Dr. Hong specializes in the treatment of pediatric patients with neurosurgical conditions, with additional specialty training in the treatment of pediatric spinal disorders, including scoliosis. He completed his residency in his home state of Michigan at the Detroit Medical Center, and completed fellowship training at Rady Children's Hospital in San Diego, before becoming a part of Stanford Children's Health.
His clinical interests include brain tumors, epilepsy surgery, idiopathic scoliosis, Chiari malformation, vascular conditions, concussion, and will treat all other conditions within the specialty.
Faculty Fellow, Center for Innovation in Global Health (2018 - Present)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Member, Council of Korean Americans (2018 - Present)
Member, National Committee on North Korea (2018 - Present)
Member, American Association of Neurological Surgeons (2008 - Present)
Member, Congress of Neurological Surgeons (2008 - Present)
Fellowship, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Pediatric Spinal Deformity (2013)
Community and International Work
KAMA Global Health Outreach Program, Pyongyang, DPRK
Korean Medical Association
Opportunities for Student Involvement
Incorporating patient-centered quality-of-life measures for outcome assessment after Chiari malformation type I decompression in a pediatric population: a pilot study.
Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
OBJECTIVE: Optimal management of pediatric Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is much debated, chiefly due to the lack of validated tools for outcome assessment, with very few tools incorporating patient-centered measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Although posterior fossa decompression (PFD) benefits a subset of patients, prediction of its impact across patients is challenging. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of patient-centered HRQOL measures in the assessment and prediction of outcomes after PFD.METHODS: The authors collected HRQOL data from a cohort of 20 pediatric CM-I patients before and after PFD. The surveys included assessments of selected Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) health domains and were used to generate the PROMIS preference (PROPr) score, which is a measure of HRQOL. PROMIS is a reliable standardized measure of HRQOL domains such as pain, fatigue, depression, and physical function, which are all relevant to CM-I. The authors then compared the PROPr scores with Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale (CCOS) scores derived from time-matched clinical documentation. Finally, the authors used the PROPr scores as an outcome measure to predict postsurgical HRQOL improvement at 1 year on the basis of patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and radiological and physical findings. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Kendall's correlation were used for statistical analysis.RESULTS: Aggregate analysis revealed improvement of pain severity after PFD (p = 0.007) in anatomical patterns characteristic of CM-I. Most PROMIS domain scores trended toward improvement after surgery, with anxiety and pain interference reaching statistical significance (p < 0.002 and p < 0.03, respectively). PROPr scores also significantly improved after PFD (p < 0.008). Of the baseline patient characteristics, preexisting scoliosis was the most accurate negative predictor of HRQOL improvement after PFD (median -0.095 vs 0.106, p < 0.001). A correlation with modest magnitude (Kendall's tau range 0.19-0.47) was detected between the patient-centered measures and CCOS score.CONCLUSIONS: The authors observed moderate improvement of HRQOL, when measured using a modified panel of PROMIS question banks, in this pilot cohort of pediatric CM-I patients after PFD. Further investigations are necessary to validate this tool for children with CM-I and to determine whether these scores correlate with clinical and radiographic findings.
View details for DOI 10.3171/2021.8.PEDS21228
View details for PubMedID 34715646
Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Asian journal of neurosurgery
2021; 16 (3): 452-456
Purpose: Central nervous system (CNS) cancers rank as the most frequent solid tumors and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children and adolescents. There is less information available about pediatric brain and CNS tumors in low-income and middle-income countries, suggesting a lack of surgical accessibility or limited capacity to treat these conditions. In this study, we chose to study the epidemiology of CNS cancers in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK).Methods: We extracted the prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with CNS cancers in individuals under the age of 20 from the 2017 Global Burden of Disease study from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. DALYs, which signify the number of healthy life years lost due to ill health, disability, or early death. Economic impact was calculated from DALYs.Conclusions: Given the large burden of brain and CNS cancers among all pediatric cancers in the DPRK, scaling up and strengthening surgical services for children is an essential component to improving care of pediatric CNS cancers in the DPRK. Childhood cancers are time sensitive, and early diagnosis and treatment are vital in ensuring improved survival for the vulnerable pediatric cancer patient population. As surgical treatment can often prolong lives and even prevent premature deaths from these cancers, further analysis of current surgical capacity can inform the path to meeting these critical pediatric surgical needs.
View details for DOI 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_76_21
View details for PubMedID 34660354
Meningitis due to Roseomonas in an immunocompetent adolescent.
2021; 3 (3): 000213
Both bacterial and aseptic meningitis can complicate neurosurgery, but they are often difficult to distinguish clinically or by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. We present an adolescent with subacute meningitis after neurosurgery, eventually diagnosed with meningitis caused by Roseomonas mucosa via 16S rRNA gene sequencing after two negative CSF cultures. He was treated successfully with intravenous meropenem with full recovery. This case shows that distinguishing bacterial from aseptic meningitis is important to allow directed antibiotic therapy. We recommend considering bacterial meningitis in the differential diagnosis of aseptic meningitis complicating neurosurgery, and to perform molecular diagnostics such as bacterial sequencing if the suspicion of bacterial meningitis is high.
