Honors & Awards
Cardiovascular Imaging NIH T32 Postdoctoral Fellowship, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NHLBI) (February 2021- Present)
Outstanding Graduate Student Award for Research in Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, and Engineering, Northeastern University (April 2020)
Most First-author Peer-reviewed Journal Publications Award in 2019, College of Engineering, Northeastern University (April 2020)
Most Cited Publications Award in 2019, College of Engineering, Northeastern University (April 2020)
DCF Fellowship Award, College of Engineering, Northeastern University (April 2020)
Best poster award (1st place), PhD poster competition @National Engineers Week, College of Engineering, Northeastern University (February 2020)
Travel Award for 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting, "Nanoengineering of an Electroconductive Cardiac Patch", American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), Orlando, FL (2019)
Outstanding Reviewer Certificate, Elsevier Publisher (August 2018)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Associate Editor, Environmental Chemistry Letters- Springer (2022 - Present)
Editorial Board, Nature Scientific Reports (2021 - Present)
Associate Editor-in-Chief, International Journal of Nanomedicine (IJN), Dove Medical Press/ T&F (2020 - Present)
Academic Editor-in-Chief, The Innovation- Cell Press (2021 - Present)
Associate Editor, Frontiers in Nanotechnology- Biomedical Nanotechnology (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, BMC Biotechnology- Springer Nature (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, Journal of Functional Biomaterials- MDPI (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, Cells - MDPI (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst- Future Medicine (2022 - Present)
Editorial Board, Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, Springer Nature (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, Frontiers of Materials Science- Springer (2022 - Present)
Session Chair- Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES)- 2021, Orlando, Florida (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, BMC Biomedical Engineering- Springer Nature (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, AIMS Biophysics- AIMS Press (2022 - Present)
Special Issue Editor, "3D Printing in Heart and Cardiovascular Disease", Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, Springer Nature, Materials Horizons: From Nature to Nanomaterials (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, Biomaterials and Polymers Horizon (2021 - Present)
Special Issue Editor, "Emerging Nanotechnology Enabled Theragnostic Approaches in Malignancies and Microbial Infections", International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS), MDPI (2021 - Present)
Topic Editor, International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS), MDPI (2021 - Present)
Special Issue Editor, "Nanoengineered Materials for Biomedical Applications", Journal of Functional Biomaterials, MDPI (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy (2021 - Present)
Special Issue Guest Editor, "Nanobiosensors: From Fabrication to Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Theragnostic Applications", Sensors, MDPI (2021 - Present)
Review Editor for Pharmacology of Anti Cancer Drugs, Frontiers in Pharmacology & Frontiers in Oncology (2021 - Present)
Topic Editor, Processes, MDPI (2021 - Present)
Editorial Board, Annals of Materials Science & Engineering, Austin Publishing Group (2021 - Present)
Guest Editor, Special Issue "Molecular and Cellular Nanobiotechnology", BIOCELL (2021 - Present)
Member & subcommittee of Nanoneuroscience/nanomedicine, Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) (2020 - Present)
Editorial Board, Journal of Regenerative Biology and Medicine (2020 - Present)
Editorial Board, Journal of Next Generation Sequencing & Applications (2020 - Present)
PhD, Northeastern University, Chemical Engineering (in Aspects of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology) (2020)
MSc, University of Tehran, Materials Science and Engineering (2013)
BSc, University of Tehran, Materials Science and Engineering (2011)
Joseph Wu, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Emerging role of exosomes in cancer progression and tumor microenvironment remodeling.
Journal of hematology & oncology
2022; 15 (1): 83
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the factors responsible for its progression need to be elucidated. Exosomes are structures with an average size of 100nm that can transport proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. This review focuses on the role of exosomes in cancer progression and therapy. We discuss how exosomes are able to modulate components of the tumor microenvironment and influence proliferation and migration rates of cancer cells. We also highlight that, depending on their cargo, exosomes can suppress or promote tumor cell progression and can enhance or reduce cancer cell response to radio- and chemo-therapies. In addition, we describe how exosomes can trigger chronic inflammation and lead to immune evasion and tumor progression by focusing on their ability to transfer non-coding RNAs between cells and modulate other molecular signaling pathways such as PTEN and PI3K/Akt in cancer. Subsequently, we discuss the use of exosomes as carriers of anti-tumor agents and genetic tools to control cancer progression. We then discuss the role of tumor-derived exosomes in carcinogenesis. Finally, we devote a section to the study of exosomes as diagnostic and prognostic tools in clinical courses that is important for the treatment of cancer patients. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the role of exosomes in cancer therapy, focusing on their therapeutic value in cancer progression and remodeling of the tumor microenvironment.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s13045-022-01305-4
View details for PubMedID 35765040
Chitosan/calcium nanoparticles as advanced antimicrobial coating for paper documents.
International journal of biological macromolecules
Preservation of paper-based historical artifacts against deterioration due to the presence of bacteria and fungi colonies has been one of the major issues for the importance of protecting the cultural heritage of humankind. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the implementation of nanomaterials for this purpose. In this work, calcium/chitosan nanoparticles (Ca/CS NPs) were prepared and well-characterized to investigate their potential as a novel approach for preserving paper-based documents. Following the fundamental characterizations, it was found that Ca/CS NPs are spherical nanoparticles with ~65 nm average size and homogenous dispersion (PdI: 0.2). Besides, minimum inhibition concentration results revealed that Ca/CS NPs show a superior antimicrobial effect against specific bacteria and fungi strains commonly found on paper documents compared to the effect of bare chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs). After the deposition of Ca/CS NPs onto the paper the pH level was increased and stabilized, and only a limited amount of microbial colony formation was observed for up to 20 days. Moreover, molecular docking analysis provided a better insight into the antibacterial and antifungal activities of these nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity of CS NPs and Ca/CS NPs was investigated through their interactions with E. coli DNA gyrase B and C. albicans dihydrofolate reductase. The binding modes and all possible interactions of active sites were confirmed by in silico molecular docking method. Collectively, our findings revealed that the formulated Ca/CS NPs are promising candidates for preserving paper documents.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.142
View details for PubMedID 35764166
Global, regional, and national burden of hepatitis B, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.
The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology
Combating viral hepatitis is part of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and WHO has put forth hepatitis B elimination targets in its Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis (WHO-GHSS) and Interim Guidance for Country Validation of Viral Hepatitis Elimination (WHO Interim Guidance). We estimated the global, regional, and national prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), as well as mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to HBV, as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. This included estimates for 194 WHO member states, for which we compared our estimates to WHO elimination targets.The primary data sources were population-based serosurveys, claims and hospital discharges, cancer registries, vital registration systems, and published case series. We estimated chronic HBV infection and the burden of HBV-related diseases, defined as an aggregate of cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, liver cancer due to hepatitis B, and acute hepatitis B. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian mixed-effects meta-regression tool, to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection, cirrhosis, and aetiological proportions of cirrhosis. We used mortality-to-incidence ratios modelled with spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression to estimate the incidence of liver cancer. We used the Cause of Death Ensemble modelling (CODEm) model, a tool that selects models and covariates on the basis of out-of-sample performance, to estimate mortality due to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and acute hepatitis B.In 2019, the estimated global, all-age prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 4·1% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·7 to 4·5), corresponding to 316 million (284 to 351) infected people. There was a 31·3% (29·0 to 33·9) decline in all-age prevalence between 1990 and 2019, with a more marked decline of 76·8% (76·2 to 77·5) in prevalence in children younger than 5 years. HBV-related diseases resulted in 555 000 global deaths (487 000 to 630 000) in 2019. The number of HBV-related deaths increased between 1990 and 2019 (by 5·9% [-5·6 to 19·2]) and between 2015 and 2019 (by 2·9% [-5·9 to 11·3]). By contrast, all-age and age-standardised death rates due to HBV-related diseases decreased during these periods. We compared estimates for 2019 in 194 WHO locations to WHO-GHSS 2020 targets, and found that four countries achieved a 10% reduction in deaths, 15 countries achieved a 30% reduction in new cases, and 147 countries achieved a 1% prevalence in children younger than 5 years. As of 2019, 68 of 194 countries had already achieved the 2030 target proposed in WHO Interim Guidance of an all-age HBV-related death rate of four per 100 000.The prevalence of chronic HBV infection declined over time, particularly in children younger than 5 years, since the introduction of hepatitis B vaccination. HBV-related death rates also decreased, but HBV-related death counts increased as a result of population growth, ageing, and cohort effects. By 2019, many countries had met the interim seroprevalence target for children younger than 5 years, but few countries had met the WHO-GHSS interim targets for deaths and new cases. Progress according to all indicators must be accelerated to meet 2030 targets, and there are marked disparities in burden and progress across the world. HBV interventions, such as vaccination, testing, and treatment, must be strategically supported and scaled up to achieve elimination.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S2468-1253(22)00124-8
View details for PubMedID 35738290
MXene-Graphene Composites: A Perspective on Biomedical Potentials.
2022; 14 (1): 130
MXenes, transition metal carbides and nitrides with graphene-like structures, have received considerable attention since their first discovery. On the other hand, Graphene has been extensively used in biomedical and medicinal applications. MXene and graphene, both as promising candidates of two-dimensional materials, have shown to possess high potential in future biomedical applications due to their unique physicochemical properties such as superior electrical conductivity, high biocompatibility, large surface area, optical and magnetic features, and extraordinary thermal and mechanical properties. These special structural, functional, and biological characteristics suggest that the hybrid/composite structure of MXene and graphene would be able to meet many unmet needs in different fields; particularly in medicine and biomedical engineering, where high-performance mechanical, electrical, thermal, magnetic, and optical requirements are necessary. However, the hybridization and surface functionalization should be further explored to obtain biocompatible composites/platforms with unique physicochemical properties, high stability, and multifunctionality. In addition, toxicological and long-term biosafety assessments and clinical translation evaluations should be given high priority in research. Although very limited studies have revealed the excellent potentials of MXene/graphene in biomedicine, the next steps should be toward the extensive research and detailed analysis in optimizing the properties and improving their functionality with a clinical and industrial outlook. Herein, different synthesis/fabrication methods and performances of MXene/graphene composites are discussed for potential biomedical applications. The potential toxicological effects of these composites on human cells and tissues are also covered, and future perspectives toward more successful translational applications are presented. The current state-of-the-art biotechnological advances in the use of MXene-Graphene composites, as well as their developmental challenges and future prospects are also deliberated. Due to the superior properties and multifunctionality of MXene-graphene composites, these hybrid structures can open up considerable new horizons in future of healthcare and medicine.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s40820-022-00880-y
View details for PubMedID 35699817
Non-coding RNA-based regulation of inflammation.
