of the soft tissue followed by closure of the mandibular cleft at a later date using bone grafting. This approach was subsequently reduced to a single operation, but still required harvesting of autologous bone graft. Here, we describe a modified single-stage operation using human recombinant bone morphogenic protein, avoiding bone graft harvest and allowing for simultaneous treatment of bone and soft tissue.

    View details for PubMedID 30881779

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6414095

  • Intensive Care Unit Monitoring After Pharyngeal Flap Surgery: Is It Necessary? Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery Reddy, S., Susarla, S., Yuan, N., Walia, G., Rochlin, D., Redett, R. 2016


    To assess the incidence of perioperative complications and the utility of intensive care monitoring in patients undergoing posterior pharyngeal flap surgery for velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD).This study was a retrospective evaluation of patients who underwent posterior pharyngeal flap surgery for treatment of VPD and an assessment of the incidence of perioperative complications. Descriptive statistics were computed.Over an 18-year period, 145 patients underwent pharyngeal flap surgery for VPD; 133 (91.7%) had complete data and were included as subjects. Mean patient age was 9.4 ± 7.4 years; 50.4% were female. One hundred twenty-six patients (94.7%) had a history of cleft palate. Thirty-four patients (25.5%) had asthma or obstructive sleep apnea. Eighty-three patients (62.4%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for postoperative monitoring. The average length of hospital stay was 1.9 ± 0.9 days (range, 1 to 5 days). There were no incidents of serious postoperative complications, including death, bleeding, flap dehiscence or loss, or airway compromise requiring reintubation. Two patients (1.5%) had perioperative complications related to respiratory issues, one of whom required readmission to the ICU (0.8%). There were no differences in complications between those who were routinely admitted to the ICU and those who went directly to the floor (P = 1.00). There was no association between respiratory comorbidities and complications (P = .06).The perioperative complication rate for posterior pharyngeal flap surgery is low (<2%). Routine ICU admission for monitoring is not necessary.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joms.2016.11.010

    View details for PubMedID 28011323

  • Protecting Nipple Perfusion by Devascularization and Surgical Delay in Patients at Risk for Ischemic Complications During Nipple-Sparing Mastectomies ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Bertoni, D. M., Dung Nguyen, D., Rochlin, D., Hernandez-Boussard, T., Meyer, S., Choy, N., Gurtner, G. C., Wapnir, I. L. 2016; 23 (8): 2665-2672


    Indications for nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) are expanding; however, high-risk patients have more ischemic complications. Surgical devascularization of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) prior to NSM can reduce complications. This study reports perfusion patterns and complications in high-risk patients undergoing 2-stage NSM.Surgical devascularization of the NAC was performed 3-6 weeks prior to NSM in 28 women. Risk factors included ptosis, obesity, smoking, prior breast surgery, and radiation. Using indocyanine green (ICG)-based fluorescence and an infrared camera, blood inflow was visualized intraoperatively. NAC perfusion patterns were classified as: V1, underlying breast; V2, surrounding skin; V3 = V1 + V2, or V4, capillary fill following devascularization. Ischemic complications were analyzed.Baseline perfusion for 54 breasts was 35 % V1, 32 % V2, and 33 % V3. Increasing ptosis was associated with V1 pattern: 86 % for grade 3, 31 % for grade 2, and 18 % for grade 1. Postdevascularization epidermolysis was observed in 63 % of V1 baseline, 41 % of V2, and 22 % of V3 (P = .042) and after NSM in 26 % for V1, 7 % for V2, and 6 % for V3 (P = .131). Ptosis was significantly associated with epidermolysis postdevascularization (P = .002) and NSM (P = .002). Smoking and BMI ≥30 were related to increased ischemic complications. Two or more risk factors were associated with postdevascularization ischemic changes (P = .026), but were not significant after NSM. Nipple loss was not observed, but 2 patients underwent partial areolar resection.Adaptive circulatory changes after devascularization allow tissues to tolerate the additional ischemic challenge of mastectomy. Our findings support extending 2-staged operations to high-risk women previously considered unsuitable for NSM.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-016-5201-8

    View details for PubMedID 27038458

  • Breast Augmentation and Breast Reconstruction Demonstrate Equivalent Aesthetic Outcomes. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Rochlin, D. H., Davis, C. R., Nguyen, D. H. 2016; 4 (7)


    There is a perception that cosmetic breast surgery has more favorable aesthetic outcomes than reconstructive breast surgery. We tested this hypothesis by comparing aesthetic outcomes after breast augmentation and reconstruction.Postoperative images of 10 patients (cosmetic, n = 4; reconstructive, n = 6; mean follow-up, 27 months) were presented anonymously to participants who were blinded to clinical details. Participants were asked if they believed cosmetic or reconstructive surgery had been performed. Aesthetic outcome measures were quantified: (1) natural appearance, (2) size, (3) contour, (4) symmetry, (5) position of breasts, (6) position of nipples, (7) scars (1 = poor and 4 = excellent). Images were ranked from 1 (most aesthetic) to 10 (least aesthetic). Analyses included two-tailed t tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, and χ(2) tests.One thousand eighty-five images were quantified from 110 surveys (99% response rate). The accuracy of identifying cosmetic or reconstructive surgery was 55% and 59%, respectively (P = 0.18). Significantly more of the top 3 aesthetic cases were reconstructive (51% vs 49%; P = 0.03). Despite this, cases perceived to be reconstructive were ranked significantly lower (5.9 vs 5.0; P < 0.0001). Mean aesthetic outcomes were equivalent regardless of surgery for 5 categories (P > 0.05), with the exception of breast position that improved after reconstruction (2.9 vs 2.7; P = 0.009) and scars that were more favorable after augmentation (2.9 vs 3.1; P < 0.0001). Age and nipple position (R (2) = 0.04; P = 0.03) was the only association between a demographic factor and aesthetic outcome.Aesthetic outcomes after cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery are broadly equivalent, though preconceptions influence aesthetic opinion. Plastic surgeons' mutually inclusive-reconstructive and aesthetic skill set maximizes aesthetic outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000000824

    View details for PubMedID 27536490

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4977139