View details for DOI 10.1099/acmi.0.000213
View details for PubMedID 34151165
Arterial spin labeling perfusion changes of the frontal lobes in children with posterior fossa syndrome.
Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) is a common complication following the resection of posterior fossa tumors in children. The pathophysiology of PFS remains incompletely elucidated; however, the wide-ranging symptoms of PFS suggest the possibility of widespread cortical dysfunction. In this study, the authors utilized arterial spin labeling (ASL), an MR perfusion modality that provides quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow without the use of intravenous contrast, to assess cortical blood flow in patients with PFS.A database of medulloblastoma treated at the authors' institution from 2004 to 2016 was retrospectively reviewed, and 14 patients with PFS were identified. Immediate postoperative ASL for patients with PFS and medulloblastoma patients who did not develop PFS were compared. Additionally, in patients with PFS, ASL following the return of speech was compared with immediate postoperative ASL.On immediate postoperative ASL, patients who subsequently developed PFS had statistically significant decreases in right frontal lobe perfusion and a trend toward decreased perfusion in the left frontal lobe compared with controls. Patients with PFS had statistically significant increases in bilateral frontal lobe perfusion after the resolution of symptoms compared with their immediate postoperative imaging findings.ASL perfusion imaging identifies decreased frontal lobe blood flow as a strong physiological correlate of PFS that is consistent with the symptomatology of PFS. This is the first study to demonstrate that decreases in frontal lobe perfusion are present in the immediate postoperative period and resolve with the resolution of symptoms, suggesting a physiological explanation for the transient symptoms of PFS.
View details for DOI 10.3171/2019.5.PEDS18452
View details for PubMedID 31374541
Topical Vancomycin for Surgical Prophylaxis in Pediatric Craniofacial Surgeries.
The Journal of craniofacial surgery
Topical vancomycin has been demonstrated to be safe and effective for reducing surgical site infections (SSIs) following spine surgery in both adults and children, however, there are no studies of its efficacy in reducing SSIs in craniofacial surgery. The SSIs are one of the most common complications following craniofacial surgery. The complexity of craniofacial procedures, use of grafts and implants, long operative durations and larger surgical wounds all contribute to the heightened risk of SSIs in pediatric craniofacial cases. A retrospective review of all open and endoscopic pediatric craniofacial procedures performed between May 2014 and December 2017 at a single children's hospital was conducted to examine SSI rates between patients receiving topical vancomycin and a historical control group. The treatment group received topical vancomycin irrigation before wound closure. An ad-hoc cost analysis was performed to determine the cost-savings associated with topical vancomycin use. A total of 132 craniofacial procedures were performed during the study period, with 50 cases in the control group and 82 cases in the vancomycin group. Overall, SSI rate was 3.03%. Use of topical vancomycin irrigation led to a significant reduction in SSIs (4/50 SSI or 8.0% in control group vs 0/82 or 0% in vancomycin group, P = 0.04). No adverse events were observed with topical vancomycin use. The potential cost-savings associated with the use of topical vancomycin as SSI prophylaxis in this study was $102,152. Addition of topical vancomycin irrigation as routine surgical infection prophylaxis can be an effective and low-cost method for reducing SSI in pediatric craniofacial surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005708
View details for PubMedID 31261326
Deep Learning-Assisted Diagnosis of Cerebral Aneurysms Using the HeadXNet Model.
JAMA network open
2019; 2 (6): e195600
Deep learning has the potential to augment clinician performance in medical imaging interpretation and reduce time to diagnosis through automated segmentation. Few studies to date have explored this topic.To develop and apply a neural network segmentation model (the HeadXNet model) capable of generating precise voxel-by-voxel predictions of intracranial aneurysms on head computed tomographic angiography (CTA) imaging to augment clinicians' intracranial aneurysm diagnostic performance.In this diagnostic study, a 3-dimensional convolutional neural network architecture was developed using a training set of 611 head CTA examinations to generate aneurysm segmentations. Segmentation outputs from this support model on a test set of 115 examinations were provided to clinicians. Between August 13, 2018, and October 4, 2018, 8 clinicians diagnosed the presence of aneurysm on the test set, both with and without model augmentation, in a crossover design using randomized order and a 14-day washout period. Head and neck examinations performed between January 3, 2003, and May 31, 2017, at a single academic medical center were used to train, validate, and test the model. Examinations positive for aneurysm had at least 1 clinically significant, nonruptured intracranial aneurysm. Examinations with hemorrhage, ruptured aneurysm, posttraumatic or infectious pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, surgical clips, coils, catheters, or other surgical hardware were excluded. All other CTA examinations were considered controls.Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, time, and interrater agreement were measured. Metrics for clinician performance with and without model augmentation were compared.The data set contained 818 examinations from 662 unique patients with 328 CTA examinations (40.1%) containing at least 1 intracranial aneurysm and 490 examinations (59.9%) without intracranial aneurysms. The 8 clinicians reading the test set ranged in experience from 2 to 12 years. Augmenting clinicians with artificial intelligence-produced segmentation predictions resulted in clinicians achieving statistically significant improvements in sensitivity, accuracy, and interrater agreement when compared with no augmentation. The clinicians' mean sensitivity increased by 0.059 (95% CI, 0.028-0.091; adjusted P = .01), mean accuracy increased by 0.038 (95% CI, 0.014-0.062; adjusted P = .02), and mean interrater agreement (Fleiss κ) increased by 0.060, from 0.799 to 0.859 (adjusted P = .05). There was no statistically significant change in mean specificity (0.016; 95% CI, -0.010 to 0.041; adjusted P = .16) and time to diagnosis (5.71 seconds; 95% CI, 7.22-18.63 seconds; adjusted P = .19).The deep learning model developed successfully detected clinically significant intracranial aneurysms on CTA. This suggests that integration of an artificial intelligence-assisted diagnostic model may augment clinician performance with dependable and accurate predictions and thereby optimize patient care.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.5600
View details for PubMedID 31173130
ASL PERFUSION IMAGING OF THE FRONTAL LOBES PREDICTS THE OCCURRENCE AND RESOLUTION OF POSTERIOR FOSSA SYNDROME
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2018: 170
View details for Web of Science ID 000438339000645
Development of Neurospine Surgery in North Korea: The Contribution of Korean American Neurosurgeons.