Seminars in immunology
Inflammation is a multifactorial process and various biological mechanisms and pathways participate in its development. The presence of inflammation is involved in pathogenesis of different diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and even, cancer. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) comprise large part of transcribed genome and their critical function in physiological and pathological conditions has been confirmed. The present review focuses on miRNAs, lncRNAs and circRNAs as ncRNAs and their potential functions in inflammation regulation and resolution. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors are regulated by miRNAs via binding to 3'-UTR or indirectly via affecting other pathways such as SIRT1 and NF-kappaB. LncRNAs display a similar function and they can also affect miRNAs via sponging in regulating levels of cytokines. CircRNAs mainly affect miRNAs and reduce their expression in regulating cytokine levels. Notably, exosomal ncRNAs have shown capacity in inflammation resolution. In addition to pre-clinical studies, clinical trials have examined role of ncRNAs in inflammation-mediated disease pathogenesis and cytokine regulation. The therapeutic targeting of ncRNAs using drugs and nucleic acids have been analyzed to reduce inflammation in disease therapy. Therefore, ncRNAs can serve as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets in inflammation-related diseases in pre-clinical and clinical backgrounds.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.smim.2022.101606
View details for PubMedID 35691882
Antineoplastic activity of biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles to combat leukemia: Beginning a new era in cancer theragnostic.
Biotechnology reports (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
2022; 34: e00714
The American Cancer Society estimated around 61,090 new cases of leukemia were diagnosed, and around 23,660 people died from this disease in the United States alone in 2021. Due to its burden on society, there is an unmet need to explore innovative approaches to overcome leukemia. Among different strategies that have been explored, nanotechnology appears to be a promising and effective approach for therapeutics. Specifically, biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted significant attention for their antineoplastic activity toward leukemia cancer cells due to their unique physicochemical properties. Indeed, these nanostructures have emerged as useful approaches in anti-leukemic applications, either as carriers to enhance drug bioavailability and its targeted delivery to a specific organ or as a novel therapeutic agent. This review explores recent advances in green synthesized nanomaterials and their potential use against leukemia, especially focusing on silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanostructures. In detail, we have reviewed various eco-friendly methods of bio-synthesized NPs, their analytical properties, and toxicity effects against leukemic models. This overview confirms the satisfactory potency of biogenic NPs toward leukemic cells and desirable safety profiles against human native cells, which opens a promising door toward commercializing these types of nontherapeutic agents if challenges involve clinical validations, reproducibility, and scalability could be resolved.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.btre.2022.e00714
View details for PubMedID 35686001
Nanobiotechnological prospects of probiotic microflora: Synthesis, mechanism, and applications.
The Science of the total environment
Nanotechnology-driven solutions have almost touched every aspect of life, such as therapeutics, cosmetics, agriculture, and the environment. Physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles involve hazardous reaction conditions and toxic reducing as well as stabilizing agents. Hence, environmentally benign green routes are preferred to synthesize nanoparticles with tunable size and shape. Bacteria, fungi, algae, and medicinal plants are employed to synthesize gold, silver, copper, zinc, and other nanoparticles. However, very little literature is available on exploring probiotic bacteria for the synthesis of nanoparticles. In view of the background, this review gives the most comprehensive report on the nanobiotechnological potential of probiotic bacteria like Bacillus licheniformis, Bifidobacterium animalis, Brevibacterium linens, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and others for the synthesis of gold (AuNPs), selenium (SeNPs), silver (AgNPs), platinum (PtNPs), tellurium nanoparticles (TeNPs), zinc oxide (ZnONPs), copper oxide (CuONPs), iron oxide (Fe3O4NPs), and titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs). Both intracellular and extracellular synthesis are involved as potential routes for biofabrication of polydispersed nanoparticles that are spherical, rod, or hexagonal in shape. Capsular exopolysaccharide associated carbohydrates such as galactose, glucose, mannose, and rhamnose, cell membrane-associated diglycosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-[O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 2)-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl]glycerol, triglycosyl diacylglycerol (TGDG), NADH-dependent enzymes, amino acids such as cysteine, tyrosine, and tryptophan amino acid, S-layer proteins (SLP), lacto-N-triose, and lactic acid play a significant role in synthesis and stabilization of the nanoparticles. The biogenic nanoparticles can be recovered by rational treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and/or sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Eventually, diverse applications like antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant, and other associated activities of the bacteriogenic nanoparticles are also elaborated. Being more biocompatible and effective, probiotic-generated nanoparticles can be explored as novel nutraceuticals for their ability to ensure sustained release and bioavailability of the loaded bioactive ingredients for diagnosis, targeted drug delivery, and therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156212
View details for PubMedID 35623529
- Eco-friendly synthesis of carbon nanotubes and their cancer theranostic applications MATERIALS ADVANCES 2022
Nanotechnology-Assisted Metered-Dose Inhalers (MDIs) for High-Performance Pulmonary Drug Delivery Applications.
PURPOSE: Respiratory disorders pose a major threat to the morbidity and mortality to public health. Here we reviewed the nanotechnology based pulmonary drug delivery using metered dose inhalers.METHODS: Major respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), asthma, acute lower respiratory tract infections, tuberculosis (TB) and lung cancer. At present, common treatments for respiratory disorders include surgery, radiation, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy or a combination. The major challenge is development of systemic delivery of the chemotherapeutic agents to the respiratory system. Conventional delivery of chemotherapy has various limitation and adverse side effected. Hence, targeted, and systemic delivery need to be developed. Towards this direction nanotechnology, based controlled, targeted, and systemic drug delivery systems are potential candidate to enhance therapeutic efficacy with minimum side effect. Among different route of administration, pulmonary delivery has unique benefits such as circumvents first pass hepatic metabolism and reduces dose and side effects.RESULTS: Respiratory disorders pose a major threat to the morbidity and mortality to public health globally.Pulmonary delivery can be achieved through various drug delivery devices such as nebulizers, dry powder inhalers, and metereddose inhalers. Among them, metered dose inhalers are the most interesting and first choice of clinician over others. This reviewfocused on nanotechnology based pulmonary drug delivery using metered dose inhalers. This report focused on delivery ofvarious types of therapeutics using nanocarriers such as polymeric nanoparticles and micelles, dendrimers, lipid nanocarrierssuch as liposomes, solid lipid nanostructures and nanostructured lipid carriers, and other using metered dose inhalers discussedcomprehensively. This report provides insight about the effect of parameters of MDI such as co-solvent, propellants, actuatorsshape, nozzle diameters, and jet lengths, and respiratory flow rate, and particle size of co-suspension of drug on aerodynamicsand lung deposition of formulation. This review also provided the insight about various metered dose inhalers market scenarioand digital metered dose inhalers.CONCLUSION: This report concluded the clinical potential of metered dose inhalers, summary of current progress and future perspectives towards the smart digital metered dose inhalers development.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11095-022-03286-y
View details for PubMedID 35552983
Radiobiological effects of wound fluid on breast cancer cell lines and human-derived tumor spheroids in 2D and microfluidic culture.
2022; 12 (1): 7668
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) could abrogate cancer recurrences, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. To clarify the effects of IORT-induced wound fluid on tumor progression, we treated breast cancer cell lines and human-derived tumor spheroids in 2D and microfluidic cell culture systems, respectively. The viability, migration, and invasion of the cells under treatment of IORT-induced wound fluid (WF-RT) and the cells under surgery-induced wound fluid (WF) were compared. Our findings showed that cell viability was increased in spheroids under both WF treatments, whereas viability of the cell lines depended on the type of cells and incubation times. Both WFs significantly increased sub-G1 and arrested the cells in G0/G1 phases associated with increased P16 and P21 expression levels. The expression level of Caspase 3 in both cell culture systems and for both WF-treated groups was significantly increased. Furthermore, our results revealed that although the migration was increased in both systems of WF-treated cells compared to cell culture media-treated cells, E-cadherin expression was significantly increased only in the WF-RT group. In conclusion, WF-RT could not effectively inhibit tumor progression in an ex vivo tumor-on-chip model. Moreover, our data suggest that a microfluidic system could be a suitable 3D system to mimic in vivo tumor conditions than 2D cell culture.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-022-11023-z
View details for PubMedID 35538133
- Biodegradable functional macromolecules as promising scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering POLYMERS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES 2022
Bioengineering of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles: In vitro physicochemical, antibacterial, biofilm inhibitory, anticoagulant, and antioxidant performance.
2022; 243: 123374
Green-synthesized nanobiomaterials can be engineered as smart nanomedicine platforms for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in medicine. Herein, we investigated the bioengineering of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and evaluated their physicochemical, antibacterial, biofilm inhibitory, anticoagulant, and antioxidant performance. Characterization of the AgNPs was performed utilizing UV-visible, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The spherical shaped AgNPs were proven by TEM and SEM techniques. Moreover, the XRD diffraction patterns demonstrated that the nanoparticles were in a crystalline state. The DLS represented the hydrodynamic particle size of the NPs at 49.62nm at a pH of 9. The calculated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs toward Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) was 8mugmL-1, which was almost similar to tetracycline by the value of 4mugmL-1. Moreover, the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of AgNPs was 64mugmL-1, which was significantly less than the determined value of 256mugmL-1 for tetracycline. Considering the pathogenic and standard S. aureus, the evaluated concentrations of AgNPs and tetracycline showed significant biofilm inhibitory performance. Furthermore, the bioengineered AgNPs exhibited significant anticoagulant activity at 500mugmL-1 compared to saline (P<0.001). In addition, the biogenic AgNPs inhibited 69.73±0.56% of DPPH free radicals at 500mugmL-1, indicating considerable antioxidant potential.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.talanta.2022.123374
View details for PubMedID 35298927
Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials beyond Graphene for Biomedical Applications.
Journal of functional biomaterials
2022; 13 (1)
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials (e.g., graphene) have shown to have a high potential in future biomedical applications due to their unique physicochemical properties such as unusual electrical conductivity, high biocompatibility, large surface area, and extraordinary thermal and mechanical properties. Although the potential of graphene as the most common 2D nanomaterials in biomedical applications has been extensively investigated, the practical use of other nanoengineered 2D materials beyond graphene such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), topological insulators (TIs), phosphorene, antimonene, bismuthene, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and MXenes for biomedical applications have not been appreciated so far. This review highlights not only the unique opportunities of 2D nanomaterials beyond graphene in various biomedical research areas such as bioelectronics, imaging, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine but also addresses the risk factors and challenges ahead from the medical perspective and clinical translation of nanoengineered 2D materials. In conclusion, the perspectives and future roadmap of nanoengineered 2D materials beyond graphene are outlined for biomedical applications.
