Academic Appointments

All Publications

  • Variability in billing practices for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: reply to Degnan et al. Pediatric radiology Schooler, G. R., Davis, J. T., Daldrup-Link, H., Frush, D. P. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 30191257

  • Current utilization and procedural practices in pediatric whole-body MRI. Pediatric radiology Schooler, G. R., Davis, J. T., Daldrup-Link, H. E., Frush, D. P. 2018


    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an evolving and increasingly powerful imaging tool with a variety of applications in the pediatric patient population. Variability exists among radiology practices in how this MRI tool is used and how it performed.Our objective was to gain an improved understanding of technical and utilization practices in pediatric whole-body MRI across North America by exploring indications for exam performance, determining referral patterns, and assessing technical protocols and procedures.A 19-question survey was generated in Survey Monkey and distributed in 2016 to the Society for Pediatric Radiology membership. The survey asked questions that included practice type, imaging modality preferences for diseases commonly evaluated with whole-body MRI, MRI field strength and sequence selection, and billing practices.Data were obtained from 62 unique responses to the survey, representing 471 physicians. The majority (93%) practice in an academic institution or private practice with academic affiliation and most practices have utilized whole-body MRI for less than 6 years. Whole-body MRI is performed in pediatric patients 0 to 18 years of age, and was the preferred imaging modality for diagnosis/staging/follow-up in neurofibromatosis, type 1 (75%), chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) (74%), cancer predisposition syndromes (75%), vasculopathies (50%) and disseminated/multifocal infection (49%). The most commonly utilized sequences are coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) (90%), coronal T1 with or without fat saturation (65%), and axial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (48%). No preference was shown for either 1.5-T or 3-T systems. Wide variability was seen in preference for billing code utilization, though the majority use chest/abdomen/pelvis (57%) or unlisted MRI (37%) codes.Radiology practitioners - represented by the Society for Pediatric Radiology pediatric radiologists - are using whole-body MRI in the imaging care of pediatric patients for a variety of indications. Survey results reveal some variability in exam utilization and technical performance practices among those pediatric radiologists who perform whole-body MRI.

    View details for PubMedID 29721598

  • Radiation Safety in Children with Congenital and Acquired Heart Disease: A Scientific Position Statement on Multimodality Dose Optimization from the Image Gently Alliance. JACC. Cardiovascular imaging Hill, K. D., Frush, D. P., Han, B. K., Abbott, B. G., Armstrong, A. K., deKemp, R. A., Glatz, A. C., Greenberg, S. B., Herbert, A. S., Justino, H., Mah, D., Mahesh, M., Rigsby, C. K., Slesnick, T. C., Strauss, K. J., Trattner, S., Viswanathan, M. N., Einstein, A. J. 2017


    There is a need for consensus recommendations for ionizing radiation dose optimization during multi-modality medical imaging in children with congenital and acquired heart disease (CAHD). These children often have complex diseases and may be exposed to a relatively high cumulative burden of ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures including cardiac computed tomography, nuclear cardiology studies and fluoroscopically guided diagnostic and interventional catheterization and electrophysiology procedures. Although these imaging procedures are all essential to the care of children with CAHD and have contributed to meaningfully improved outcomes in these patients, exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with potential risks, including an increased lifetime attributable risk of cancer. The goal of these recommendations is to encourage informed imaging to achieve appropriate study quality at the lowest achievable dose. Other strategies to improve care include a patient-centered approach to imaging, emphasizing education and informed decision making and programmatic approaches to ensure appropriate dose monitoring. Looking ahead, there is a need for standardization of dose metrics across imaging modalities, so as to encourage comparative effectiveness studies across the spectrum of CAHD in children.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcmg.2017.04.003

    View details for PubMedID 28514670

  • The Image Gently Think A-Head Campaign: Keep Calm and Image Gently. Journal of the American College of Radiology Frush, D. P., Lungren, M. P. 2017; 14 (2): 301-302

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2016.12.009

    View details for PubMedID 28161026

  • Pediatric cardiac-gated CT angiography: Assessment of radiation dose AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Hollingsworth, C. L., Yoshizumi, T. T., Frush, D. P., Chan, F. P., Toncheva, G., Nguyen, G., Lowry, C. R., Hurwitz, L. M. 2007; 189 (1): 12–18
  • Safety in pediatric MR and cardiac CT - Results of a membership survey of the Society for Pediatric Radiology - 2006 PEDIATRIC RADIOLOGY Kaste, S., Laningham, F., Stazzone, M., Brown, S. D., Emery, K., Newman, B., Racadio, J., Estroff, J., Brill, P., Mendelson, K. L., Slovis, T. L., Frush, D. 2007; 37 (4): 409–12

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-007-0430-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244724900017

    View details for PubMedID 17325823