Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Naphthalenediimide Polymers with Finely Tuned In-Chain p-Conjugation: Electronic Structure, Film Microstructure, and Charge Transport Properties. Advanced materials Erdmann, T., Fabiano, S., Milián-Medina, B., Hanifi, D., Chen, Z., Berggren, M., Gierschner, J., Salleo, A., Kiriy, A., Voit, B., Facchetti, A. 2016; 28 (41): 9169-9174


    Naphthalenediimide-based random copolymers (PNDI-TVTx) with different π-conjugated dithienylvinylene (TVT) versus π-nonconjugated dithienylethane (TET) unit ratios (x = 100→0%) are investigated. The PNDI-TVTx-transistor electron/hole mobilities are affected differently, a result rationalized by molecular orbital topologies and energies, with hole mobility vanishing but electron mobility decreasing only by ≈2.5 times when going from x = 100% to 40%.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201602923

    View details for PubMedID 27572671

  • Controlling the mode of operation of organic transistors through side-chain engineering. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Giovannitti, A., Sbircea, D., Inal, S., Nielsen, C. B., Bandiello, E., Hanifi, D. A., Sessolo, M., Malliaras, G. G., McCulloch, I., Rivnay, J. 2016; 113 (43): 12017-12022


    Electrolyte-gated organic transistors offer low bias operation facilitated by direct contact of the transistor channel with an electrolyte. Their operation mode is generally defined by the dimensionality of charge transport, where a field-effect transistor allows for electrostatic charge accumulation at the electrolyte/semiconductor interface, whereas an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) facilitates penetration of ions into the bulk of the channel, considered a slow process, leading to volumetric doping and electronic transport. Conducting polymer OECTs allow for fast switching and high currents through incorporation of excess, hygroscopic ionic phases, but operate in depletion mode. Here, we show that the use of glycolated side chains on a thiophene backbone can result in accumulation mode OECTs with high currents, transconductance, and sharp subthreshold switching, while maintaining fast switching speeds. Compared with alkylated analogs of the same backbone, the triethylene glycol side chains shift the mode of operation of aqueous electrolyte-gated transistors from interfacial to bulk doping/transport and show complete and reversible electrochromism and high volumetric capacitance at low operating biases. We propose that the glycol side chains facilitate hydration and ion penetration, without compromising electronic mobility, and suggest that this synthetic approach can be used to guide the design of organic mixed conductors.

    View details for PubMedID 27790983

  • N-type organic electrochemical transistors with stability in water NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Giovannitti, A., Nielsen, C. B., Sbircea, D., Inal, S., Donahue, M., Niazi, M. R., Hanifi, D. A., Amassian, A., Malliaras, G. G., Rivnay, J., McCulloch, I. 2016; 7


    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are receiving significant attention due to their ability to efficiently transduce biological signals. A major limitation of this technology is that only p-type materials have been reported, which precludes the development of complementary circuits, and limits sensor technologies. Here, we report the first ever n-type OECT, with relatively balanced ambipolar charge transport characteristics based on a polymer that supports both hole and electron transport along its backbone when doped through an aqueous electrolyte and in the presence of oxygen. This new semiconducting polymer is designed specifically to facilitate ion transport and promote electrochemical doping. Stability measurements in water show no degradation when tested for 2 h under continuous cycling. This demonstration opens the possibility to develop complementary circuits based on OECTs and to improve the sophistication of bioelectronic devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms13066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385587100001

    View details for PubMedID 27713414

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5059848

  • Molecular Design of Semiconducting Polymers for High-Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors. Journal of the American Chemical Society Nielsen, C. B., Giovannitti, A., Sbircea, D., Bandiello, E., Niazi, M. R., Hanifi, D. A., Sessolo, M., Amassian, A., Malliaras, G. G., Rivnay, J., McCulloch, I. 2016; 138 (32): 10252-10259


    The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), capable of transducing small ionic fluxes into electronic signals in an aqueous environment, is an ideal device to utilize in bioelectronic applications. Currently, most OECTs are fabricated with commercially available conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based suspensions and are therefore operated in depletion mode. Here, we present a series of semiconducting polymers designed to elucidate important structure-property guidelines required for accumulation mode OECT operation. We discuss key aspects relating to OECT performance such as ion and hole transport, electrochromic properties, operational voltage, and stability. The demonstration of our molecular design strategy is the fabrication of accumulation mode OECTs that clearly outperform state-of-the-art PEDOT-based devices, and show stability under aqueous operation without the need for formulation additives and cross-linkers.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.6b05280

    View details for PubMedID 27444189

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4991841

  • Toward Conductive Mesocrystalline Assemblies: PbS Nanocrystals Cross-Linked with Tetrathiafulvalene Dicarboxylate CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Andre, A., Zherebetskyy, D., Hanifi, D., He, B., Khoshkhoo, M. S., Jankowski, M., Chasse, T., Wang, L., Schreiber, F., Salleo, A., Liu, Y., Scheele, M. 2015; 27 (23): 8105-8115
  • The Effect of Processing Additives on Energetic Disorder in Highly Efficient Organic Photovoltaics: A Case Study on PBDTTT-C-T:PC71 BM. Advanced materials Gao, F., Himmelberger, S., Andersson, M., Hanifi, D., Xia, Y., Zhang, S., Wang, J., Hou, J., Salleo, A., Inganäs, O. 2015; 27 (26): 3868-3873


    Energetic disorder, an important parameter affecting the performance of organic photovoltaics, is significantly decreased upon the addition of processing additives in a highly efficient benzodithiophene-based copolymer blend (PBDTTT-C-T:PC71 BM). Wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements suggest that the origin of this reduced energetic disorder is due to increased aggregation and a larger average fullerene domain size together with purer phases.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201405913

    View details for PubMedID 26016473

  • Direct Observation of Doping Sites in Temperature-Controlled, p-Doped P3HT Thin Films by Conducting Atomic Force Microscopy ADVANCED MATERIALS Duong, D. T., Hung Phan, H., Hanifi, D., Jo, P. S., Thuc-Quyen Nguyen, T. Q., Salleo, A. 2014; 26 (35): 6069-?


    The distribution of dopant sites in doped poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films is characterized using optical absorption, grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, and conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM). It is shown that dopant sites can be directly observed using c-AFM and that the solution temperature dramatically impacts phase separation and conductivity in spin-cast films.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201402015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342148600002