View details for DOI 10.3390/jfb13010027
View details for PubMedID 35323227
- SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant: A next phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and a call to arms for system sciences and precision medicine MEDCOMM 2022; 3 (1)
Possible Role of Wnt Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Retinopathy.
Current drug targets
The core of impaired vision in working people suffering from insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy (DR). The Wnt Protein Ligands family influences various processes; this ensures the cells are able to interact and co-ordinate various mobile functions, including cell growth, division, survival, apoptosis, migration, and cell destiny. The extracellular Wnt signal activates other signals. It is seen that Wnt pathways play an important role in inflammation, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis. It has been illustrated that the canonically preserved Wnt signaling system has a vital role in the homeostasis of adulthood. Developmental disorders in each of these stages will lead to serious eye problems and eventually blindness. There is, therefore, a need to specifically organize and regulate the growth of ocular tissues. In tissue specification and polarities, axonal exhaust, and maintenance of cells, especially in the central nervous system, Wnt/frizzled pathways play an important role. Thus, Wnt route antagonists may act as have been possible therapeutic options in DR by inhibiting aberrant Wnt signals. Elaborative and continued research in this area will help in the advancement of current knowledge in the field of DR, and eventually, this can lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches.
View details for DOI 10.2174/1389450123666220301110140
View details for PubMedID 35232336
SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant: A next phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and a call to arms for system sciences and precision medicine.
2022; 3 (1): e119
Since early 2020, coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) infection pandemic/endemic is constantly surprising health experts because of continuous variations in the structures of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the form of newly emerged variants. Such mutations have exhibited high mortality and severity due to the newly emerged more infectious sites of SARS-CoV-2, making viral infection more transmissible, infectious, and severe. Recently, SARS-CoV-2 mutated to another variant, namely, Omicron (B.1.1.529), which is many times more transmissible and infectious than existed deadly Delta variants of the virus. This severity is closely correlated to a larger number of mutations observed in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of the Omicron-SARS-CoV-2. Considering severity, Omicron has been declared as variant of concerns by the World Health Organization and within days from its emergence, Omicron infection has spread globally, increased hospitalization, exhibited more severity for the young generation, invaded defense mechanism of natural immunity, not responsive to the available vaccines. Such circumstances resonated with the efficiency of available strategies established to manage COVID-19 intelligently and successfully. To explore these aspects, this perspective article carefully and critically summarizes the Omicron's origin, structure, pathogenesis, impact health along with health systems, and experts' recommendations to manage it successfully.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mco2.119
View details for PubMedID 35281784
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8906459
Diabetes mortality and trends before 25 years of age: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.
The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology
2022; 10 (3): 177-192
Diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes, at younger ages can be a largely preventable cause of death with the correct health care and services. We aimed to evaluate diabetes mortality and trends at ages younger than 25 years globally using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019.We used estimates of GBD 2019 to calculate international diabetes mortality at ages younger than 25 years in 1990 and 2019. Data sources for causes of death were obtained from vital registration systems, verbal autopsies, and other surveillance systems for 1990-2019. We estimated death rates for each location using the GBD Cause of Death Ensemble model. We analysed the association of age-standardised death rates per 100 000 population with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and a measure of universal health coverage (UHC) and described the variability within SDI quintiles. We present estimates with their 95% uncertainty intervals.In 2019, 16 300 (95% uncertainty interval 14 200 to 18 900) global deaths due to diabetes (type 1 and 2 combined) occurred in people younger than 25 years and 73·7% (68·3 to 77·4) were classified as due to type 1 diabetes. The age-standardised death rate was 0·50 (0·44 to 0·58) per 100 000 population, and 15 900 (97·5%) of these deaths occurred in low to high-middle SDI countries. The rate was 0·13 (0·12 to 0·14) per 100 000 population in the high SDI quintile, 0·60 (0·51 to 0·70) per 100 000 population in the low-middle SDI quintile, and 0·71 (0·60 to 0·86) per 100 000 population in the low SDI quintile. Within SDI quintiles, we observed large variability in rates across countries, in part explained by the extent of UHC (r2=0·62). From 1990 to 2019, age-standardised death rates decreased globally by 17·0% (-28·4 to -2·9) for all diabetes, and by 21·0% (-33·0 to -5·9) when considering only type 1 diabetes. However, the low SDI quintile had the lowest decline for both all diabetes (-13·6% [-28·4 to 3·4]) and for type 1 diabetes (-13·6% [-29·3 to 8·9]).Decreasing diabetes mortality at ages younger than 25 years remains an important challenge, especially in low and low-middle SDI countries. Inadequate diagnosis and treatment of diabetes is likely to be major contributor to these early deaths, highlighting the urgent need to provide better access to insulin and basic diabetes education and care. This mortality metric, derived from readily available and frequently updated GBD data, can help to monitor preventable diabetes-related deaths over time globally, aligned with the UN's Sustainable Development Targets, and serve as an indicator of the adequacy of basic diabetes care for type 1 and type 2 diabetes across nations.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00349-1
View details for PubMedID 35143780
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8860753
Doxorubicin-loaded graphene oxide nanocomposites in cancer medicine: Stimuli-responsive carriers, co-delivery and suppressing resistance.
Expert opinion on drug delivery
INTRODUCTION: The application of doxorubicin (DOX) in cancer therapy has been limited due to its drug resistance and poor internalization. Graphene oxide (GO) nanostructures have the capacity for DOX delivery while promoting its cytotoxicity in cancer.AREAS COVERED: The favorable characteristics of GO nanocomposites, preparation method, and application in cancer therapy are described. Then, DOX resistance in cancer is discussed. The GO-mediated photothermal therapy and DOX delivery for cancer suppression are described. Preparation of stimuli-responsive GO nanocomposites, surface functionalization, hybrid nanoparticles, and theranostic applications are emphasized in DOX chemotherapy.EXPERT OPINION: Graphene oxide nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy maximizes the anti-cancer activity of DOX against cancer cells. Apart from DOX delivery, GO nanomaterials are capable of loading anti-cancer agents and genetic tools to minimize drug resistance and enhance the cytolytic impact of DOX in cancer eradication. To enhance DOX accumulation in cancer cells, stimuli-responsive (redox-, light-, enzyme- and pH-sensitive) GO nanoparticles have been developed for DOX delivery. Further development of targeted delivery of DOX-loaded GO nanomaterials against cancer cells may be achieved by surface modification of polymers such as polyethylene glycol, hyaluronic acid, and chitosan. Doxorubicin-loaded GO nanoparticles have demonstrated theranostic potential for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy. Hybridization of GO with other nanocarriers such as silica and gold nanoparticles further broadens their potential anti-cancer therapy applications.
View details for DOI 10.1080/17425247.2022.2041598
View details for PubMedID 35152815
Dynamics of Antimicrobial Peptide Encapsulation in Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Hydroxylation.
International journal of nanomedicine
2022; 17: 125-136
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely employed as biomolecule carriers, but there is a need for further functionalization to broaden their therapeutic application in aqueous environments. A few reports have unraveled biomolecule-CNT interactions as a measure of response of the nanocarrier to drug-encapsulation dynamics.Herein, the dynamics of encapsulation of the antimicrobial peptide HA-FD-13 (accession code 2L24) into CNTs and hydroxylated CNTs (HCNTs) is discussed.The van der Waals (vdW) interaction energy of CNT-peptide and HCNT-peptide complexes decreased, reaching -110.6 and -176.8 kcal.Mol-1, respectively, once encapsulation of the peptide inside the CNTs had been completed within 15 ns. The free energy of the two systems decreased to -43.91 and -69.2 kcal.Mol-1 in the same order.The peptide was encased in the HCNTs comparatively more rapidly, due to the presence of both electrostatic and vdW interactions between the peptide and HCNTs. However, the peptide remained encapsulated throughout the vdW interaction in both systems. The negative values of the free energy of the two systems showed that the encapsulation process had occurred spontaneously. Of note, the lower free energy in the HCNT system suggested more stable peptide encapsulation.
View details for DOI 10.2147/IJN.S335380
View details for PubMedID 35058692
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8765279
Bioactive hybrid metal-organic framework (MOF)-based nanosensors for optical detection of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen.
The Science of the total environment
Fast, efficient, and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen is pivotal to control the spread and reduce the mortality of COVID-19. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of available nanobiosensors to detect recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen seems insufficient. As a proof-of-concept, MOF-5/CoNi2S4 is developed as a low-cost, safe, and bioactive hybrid nanostructure via the one-pot high-gravity protocol. Then, the porphyrin, H2TMP, was attached to the surface of the synthesized nanomaterial to increase the porosity for efficient detection of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen. AFM results approved roughness in different ranges, including 0.54 to 0.74 μm and 0.78 to ≈0.80 μm, showing good physical interactions with the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen. MTT assay was performed and compared to the conventional synthesis methods, including hydrothermal, solvothermal, and microwave-assisted methods. The synthesized nanodevices demonstrated above 88% relative cell viability after 24 h and even 48 h of treatment. Besides, the ability of the synthesized nanomaterials to detect the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen was investigated, with a detection limit of 5 nM. The in-situ synthesized nanoplatforms exhibited low cytotoxicity, high biocompatibility, and appropriate tunability. The fabricated nanosystems seem promising for future surveys as potential platforms to be integrated into biosensors.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153902
View details for PubMedID 35182622
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8849853
Exosomes as Promising Nanostructures in Diabetes Mellitus: From Insulin Sensitivity to Ameliorating Diabetic Complications.
International journal of nanomedicine
2022; 17: 1229-1253
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the chronic metabolic disorders that its incidence rate has shown an increase in developed and wealthy countries due to lifestyle and obesity. The treatment of DM has always been of interest, and significant effort has been made in this field. Exosomes belong to extracellular vesicles with nanosized features (30-150 nm) that are involved in cell-to-cell communication and preserving homeostasis. The function of exosomes is different based on their cargo, and they may contain lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The present review focuses on the application of exosomes in the treatment of DM; both glucose and lipid levels are significantly affected by exosomes, and these nanostructures enhance lipid metabolism and decrease its deposition. Furthermore, exosomes promote glucose metabolism and affect the level of glycolytic enzymes and glucose transporters in DM. Type I DM results from the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas, and exosomes can be employed to ameliorate apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in these cells. The exosomes have dual functions in mediating insulin resistance/sensitivity, and M1 macrophage-derived exosomes inhibit insulin secretion. The exosomes may contain miRNAs, and by transferring among cells, they can regulate various molecular pathways such as AMPK, PI3K/Akt, and beta-catenin to affect DM progression. Noteworthy, exosomes are present in different body fluids such as blood circulation, and they can be employed as biomarkers for the diagnosis of diabetic patients. Future studies should focus on engineering exosomes derived from sources such as mesenchymal stem cells to treat DM as a novel strategy.