2018; 15 (2): 111-116
View details for DOI 10.14245/ns.1836138.069
View details for PubMedID 29991239
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6104726
Near-Fatal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in a Child with Medulloblastoma on High Dose Dexamethasone.
2017; 9 (7): e1442
A four-year-old female was admitted to a university-based children's hospital with a newly-diagnosed posterior fossa tumor. She was started on famotidine and high-dose dexamethasone and underwent gross total resection of a medulloblastoma. She was continued on dexamethasone and famotidine. She exhibited postoperative posterior fossa syndrome and was started on enteral feeds via the nasoduodenal tube. She had small gastrointestinal bleeds on postoperative days eight, 11, and 18, and was found to have a well-circumscribed posterior duodenal ulcer. On postoperative day 19, she suffered a massive life-threatening gastrointestinal bleed requiring aggressive resuscitation with blood products. She required an emergent laparotomy due to ongoing blood loss and she was found to have posterior duodenal wall erosion into her gastroduodenal artery. She recovered and subsequently began delayed chemotherapy. This case demonstrates a rare and life-threatening complication of high-dose dexamethasone therapy in the setting of posterior fossa pathology despite stress ulcer prophylaxis. We present a historical perspective with the review of the association between duodenal and intracranial pathology and the usage of high-dose dexamethasone in such cases.
View details for PubMedID 28924528
Post-operative diabetes insipidus after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery
2013; 16 (4): 445-451
Diabetes insipidus (DI) after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) can lead to increased morbidity, longer hospital stays, and increased medication requirements. Predicting which patients are at high risk for developing DI can help direct services to ensure adequate care and follow-up. The objective of this study was to review our institution's experience with ETSS and determine which clinical/laboratory variables are associated with DI in this patient population. The authors wanted to see if there was an easily determined single value that would help predict which patients develop DI. This represents the largest North American series of this type. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who had undergone ETSS for resection of sellar and parasellar pathology between 2006 and 2011. We examined patient and tumor characteristics and their relationship to postoperative DI. Out of 172 endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries, there were 15 cases of transient DI (8.7%) and 14 cases of permanent DI (8.1%). Statistically significant predictors of postoperative DI (p < 0.05) included tumor volume and histopathology (Rathke's cleft cyst and craniopharyngioma). Significant indicators of development of DI were postoperative serum sodium, preoperative to postoperative change in sodium level, and urine output prior to administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin. An increase in serum sodium of ≥2.5 mmol/L is a positive marker of development of DI with 80% specificity, and a postoperative serum sodium of ≥145 mmol/L is a positive indicator with 98% specificity. Identifying perioperative risk factors and objective indicators of DI after ETSS will help physicians care for patients postoperatively. In this large series, we demonstrated that there were multiple perioperative risk factors for the development of DI. These findings, which are consistent with other reports from microscopic surgical series, will help identify patients at risk for diabetes insipidus, aid in planning treatment algorithms, and increase vigilance in high risk patients.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11102-012-0453-1
View details for Web of Science ID 000326891400003
View details for PubMedID 23242859
Endovascular management of a giant aneurysm through saphenous vein graft after extracranial-intracranial bypass: case report and literature review
JOURNAL OF NEUROINTERVENTIONAL SURGERY
2011; 3 (4): 361-363
It is known that giant intracerebral aneurysms have a high rupture and mortality rate. Furthermore, their optimal treatment method is not straightforward. While traditionally they have been managed with surgical clipping, it is not always possible. A unique case is presented in which a patient with multiple intracranial aneurysms was treated using a multimodality approach. After an intracranial-extracranial bypass, the left internal carotid artery ophthalmic aneurysm continued to grow on follow-up angiogram. Thus it was decided to go ahead with coiling of the aneurysm. The coils were delivered through the saphenous vein graft. The patient tolerated the procedure well and there were no procedural complications.
View details for DOI 10.1136/jnis.2011.004739
View details for Web of Science ID 000296793400015
View details for PubMedID 21990469