View details for DOI 10.2147/IJN.S350250
View details for PubMedID 35340823
Folic Acid-Decorated pH-Responsive Nanoniosomes With Enhanced Endocytosis for Breast Cancer Therapy: In Vitro Studies.
Frontiers in pharmacology
2022; 13: 851242
Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death in women after lung cancer. The purpose of this study is a targeted delivery toward in vitro (on MCF7 and 4T1 breast cancer cell lines) through niosomes-based nanocarriers. To this end, different bioactive molecules, including hyaluronic acid (HA), folic acid (FA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG), were used and compared for surface modification of niosomes to enhance endocytosis. FA-functionalized niosomes (Nio/5-FU/FA) were able to increase cell cytotoxicity and reduce cell migration and invasion compared to PEG-functionalized niosomes (Nio/5-FU/PEG), and HA-functionalized niosomes (Nio/5-FU/HA) groups in MCF-7 and 4T1 cell lines. Although the Nio/5-FU/PEG and Nio/5-FU/HA demonstrated MCF7 cell uptake, the Nio/5-FU/FA exhibited the most preponderant endocytosis in pH 5.4. Remarkably, in this study 5-FU loaded niosomes (nonionic surfactant-based vesicles) were decorated with various bioactive molecules (FA, PEG, or HA) to compare their ability for breast cancer therapy. The fabricated nanoformulations were readily taken up by breast cancer cells (in vitro) and demonstrated sustained drug release characteristics, inducing cell apoptosis. Overall, the comprehensive comparison between different bioactive molecules-decorated nanoniosomes exhibited promising results in finding the best nano formulated candidates for targeted delivery of drugs for breast cancer therapy.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fphar.2022.851242
View details for PubMedID 35517801
Green nanotechnology in cardiovascular tissue engineering
Academic Press. 2022: 237-281
View details for DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-824064-9.00012-5
The global burden of adolescent and young adult cancer in 2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.
The Lancet. Oncology
2022; 23 (1): 27-52
In estimating the global burden of cancer, adolescents and young adults with cancer are often overlooked, despite being a distinct subgroup with unique epidemiology, clinical care needs, and societal impact. Comprehensive estimates of the global cancer burden in adolescents and young adults (aged 15-39 years) are lacking. To address this gap, we analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, with a focus on the outcome of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), to inform global cancer control measures in adolescents and young adults.Using the GBD 2019 methodology, international mortality data were collected from vital registration systems, verbal autopsies, and population-based cancer registry inputs modelled with mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs). Incidence was computed with mortality estimates and corresponding MIRs. Prevalence estimates were calculated using modelled survival and multiplied by disability weights to obtain years lived with disability (YLDs). Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated as age-specific cancer deaths multiplied by the standard life expectancy at the age of death. The main outcome was DALYs (the sum of YLLs and YLDs). Estimates were presented globally and by Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintiles (countries ranked and divided into five equal SDI groups), and all estimates were presented with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). For this analysis, we used the age range of 15-39 years to define adolescents and young adults.There were 1·19 million (95% UI 1·11-1·28) incident cancer cases and 396 000 (370 000-425 000) deaths due to cancer among people aged 15-39 years worldwide in 2019. The highest age-standardised incidence rates occurred in high SDI (59·6 [54·5-65·7] per 100 000 person-years) and high-middle SDI countries (53·2 [48·8-57·9] per 100 000 person-years), while the highest age-standardised mortality rates were in low-middle SDI (14·2 [12·9-15·6] per 100 000 person-years) and middle SDI (13·6 [12·6-14·8] per 100 000 person-years) countries. In 2019, adolescent and young adult cancers contributed 23·5 million (21·9-25·2) DALYs to the global burden of disease, of which 2·7% (1·9-3·6) came from YLDs and 97·3% (96·4-98·1) from YLLs. Cancer was the fourth leading cause of death and tenth leading cause of DALYs in adolescents and young adults globally.Adolescent and young adult cancers contributed substantially to the overall adolescent and young adult disease burden globally in 2019. These results provide new insights into the distribution and magnitude of the adolescent and young adult cancer burden around the world. With notable differences observed across SDI settings, these estimates can inform global and country-level cancer control efforts.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities, St Baldrick's Foundation, and the National Cancer Institute.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00581-7
View details for PubMedID 34871551
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8716339
- Dynamics of Antimicrobial Peptide Encapsulation in Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Hydroxylation INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE 2022; 17: 125-136
How Advancing are Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles? A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.
International journal of nanomedicine
2022; 17: 1803-1827
The application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is ubiquitous in various sciences. MSNs possess unique features, including the diversity in manufacturing by different synthesis methods and from different sources, structure controllability, pore design capabilities, pore size tunability, nanoparticle size distribution adjustment, and the ability to create diverse functional groups on their surface. These characteristics have led to various types of MSNs as a unique system for drug delivery. In this review, first, the synthesis of MSNs by different methods via using different sources were studied. Then, the parameters affecting their physicochemical properties and functionalization have been discussed. Finally, the last decade's novel strategies, including surface functionalization, drug delivery, and cancer treatment, based on the MSNs in drug delivery and cancer therapy have been addressed.
View details for DOI 10.2147/IJN.S353349
View details for PubMedID 35498391
Polylysine for skin regeneration: A review of recent advances and future perspectives.
Bioengineering & translational medicine
2022; 7 (1): e10261
There have been several attempts to find promising biomaterials for skin regeneration, among which polylysine (a homopolypeptide) has shown benefits in the regeneration and treatment of skin disorders. This class of biomaterials has shown exceptional abilities due to their macromolecular structure. Polylysine-based biomaterials can be used as tissue engineering scaffolds for skin regeneration, and as drug carriers or even gene delivery vectors for the treatment of skin diseases. In addition, polylysine can play a preservative role in extending the lifetime of skin tissue by minimizing the appearance of photodamaged skin. Research on polylysine is growing today, opening new scenarios that expand the potential of these biomaterials from traditional treatments to a new era of tissue regeneration. This review aims to address the basic concepts, recent trends, and prospects of polylysine-based biomaterials for skin regeneration. Undoubtedly, this class of biomaterials needs further evaluations and explorations, and many critical questions have yet to be answered.
View details for DOI 10.1002/btm2.10261
View details for PubMedID 35111953
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8780928
Polylactic Acid Piezo-Biopolymers: Chemistry, Structural Evolution, Fabrication Methods, and Tissue Engineering Applications.
Journal of functional biomaterials
1800; 12 (4)
Polylactide acid (PLA), as an FDA-approved biomaterial, has been widely applied due to its unique merits, such as its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and piezoelectricity. Numerous utilizations, including sensors, actuators, and bio-application-its most exciting application to promote cell migration, differentiation, growth, and protein-surface interaction-originate from the piezoelectricity effect. Since PLA exhibits piezoelectricity in both crystalline structure and an amorphous state, it is crucial to study it closely to understand the source of such a phenomenon. In this respect, in the current study, we first reviewed the methods promoting piezoelectricity. The present work is a comprehensive review that was conducted to promote the low piezoelectric constant of PLA in numerous procedures. In this respect, its chemistry and structural origins have been explored in detail. Combining any other variables to induce a specific application or to improve any PLA barriers, namely, its hydrophobicity, poor electrical conductivity, or the tuning of its mechanical properties, especially in the application of cardiovascular tissue engineering, is also discussed wherever relevant.
View details for DOI 10.3390/jfb12040071
View details for PubMedID 34940550
Porphyrin Molecules Decorated on Metal-Organic Frameworks for Multi-Functional Biomedical Applications.
2021; 11 (11)
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been widely used as porous nanomaterials for different applications ranging from industrial to biomedicals. An unpredictable one-pot method is introduced to synthesize NH2-MIL-53 assisted by high-gravity in a greener media for the first time. Then, porphyrins were deployed to adorn the surface of MOF to increase the sensitivity of the prepared nanocomposite to the genetic materials and in-situ cellular protein structures. The hydrogen bond formation between genetic domains and the porphyrin' nitrogen as well as the surface hydroxyl groups is equally probable and could be considered a milestone in chemical physics and physical chemistry for biomedical applications. In this context, the role of incorporating different forms of porphyrins, their relationship with the final surface morphology, and their drug/gene loading efficiency were investigated to provide a predictable pattern in regard to the previous works. The conceptual phenomenon was optimized to increase the interactions between the biomolecules and the substrate by reaching the limit of detection to 10 pM for the Anti-cas9 protein, 20 pM for the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), below 10 pM for the single guide RNA (sgRNA) and also around 10 nM for recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen. Also, the MTT assay showed acceptable relative cell viability of more than 85% in most cases, even by increasing the dose of the prepared nanostructures.
View details for DOI 10.3390/biom11111714
View details for PubMedID 34827712
Spinal Cord Injury Management through the Combination of Stem Cells and Implantable 3D Bioprinted Platforms.
2021; 10 (11)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) has a major impact on affected patients due to its pathological consequences and absence of capacity for self-repair. Currently available therapies are unable to restore lost neural functions. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop novel treatments that will promote functional repair after SCI. Several experimental approaches have been explored to tackle SCI, including the combination of stem cells and 3D bioprinting. Implanted multipotent stem cells with self-renewing capacity and the ability to differentiate to a diversity of cell types are promising candidates for replacing dead cells in injured sites and restoring disrupted neural circuits. However, implanted stem cells need protection from the inflammatory agents in the injured area and support to guide them to appropriate differentiation. Not only are 3D bioprinted scaffolds able to protect stem cells, but they can also promote their differentiation and functional integration at the site of injury. In this review, we showcase some recent advances in the use of stem cells for the treatment of SCI, different types of 3D bioprinting methods, and the combined application of stem cells and 3D bioprinting technique for effective repair of SCI.
View details for DOI 10.3390/cells10113189
View details for PubMedID 34831412
Molecular and Biochemical Pathways Encompassing Diabetes Mellitus and Dementia.
CNS & neurological disorders drug targets
Diabetes mellitus is a major metabolic disorder that has now emerged as an epidemic, and it affects the brain through an array of pathways. Diabetes mellitus patients can develop pathological changes in the brain, which eventually take the shape of mild cognitive impairment progressing to Alzheimer's Disease. A number of preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate this fact, and it comes out to be those molecular pathways such as amyloidogenesis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired insulin signaling are identical in diabetes mellitus and dementia. However, the critical player involved in the vicious cycle of diabetes mellitus and dementia is insulin, whose signaling, when impaired in diabetes mellitus (both type 1 and 2), leads to a decline in cognition, although other pathways are also essential contributors. Moreover, it is not only that diabetes mellitus patients indicate cognitive decline at a later stage; many Alzheimer's Disease patients also reflect symptoms of diabetes mellitus, thus creating a vicious cycle inculcating a web of complex molecular mechanisms and hence categorizing Alzheimer's Disease as 'brain diabetes'. Thus, it is practical to suggest that anti-diabetic drugs are beneficial in Alzheimer's Disease; but only smaller trials, not the larger ones, have showcased positive outcomes mainly because of the late onset of therapy. Therefore, it is extremely important to develop more of such molecules that target insulin in dementia patients along with such methods that diagnose impaired insulin signaling and the associated cognitive decline so that early therapy may be initiated and the progression of the disease be prevented.
View details for DOI 10.2174/1871527320666211110115257
View details for PubMedID 34758720
- Polylysine for skin regeneration: A review of recent advances and future perspectives BIOENGINEERING & TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2021
CRISPR/Cas-powered nanobiosensors for diagnostics.
Biosensors & bioelectronics
2021; 197: 113732
CRISPR diagnostics (CRISPR-Dx) offer a wide range of enhancements compared to traditional nanobiosensors by taking advantage of the excellent trans-cleavage activity of the CRISPR/Cas systems. However, the single-stranded DNA/RNA reporters of the current CRISPR-Dx suffer from poor stability and limited sensitivity, which make their application in complex biological environments difficult. In comparison, nanomaterials, especially metal nanoparticles, exhibits robust stability and desirable optical and electrocatalytical properties, which make them ideal as reporter molecules. Therefore, biosensing research is moving towards the use of the trans-cleavage activity of CRISPR/Cas effectors on metal nanoparticles and apply the new phenomenon to develop novel nanobiosensors to target various targets such as viral infections, genetic mutations and tumor biomarkers, by using different sensing methods, including, but not limited to fluorescence, luminescence resonance, colorimetric and electrochemical signal readout. In this review, we explore some of the most recent advances in the field of CRISPR-powered nanotechnological biosensors. Demonstrating high accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity and versatility, nanobiosensors along with CRISPR/Cas technology offer tremendous potential for next-generation diagnostics of multiple targets, especially at the point of care and without any target amplification.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2021.113732
View details for PubMedID 34741959
- MXenes and MXene-based Materials with Cancer Diagnostic Applications: Challenges and Opportunities COMMENTS ON INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 2021
- Nanomaterials for Chronic Kidney Disease Detection APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL 2021; 11 (20)
Theoretical Encapsulation of Fluorouracil (5-FU) Anti-Cancer Chemotherapy Drug into Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) and Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNT).
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
2021; 26 (16)
INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy with anti-cancer drugs is considered the most common approach for killing cancer cells in the human body. However, some barriers such as toxicity and side effects would limit its usage. In this regard, nano-based drug delivery systems have emerged as cost-effective and efficient for sustained and targeted drug delivery. Nanotubes such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) are promising nanocarriers that provide the cargo with a large inner volume for encapsulation. However, understanding the insertion process of the anti-cancer drugs into the nanotubes and demonstrating drug-nanotube interactions starts with theoretical analysis.METHODS: First, interactions parameters of the atoms of 5-FU were quantified from the DREIDING force field. Second, the storage capacity of BNNT (8,8) was simulated to count the number of drugs 5-FU encapsulated inside the cavity of the nanotubes. In terms of the encapsulation process of the one drug 5-FU into nanotubes, it was clarified that the drug 5-FU was more rapidly adsorbed into the cavity of the BNNT compared with the CNT due to the higher van der Waals (vdW) interaction energy between the drug and the BNNT.RESULTS: The obtained values of free energy confirmed that the encapsulation process of the drug inside the CNT and BNNT occurred spontaneously with the free energies of -14 and -25 kcal·mol-1, respectively.DISCUSSION: However, the lower value of the free energy in the system containing the BNNT unraveled more stability of the encapsulated drug inside the cavity of the BNNT comparing the system having CNT. The encapsulation of Fluorouracil (5-FU) anti-cancer chemotherapy drug (commercial name: Adrucil) into CNT (8,8) and BNNT (8,8) with the length of 20 A in an aqueous solution was discussed herein applying molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.
View details for DOI 10.3390/molecules26164920
View details for PubMedID 34443508
Drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye: a review of current and future treatment strategies.
International journal of pharmaceutics
Research in the development of ophthalmic drug formulations and innovative technologies over the past few decades has been directed at improving the penetration of medications delivered to the eye. Currently, approximately 90% of all ophthalmic drug formulations (e.g. liposomes, micelles) are applied as eye drops. The major challenge of topical eye drops is low bioavailability, need for frequent instillation due to the short half-life, poor drug solubility, and potential side effects. Recent research has been focused on improving topical drug delivery devices by increasing ocular residence time, overcoming physiological and anatomical barriers, and developing medical devices and drug formulations to increase the duration of action of the active drugs. Researchers have developed innovative technologies and formulations ranging from sub-micron to macroscopic size such as prodrugs, enhancers, mucus-penetrating particles (MPPs), therapeutic contact lenses, and collagen corneal shields. Another approach towards the development of effective topical drug delivery is embedding therapeutic formulations in microdevices designed for sustained release of the active drugs. The goal is to optimize the delivery of ophthalmic medications by achieving high drug concentration with prolonged duration of action that is convenient for patients to administer.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120924
View details for PubMedID 34324989
Advances in 3D-Printed Surface-Modified Ca-Si Bioceramic Structures and Their Potential for Bone Tumor Therapy.
Materials (Basel, Switzerland)
2021; 14 (14)
Bioceramics such as calcium silicate (Ca-Si), have gained a lot of interest in the biomedical field due to their strength, osteogenesis capability, mechanical stability, and biocompatibility. As such, these materials are excellent candidates to promote bone and tissue regeneration along with treating bone cancer. Bioceramic scaffolds, functionalized with appropriate materials, can achieve desirable photothermal effects, opening up a bifunctional approach to osteosarcoma treatments-simultaneously killing cancerous cells while expediting healthy bone tissue regeneration. At the same time, they can also be used as vehicles and cargo structures to deliver anticancer drugs and molecules in a targeted manner to tumorous tissue. However, the traditional synthesis routes for these bioceramic scaffolds limit the macro-, micro-, and nanostructures necessary for maximal benefits for photothermal therapy and drug delivery. Therefore, a different approach to formulate bioceramic scaffolds has emerged in the form of 3D printing, which offers a sustainable, highly reproducible, and scalable method for the production of valuable biomedical materials. Here, calcium silicate (Ca-Si) is reviewed as a novel 3D printing base material, functionalized with highly photothermal materials for osteosarcoma therapy and drug delivery platforms. Consequently, this review aims to detail advances made towards functionalizing 3D-printed Ca-Si and similar bioceramic scaffold structures as well as their resulting applications for various aspects of tumor therapy, with a focus on the external surface and internal dispersion functionalization of the scaffolds.
View details for DOI 10.3390/ma14143844
View details for PubMedID 34300763
Metal-Organic Frameworks-Based Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery.
Materials (Basel, Switzerland)
2021; 14 (13)
The composition and topology of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are exceptionally tailorable; moreover, they are extremely porous and represent an excellent Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (3000-6000 m2·g-1). Nanoscale MOFs (NMOFs), as cargo nanocarriers, have increasingly attracted the attention of scientists and biotechnologists during the past decade, in parallel with the evolution in the use of porous nanomaterials in biomedicine. Compared to other nanoparticle-based delivery systems, such as porous nanosilica, nanomicelles, and dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles, NMOFs are more flexible, have a higher biodegradability potential, and can be more easily functionalized to meet the required level of host-guest interactions, while preserving a larger and fully adjustable pore window in most cases. Due to these unique properties, NMOFs have the potential to carry anticancer cargos. In contrast to almost all porous materials, MOFs can be synthesized in diverse morphologies, including spherical, ellipsoidal, cubic, hexagonal, and octahedral, which facilitates the acceptance of various drugs and genes.
View details for DOI 10.3390/ma14133652
View details for PubMedID 34208958
- Co-Loading of Cisplatin and Methotrexate in Nanoparticle-Based PCL-PEG System Enhances Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Effects JOURNAL OF CLUSTER SCIENCE 2021
Selenium Nanomaterials to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance
2021; 26 (12)
The rise of antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics (AMR) as a healthcare crisis has led to a tremendous social and economic impact, whose damage poses a significant threat to future generations. Current treatments either are less effective or result in further acquired resistance. At the same time, several new antimicrobial discovery approaches are expensive, slow, and relatively poorly equipped for translation into the clinical world. Therefore, the use of nanomaterials is presented as a suitable solution. In particular, this review discusses selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) as one of the most promising therapeutic agents based in the nanoscale to treat infections effectively. This work summarizes the latest advances in the synthesis of SeNPs and their progress as antimicrobial agents using traditional and biogenic approaches. While physiochemical methods produce consistent nanostructures, along with shortened processing procedures and potential for functionalization of designs, green or biogenic synthesis represents a quick, inexpensive, efficient, and eco-friendly approach with more promise for tunability and versatility. In the end, the clinical translation of SeNPs faces various obstacles, including uncertain in vivo safety profiles and mechanisms of action and unclear regulatory frameworks. Nonetheless, the promise possessed by these metalloid nanostructures, along with other nanoparticles in treating bacterial infections and slowing down the AMR crisis, are worth exploring.
View details for DOI 10.3390/molecules26123611
View details for Web of Science ID 000666179500001
View details for PubMedID 34204666
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8231168
Ubiquitin-proteasome system and the role of its inhibitors in cancer therapy.
2021; 11 (4): 200390
Despite all the other cells that have the potential to prevent cancer development and metastasis through tumour suppressor proteins, cancer cells can upregulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) by which they can degrade tumour suppressor proteins and avoid apoptosis. This system plays an extensive role in cell regulation organized in two steps. Each step has an important role in controlling cancer. This demonstrates the importance of understanding UPS inhibitors and improving these inhibitors to foster a new hope in cancer therapy. UPS inhibitors, as less invasive chemotherapy drugs, are increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of various cancers in malignant states. Despite their success in reducing the development of cancer with the lowest side effects, thus far, an appropriate inhibitor that can effectively inactivate this system with the least drug resistance has not yet been fully investigated. A fundamental understanding of the system is necessary to fully elucidate its role in causing/controlling cancer. In this review, we first comprehensively investigate this system, and then each step containing ubiquitination and protein degradation as well as their inhibitors are discussed. Ultimately, its advantages and disadvantages and some perspectives for improving the efficiency of these inhibitors are discussed.
View details for DOI 10.1098/rsob.200390
View details for PubMedID 33906413
In situ printing of scaffolds for reconstruction of bone defects.
Bone defects are commonly caused by traumatic injuries and tumor removal and critically sized defects overwhelm the regenerative capacity of the native tissue. Reparative strategies such as auto, xeno, and allografts have proven to be insufficient to reconstruct and regenerate these defects. For the first time, we introduce the use of handheld melt spun three dimensional printers that can deposit materials directly within the defect site to properly fill the cavity and form free-standing scaffolds. Engineered composite filaments were generated from poly(caprolactone) (PCL) doped with zinc oxide nanoparticles and hydroxyapatite microparticles. The use of PCL-based materials allowed low-temperature printing to avoid overheating of the surrounding tissues. The in situ printed scaffolds showed moderate adhesion to wet bone tissue, which can prevent scaffold dislocation. The printed scaffolds showed to be osteoconductive and supported the osteodifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds upon in vivo printing subcutaneously in mice showed promising results.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.actbio.2021.03.009
View details for PubMedID 33705990
Aloe Vera-Mediated Te Nanostructures: Highly Potent Antibacterial Agents and Moderated Anticancer Effects.
Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)
2021; 11 (2)
Cancer and antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics are two of the most worrying healthcare concerns that humanity is facing nowadays. Some of the most promising solutions for these healthcare problems may come from nanomedicine. While the traditional synthesis of nanomaterials is often accompanied by drawbacks such as high cost or the production of toxic by-products, green nanotechnology has been presented as a suitable solution to overcome such challenges. In this work, an approach for the synthesis of tellurium (Te) nanostructures in aqueous media has been developed using aloe vera (AV) extracts as a unique reducing and capping agent. Te-based nanoparticles (AV-TeNPs), with sizes between 20 and 60 nm, were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties and tested for potential biomedical applications. A significant decay in bacterial growth after 24 h was achieved for both Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli at a relative low concentration of 5 g/mL, while there was no cytotoxicity towards human dermal fibroblasts after 3 days of treatment. AV-TeNPs also showed anticancer properties up to 72 h within a range of concentrations between 5 and 100 g/mL. Consequently, here, we present a novel and green approach to produce Te-based nanostructures with potential biomedical applications, especially for antibacterial and anticancer applications.
View details for DOI 10.3390/nano11020514
View details for PubMedID 33670538
Boron Nitride Nanotube as an Antimicrobial Peptide Carrier: A Theoretical Insight.
International journal of nanomedicine
2021; 16: 1837–47
Introduction: Nanotube-based drug delivery systems have received considerable attention because of their large internal volume to encapsulate the drug and the ability to penetrate tissues, cells, and bacteria. In this regard, understanding the interaction between the drug and the nanotube to evaluate the encapsulation behavior of the drug in the nanotube is of crucial importance.Methods: In this work, the encapsulation process of the cationic antimicrobial peptide named cRW3 in the biocompatible boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) was investigated under the Canonical ensemble (NVT) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.Results: The peptide was absorbed into the BNNT by van der Waals (vdW) interaction between cRW3 and the BNNT, in which the vdW interaction decreased during the simulation process and reached the value of -142.7 kcal·mol-1 at 4 ns.Discussion: The increase in the potential mean force profile of the encapsulated peptide during the pulling process of cRW3 out of the nanotube showed that its insertion into the BNNT occurred spontaneously and that the inserted peptide had the desired stability. The energy barrier at the entrance of the BNNT caused a pause of 0.45 ns when half of the peptide was inside the BNNT during the encapsulation process. Therefore, during this period, the peptide experienced the weakest movement and the smallest conformational changes.
View details for DOI 10.2147/IJN.S298699
View details for PubMedID 33692624
Calcium-based nanomaterials and their interrelation with chitosan: optimization for pCRISPR delivery.
Journal of nanostructure in chemistry
There have been numerous advancements in the early diagnosis, detection, and treatment of genetic diseases. In this regard, CRISPR technology is promising to treat some types of genetic issues. In this study, the relationship between calcium (due to its considerable physicochemical properties) and chitosan (as a natural linear polysaccharide) was investigated and optimized for pCRISPR delivery. To achieve this, different forms of calcium, such as calcium nanoparticles (CaNPs), calcium phosphate (CaP), a binary blend of calcium and chitosan including CaNPs/Chitosan and CaP/Chitosan, as well as their tertiary blend including CaNPs-CaP/Chitosan, were prepared via both routine and green procedures using Salvia hispanica to reduce toxicity and increase nanoparticle stability (with a yield of 85%). Such materials were also applied to the human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell line for pCRISPR delivery. The results were optimized using different characterization techniques demonstrating acceptable binding with DNA (for both CaNPs/Chitosan and CaNPs-CaP/Chitosan) significantly enhancing green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (about 25% for CaP/Chitosan and more than 14% for CaNPs-CaP/Chitosan).The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40097-021-00446-1.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s40097-021-00446-1
View details for PubMedID 34580605
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8457547
- Carbon Nanotubes: Smart Drug/Gene Delivery Carriers (vol 16, pg 1681, 2021) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE 2021; 16: 7283
alpha-Helical Antimicrobial Peptide Encapsulation and Release from Boron Nitride Nanotubes: A Computational Study
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE
2021; 16: 4277-4288
Antimicrobial peptides are potential therapeutics as anti-bacteria, anti-viruses, anti-fungi, or anticancers. However, they suffer from a short half-life and drug resistance which limit their long-term clinical usage.Herein, we captured the encapsulation of antimicrobial peptide HA-FD-13 into boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) (20,20) and its release due to subsequent insertion of BNNT (14,14) with molecular dynamics simulation.The peptide-BNNT (20,20) van der Waals (vdW) interaction energy decreased to -270 kcal·mol-1 at the end of the simulation (15 ns). However, during the period of 0.2-1.8 ns, when half of the peptide was inside the nanotube, the encapsulation was paused due to an energy barrier in the vicinity of BNNT and subsequently the external intervention, such that the self-adjustment of the peptide allowed full insertion. The free energy of the encapsulation process was -200.12 kcal·mol-1, suggesting that the insertion procedure occurred spontaneously.Once the BNNT (14,14) entered into the BNNT (20,20), the peptide was completely released after 83.8 ps. This revealed that the vdW interaction between the BNNT (14,14) and BNNT (20,20) was stronger than between BNNT (20,20) and the peptide; therefore, the BNNT (14,14) could act as a piston pushing the peptide outside the BNNT (20,20). Moreover, the sudden drop in the vdW energy between nanotubes to the value of the -1300 Kcal·mol-1 confirmed the self-insertion of the BNNT (14,14) into the BNNT (20,20) and correspondingly the release of the peptide.
View details for DOI 10.2147/IJN.S313855
View details for Web of Science ID 000665560400001
View details for PubMedID 34194228
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8238539
Nanotechnology-based approaches for emerging and re-emerging viruses: Special emphasis on COVID-19.
In recent decades, the major concern of emerging and re-emerging viral diseases has become an increasingly important area of public health concern, and it is of significance to anticipate future pandemic that would inevitably threaten human lives. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly emerged virus that causes mild to severe pneumonia. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) became a very much concerned issue worldwide after its super-spread across the globe and emerging viral diseases have not got specific and reliable diagnostic and treatments. As the COVID-19 pandemic brings about a massive life-loss across the globe, there is an unmet need to discover a promising and typically effective diagnosis and treatment to prevent super-spreading and mortality from being decreased or even eliminated. This study was carried out to overview nanotechnology-based diagnostic and treatment approaches for emerging and re-emerging viruses with the current treatment of the disease and shed light on nanotechnology's remarkable potential to provide more effective treatment and prevention to a special focus on recently emerged coronavirus.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104908
View details for PubMedID 33932543
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8079947
Carbon Nanotubes: Smart Drug/Gene Delivery Carriers.
International journal of nanomedicine
2021; 16: 1681–1706
The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (such as their high surface to volume ratios, enhanced conductivity and strength, biocompatibility, ease of functionalization, optical properties, etc.) have led to their consideration to serve as novel drug and gene delivery carriers. CNTs are effectively taken up by many different cell types through several mechanisms. CNTs have acted as carriers of anticancer molecules (including docetaxel (DTX), doxorubicin (DOX), methotrexate (MTX), paclitaxel (PTX), and gemcitabine (GEM)), anti-inflammatory drugs, osteogenic dexamethasone (DEX) steroids, etc. In addition, the unique optical properties of CNTs have led to their use in a number of platforms for improved photo-therapy. Further, the easy surface functionalization of CNTs has prompted their use to deliver different genes, such as plasmid DNA (PDNA), micro-RNA (miRNA), and small interfering RNA (siRNA) as gene delivery vectors for various diseases such as cancers. However, despite all of these promises, the most important continuous concerns raised by scientists reside in CNT nanotoxicology and the environmental effects of CNTs, mostly because of their non-biodegradable state. Despite a lack of widespread FDA approval, CNTs have been studied for decades and plenty of in vivo and in vitro reports have been published, which are reviewed here. Lastly, this review covers the future research necessary for the field of CNT medicine to grow even further.
View details for DOI 10.2147/IJN.S299448
View details for PubMedID 33688185
- Chitosan/PVA hydrogels incorporated with green synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles for wound healing applications EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL 2020; 134
- Green nanotechnology-based zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials for biomedical applications: a review JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-MATERIALS 2020; 3 (3)
The feasibility and usability of DNA-dot bioconjugation to antibody for targeted in vitro cancer cell fluorescence imaging.
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology
2020; 209: 111944
DNA-protein bioconjugation is an appealing target-tracking strategy. The new capability of DNA molecule as a biological nanomaterial endows unique fluorescence and physicochemical properties to be applied in bioimaging. Progression in targeted imaging is contingent on the conjugation of diagnostic nanoparticles to biomolecular signatures, particularly antibody-based ligands. Here, we have reported our recent experience, DNA-dot synthesis and characterization, the covalent conjugation of DNA-dot to goat F(ab')2 IgG and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) antibodies, DNA-dot@antibody coupling confirmation, and fluorescent targeted imaging of lung cancer cell line. As a result, the average size of DNA-dot was 4.5-5 nm which was conjugated to amine-rich antibodies with returned PO4-1 groups on the DNA-dot surface via PN bond. The synthetic DNA-dots were conjugated to the goat F(ab')2 IgG and tested for fluorescent detection usability by indirect Dot-blot assay. Also, DNA-dot@EGFR conjugates identified lung cancer cells with 84-92% specificity and 100% sensitivity in five concentrations, associated with 0.0025 to 0.04 g 100 μL-1 DNA-dot. The results demonstrated that bioconjugated DNA-dot can do the diagnosis profiling of molecular biomarkers. Generally, DNA-dot bioconjugation with antibody is implemented within two days and biomarker detection takes one day. Consequently, DNA-dot@antibody is potentially a toxic-free, swift, and efficient method of antibody labeling that opens up new horizons in fluorescent nanoimaging in the field of cancer cell detection.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111944
View details for PubMedID 32619869
Electroconductive Nanobiomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.
2020; 2 (2): 120-149
Regenerative medicine aims to engineer tissue constructs that can recapitulate the functional and structural properties of native organs. Most novel regenerative therapies are based on the recreation of a three-dimensional environment that can provide essential guidance for cell organization, survival, and function, which leads to adequate tissue growth. The primary motivation in the use of conductive nanomaterials in tissue engineering has been to develop biomimetic scaffolds to recapitulate the electrical properties of the natural extracellular matrix, something often overlooked in numerous tissue engineering materials to date. In this review article, we focus on the use of electroconductive nanobiomaterials for different biomedical applications, particularly, very recent advancements for cardiovascular, neural, bone, and muscle tissue regeneration. Moreover, this review highlights how electroconductive nanobiomaterials can facilitate cell to cell crosstalk (i.e., for cell growth, migration, proliferation, and differentiation) in different tissues. Thoughts on what the field needs for future growth are also provided.
View details for DOI 10.1089/bioe.2020.0021
View details for PubMedID 34471843
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8370325
Bioactive and Elastic Nanocomposites with Antimicrobial Properties for Bone Tissue Regeneration.
ACS applied bio materials
2020; 3 (5): 3313-3325
Bone injuries represent a major challenge in the medical field. The commonly used treatments for bone regeneration rely on the use of bone grafts that are usually associated with complications such as donor site morbidity, disease transmission, high cost, and lack of availability. Bone tissue engineering has become a golden solution for the repair of bone injuries by regenerating the damaged biological tissues using biocompatible scaffolds. However, most of the tissue engineered scaffolds do not possess the combined properties of high elasticity, appropriate stiffness, biocompatibility, osteoinductivity, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we engineered bioactive and antimicrobial nanocomposites that can promote bone formation while simultaneously provide a barrier against bacterial infections commonly associated with bone implants. We used PEGylated polyglycerol sebacate as nanocomposites base, which was functionalized with Laponite nanosilicates, a synthetic nanoclay, and an antimicrobial peptide (AMP). The successful synthesis of the PEGylated polyglycerol sebacate and Laponite incorporation within the nanocomposites were confirmed through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The scaffolds had an elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength within a range of 3.8-4.7 MPa and 1.5-3 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, the scaffolds loaded with antimicrobial peptide exhibited a significant antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The in vitro cytocompatibility tests showed >90% viability of preosteoblast (W-20-17) cells. Moreover, in vitro differentiation assays demonstrated the scaffolds' ability to promote osteogenic differentiation of W-20-17. Collectively, the nanocomposites containing Laponite and antimicrobial peptide were proven to have osteoinductive and antimicrobial activity, making them desirable for bone tissue engineering applications.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsabm.0c00250
View details for PubMedID 35025374
Enhancement of Loading Efficiency by Coloading of Doxorubicin and Quercetin in Thermoresponsive Polymeric Micelles.
2020; 21 (4): 1427-1436
Chemotherapy faces challenges, including poor aqueous solubility of the drugs, and cardiotoxicity. Micellar drug delivery systems (DDS) are used to encapsulate anticancer drugs for better therapeutic effects, however, with poor loading content. Herein, we synthesized a micellar DDS using γ-benzyloxy substituted poly(ε-caprolactone) as the hydrophobic block and coloaded anticancer doxorubicin (Dox) and antioxidant quercetin (Que). γ-Substituted oligo(ethylene) glycol (OEG) poly(ε-caprolactone)s were used as hydrophilic blocks to make the polymers thermoresponsive. Variation of the OEG chain allowed the tunability of the lower critical solution temperature. Moreover, drug loading and release were studied. Thermodynamic stability, size, and morphology were determined by fluorescence measurements, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Combination loading demonstrated improved loading of Dox and Que. Biological studies were performed using HepG2 human liver cancer and H9c2 rat heart cells. The use of biodegradable, biocompatible, and thermoresponsive polymers along with the coloading approach is a good strategy in developing DDSs.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01742
View details for PubMedID 32149500
Green Nanotechnology-based Gold Nanomaterials for Hepatic Cancer Therapeutics: A Systematic Review.
Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR
2020; 19 (3): 3-17
The objective of the current study was to systematically review the in-vitro anticancer activity of green synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against hepatic cancer cells. The articles were identified through electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct, ProQuest, and Cochrane. In total, 20 articles were found eligible to enter into our systematic review. Our findings showed that 65% of the articles used herbal extracts for the synthesis of AuNPs. Significantly, almost all of the articles stated the biofabrication of AuNPs below 100 nm in diameter. Impressively, most of the studies showed significant anticancer activity against HepG2 cells. Molecular studies stated the induction of apoptosis through the AuNPs-treated cells. We provided valuable information about the molecular mechanisms of AuNPs-induced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells as well as their biocompatibility. The studies represented that AuNPs can be effective as anticancer drug nanocarrier for drug delivery systems. In addition, AuNP surface functionalization provides an opportunity to design multifunctional nanoparticles by conjugating them to diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents for theranostic purposes. Overall, our findings depicted considerable biogenic AuNPs-induced cytotoxicity, however, future studies should assess the anticancer activity of biogenic AuNPs through in-vivo studies, which was missing from such studies.
View details for DOI 10.22037/ijpr.2020.113820.14504
View details for PubMedID 33680005
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7757980
Green nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for osteogenic disorders.
Expert opinion on drug delivery
2020; 17 (3): 341-356
Introduction: Current treatments for osteogenic disorders are often successful, however they are not free of drawbacks, such as toxicity or side effects. Nanotechnology offers a platform for drug delivery in the treatment of bone disorders, which can overcome such limitations. Nevertheless, traditional synthesis of nanomaterials presents environmental and health concerns due to its production of toxic by-products, the need for extreme and harsh raw materials, and their lack of biocompatibility over time.Areas covered: This review article contains an overview of the current status of treating osteogenic disorders employing green nanotechnological approaches, showing some of the latest advances in the application of green nanomaterials, as drug delivery carriers, for the effective treatment of osteogenic disorders.Expert opinion: Green nanotechnology, as a potential solution, is understood as the use of living organisms, biomolecules and environmentally friendly processes for the production of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials derived from bacterial cultures or biomolecules isolated from living organisms, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids, have been proven to be effective composites. These nanomaterials introduce enhancements in the treatment and prevention of osteogenic disorders, compared to physiochemically-synthesized nanostructures, specifically in terms of their improved cell attachment and proliferation, as well as their ability to prevent bacterial adhesion.
View details for DOI 10.1080/17425247.2020.1727441
View details for PubMedID 32064959
- Corrigendum to "An update on advances in new developing DNA conjugation diagnostics and ultra-resolution imaging technologies: Possible applications in medical and biotechnological utilities" [Biosens. Bioelectron Volume 144, (1 November 2019), 111633]. Biosensors & bioelectronics 2020; 151: 111904
Biomimetic proteoglycan nanoparticles for growth factor immobilization and delivery
2020; 8 (4): 1127–36
The delivery of growth factors is often challenging due to their short half-life, low stability, and rapid deactivation. In native tissues, the sulfated residual of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polymer chains of proteoglycans immobilizes growth factors through the proteoglycans'/proteins' complexation with nanoscale organization. These biological assemblies can influence growth factor-cell surface receptor interactions, cell differentiation, cell-cell signaling, and mechanical properties of the tissues. Here, we introduce a facile procedure to prepare novel biomimetic proteoglycan nanocarriers, based on naturally derived polymers, for the immobilization and controlled release of growth factors. We developed polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PCNs) as growth factor nanocarriers, which mimic the dimensions, chemical composition, and growth factor immobilization of proteoglycans in native tissues. PCNs were prepared by a polymer-polymer pair reaction method and characterized for physicochemical properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that complexation occurred through electrostatic interactions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that the nanocarriers had a diameter of 60 ± 11 nm and 91 ± 33 nm for dermatan sulfate sodium salt-poly-l-lysine (DS-PLL) and gum tragacanth-poly-l-lysine (GT-PLL) complexes, respectively. The colloidal nanoparticles were stable due to their negative zeta potential, i.e.-25 ± 4 mV for DS-PLL and -18 ± 3.5 mV for GT-PLL. Cytocompatibility of PCNs in contact with human bone marrow stromal cells (HS-5) was confirmed through a live/dead assay and metabolic activity measurement. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was used to evaluate the ability of PCNs to stabilize growth factors. The capability of PCNs to preserve VEGF activity for up to 21 days was confirmed by analyzing the metabolic and mitogenic characteristics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results demonstrated the potential applications of these nanoparticles in therapeutic delivery for tissue regeneration applications.
View details for DOI 10.1039/c9bm00668k
View details for Web of Science ID 000517148800008
View details for PubMedID 31389409
GDNF gene-engineered adipose-derived stem cells seeded Emu oil-loaded electrospun nanofibers for axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology
2020; 60: 102095
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jddst.2020.102095
Green nanomedicine: The path to the next generation of nanomaterials for diagnosing brain tumors and therapeutics?
Expert opinion on drug delivery
Introduction: Current brain cancer treatments, based on radiotherapy and chemotherapy, are sometimes successful, but they are not free of drawbacks. Areas covered: Traditional methods for the treatment of brain tumors are discussed here with new solutions presented, among which the application of nanotechnology has demonstrated promising results over the past decade. The traditional synthesis of nanostructures, which relies on the use of physicochemical methodologies are discussed, and their associated concerns in terms of environmental and health impact due to the production of toxic by-products, need for toxic catalysts, and their lack of biocompatibility are presented. An overview of the current situation of treating brain tumors using nanotechnological-based approaches is introduced, and some of the latest advances in the application of green nanomaterials (NMs) for the effective targeting of brain tumors are presented. Expert opinion: Green nanotechnology is introduced as a potential solution to toxic NMs through the application of environmentally friendly and cost-effective protocols using living organisms and biomolecules. The current status of this field, such as those involving clinical trials, is included, and the possible limitations of green-NMs and potential ways to avoid those limitations are discussed so that the field can potentially evolve.
View details for DOI 10.1080/17425247.2021.1865306
View details for PubMedID 33332168
Nanoengineered shear-thinning and bioprintable hydrogel as a versatile platform for biomedical applications.
2020; 267: 120476
The development of bioinks based on shear-thinning and self-healing hydrogels has recently attracted significant attention for constructing complex three-dimensional physiological microenvironments. For extrusion-based bioprinting, it is challenging to provide high structural reliability and resolution of printed structures while protecting cells from shear forces during printing. Herein, we present shear-thinning and printable hydrogels based on silicate nanomaterials, laponite (LA), and glycosaminoglycan nanoparticles (GAGNPs) for bioprinting applications. Nanocomposite hydrogels (GLgels) were rapidly formed within seconds due to the interactions between the negatively charged groups of GAGNPs and the edges of LA. The shear-thinning behavior of the hydrogel protected encapsulated cells from aggressive shear stresses during bioprinting. The bioinks could be printed straightforwardly into shape-persistent and free-standing structures with high aspect ratios. Rheological studies demonstrated fast recovery of GLgels over multiple strain cycles. In vitro studies confirmed the ability of GLgels to support cell growth, proliferation, and spreading. In vitro osteogenic differentiation of pre-osteoblasts murine bone marrow stromal cells encapsulated inside the GLgels was also demonstrated through evaluation of ALP activity and calcium deposition. The subcutaneous implantation of the GLgel in rats confirmed its in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability. The engineered shear-thinning hydrogel with osteoinductive characteristics can be used as a new bioink for 3D printing of constructs for bone tissue engineering applications.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120476
View details for PubMedID 33137603
Wound dressings functionalized with silver nanoparticles: promises and pitfalls.
2020; 12 (4): 2268–91
Infections are the main reason why most people die from burns and diabetic wounds. The clinical challenge for treating wound infections through traditional antibiotics has been growing steadily and has now reached a critical status requiring a paradigm shift for improved chronic wound care. The US Centers for Disease Control have predicted more deaths from antimicrobial-resistant bacteria than from all types of cancers combined by 2050. Thus, the development of new wound dressing materials that do not rely on antibiotics is of paramount importance. Currently, incorporating nanoparticles into scaffolds represents a new concept of 'nanoparticle dressing' which has gained considerable attention for wound healing. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been categorized as metal-based nanoparticles and are intriguing materials for wound healing because of their excellent antimicrobial properties. Ag-NPs embedded in wound dressing polymers promote wound healing and control microorganism growth. However, there have been several recent disadvantages of using Ag-NPs to fight infections, such as bacterial resistance. This review highlights the therapeutic approaches of using wound dressings functionalized with Ag-NPs and their potential role in revolutionizing wound healing. Moreover, the physiology of the skin and wounds is discussed to place the use of Ag-NPs in wound care into perspective.
View details for DOI 10.1039/c9nr08234d
View details for PubMedID 31942896
Green nanotechnology-based Gold Nanomaterials for Hepatic Cancer Therapeutics: A Systematic Review
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
View details for DOI 10.22037/ijpr.2020.113820.14504
Bioactive and elastic nanocomposites with antimicrobial properties for bone tissue regeneration
ACS Applied Bio Materials
2020; 3: 3313-3325
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsabm.0c00250
Electroconductive Nanobiomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
2020; 2 (2): 120-149
View details for DOI 10.1089/bioe.2020.0021
Emerging Antineoplastic Biogenic Gold Nanomaterials for Breast Cancer Therapeutics: A Systematic Review
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE
2020; 15: 3577–95
Breast cancer remains as a concerning global health issue, being the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States (US) in 2019. Therefore, there is an urgent and substantial need to explore novel strategies to combat breast cancer. A potential solution may come from the use of cancer nanotechnology, an innovative field of study which investigates the potential of nanomaterials for cancer diagnosis, therapy, and theranostic applications. Consequently, the theranostic functionality of cancer nanotechnology has been gaining much attention between scientists during the past few years and is growing exponentially. The use of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been explored as an efficient mechanism for the treatment of breast cancer. The present study supposed a global systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of biogenic AuNPs for the treatment of breast cancer and their anticancer molecular mechanisms through in vitro studies. Online electronic databases, including Cochrane, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, ProQuest, and Embase, were searched for the articles published up to July 16, 2019. Our findings revealed that plant-mediated synthesis was the most common approach for the generation of AuNPs. Most of the studies reported spherical or nearly spherical-shaped AuNPs with a mean diameter less than 100 nm in size. A significantly larger cytotoxicity was observed when the biogenic AuNPs were tested towards breast cancer cells compared to healthy cells. Moreover, biogenic AuNPs demonstrated significant synergistic activity in combination with other anticancer drugs through in vitro studies. Although we provided strong and comprehensive preliminary in vitro data, further in vivo investigations are required to show the reliability and efficacy of these NPs in animal models.
View details for DOI 10.2147/IJN.S240293
View details for Web of Science ID 000533482100001
View details for PubMedID 32547015
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7245458
Bioprinters for organs-on-chips
2019; 11 (4): 042002
Recent advances in bioprinting technologies have enabled rapid manufacturing of organ-on-chip models along with biomimetic tissue microarchitectures. Bioprinting techniques can be used to integrate microfluidic channels and flow connections in organ-on-chip models. We review bioprinters in two categories of nozzle-based and optical-based methods, and then discuss their fabrication parameters such as resolution, replication fidelity, fabrication time, and cost for micro-tissue models and microfluidic applications. The use of bioprinters has shown successful replicates of functional engineered tissue models integrated within a desired microfluidic system, which facilitates the observation of metabolism or secretion of models and sophisticated control of a dynamic environment. This may provide a wider order of tissue engineering fabrication in mimicking physiological conditions for enhancing further applications such as drug development and pathological studies.
View details for DOI 10.1088/1758-5090/ab2798
View details for Web of Science ID 000487215700001
View details for PubMedID 31170695
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6756175
Three-Dimensional Graphene Foams: Synthesis, Properties, Biocompatibility, Biodegradability, and Applications in Tissue Engineering.
ACS biomaterials science & engineering
2019; 5 (1): 193-214
Presently, clinical nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology have impressively demanded the generation of new organic/inorganic analogues of graphene (as one of the intriguing biomedical research targets) for stem-cell-based tissue engineering. Among different shapes of graphene, three-dimensional (3D) graphene foams (GFs) are highly promising candidates to provide conditions for mimicking in vivo environments, affording effective cell attachment, proliferation,and differentiation due to their unique properties. These include the highest biocompatibility among nanostructures, high surface-to-volume ratio, 3D porous structure (to provide a homogeneous/isotropic growth of tissues), highly favorable mechanical characteristics, and rapid mass and electron transport kinetics (which are required for chemical/physical stimulation of differentiated cells). This review aims to describe recent and rapid advances in the fabrication of 3D GFs, together with their use in tissue engineering and regenerative nanomedicine applications. Moreover, we have summarized a broad range of recent studies about the behaviors, biocompatibility/toxicity,and biodegradability of these materials, both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the highlights and challenges of these 3D porous structures, compared to the current polymeric scaffold competitors, are discussed.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b00658
View details for PubMedID 33405863
Would Colloidal Gold Nanocarriers Present An Effective Diagnosis Or Treatment For Ischemic Stroke?
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE
2019; 14: 8013–31
This study was conducted to evaluate OX26-PEG-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) (OX26@GNPs) as a novel targeted nanoparticulate system on cell survival after ischemic stroke.Dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta sizer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed to characterize the OX26@GNPs. The effect of OX26@GNPs on infarct volume, neuronal loss, and necroptosis was evaluated 24 h after reperfusion using 2, 3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, Nissl staining and Western blot assay, respectively.Conjugation of OX26-PEG to the surface of the 25 nm colloidal gold particles increased their size to 32±2 nm, while a zeta potential change of -40.4 to 3.40 mV remarkably increased the stability of the nanoparticles. Most importantly, OX26@GNPs significantly increased the infarcted brain tissue, while bare GNPs and PEGylated GNPs had no effect on the infarct volume. However, our results indicated an extension of necroptotic cell death, followed by cell membrane damage.Collectively, our results showed that the presently formulated OX26@GNPs are not suitable nanocarriers nor contrast agents under oxidative stress for the diagnosis and treatment of ischemic stroke. Moreover, our findings suggest that the cytotoxicity of GNPs in the brain is significantly associated with their surface charge.
View details for DOI 10.2147/IJN.S210035
View details for Web of Science ID 000489021700001
View details for PubMedID 31632015
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6789974
- Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of magnetic nanoparticles modified with PCL-PEG-PCL for controlled delivery of 5FU (vol 46, pg S938, 2017) ARTIFICIAL CELLS NANOMEDICINE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 2019; 47 (1): 2917
- Nanotechnology and picotechnology: A new arena for translational medicine BIOMATERIALS IN TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2019: 191–212
The use of stromal vascular fraction (SVF), platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells in the treatment of osteoarthritis: an overview of clinical trials
ARTIFICIAL CELLS NANOMEDICINE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
2019; 47 (1): 882–90
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability across the world, which its prevalence is relatively high in elder population. Current accepted therapies such as exercise, anti-inflammatory drugs and intra-articular inoculation of corticosteroids are aimed at controlling symptoms in the affected patients. Surgical options including arthroplasty, osteotomy and joint replacement are other choices of treatment, which are invasive and can be applied in case of failure of conventional therapies. In the last few decades, efforts to treat musculoskeletal diseases are being increasingly focused on regenerative cellular therapies. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which obtained from adipose tissue, contains a variety of cells include mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and has shown to be effective in cartilage repair. Autologous blood products such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) act as an adjuvant of surgical treatment and its intra-articular delivery has shown beneficial effects for OA treatment. Given the efficacy of such treatment approaches in OA, this paper discusses both preclinical and clinical evidence with major focus on clinical trials.
View details for DOI 10.1080/21691401.2019.1576710
View details for Web of Science ID 000461718500001
View details for PubMedID 30887856
The effect of chrysin-curcumin-loaded nanofibres on the wound-healing process in male rats
ARTIFICIAL CELLS NANOMEDICINE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
2019; 47 (1): 1642–52
The aim of the present study was to produce chrysin-curcumin-loaded PCL-PEG nanofibres by an electrospinning technique and to evaluate the biological activity of the chrysin-curcumin-loaded PCL-PEG fibres for wound healing and its related genes using in vivo methods.The electrospinning method was carried out for the preparation of the chrysin, curcumin and chrysin-curcumin-loaded PCL-PEG nanofibres with different concentrations. FTIR and SEM were performed to characterize the chemical structures and morphology of the nanofibres. In vitro drug release, as well as in vivo wound-healing studies were investigated in male rats. The expressions of genes related to the wound-healing process were also evaluated by real-time PCR.Our study showed that the chrysin-curcumin-loaded nanofibres have anti-inflammatory properties in several stages of the wound-healing process by affecting the IL-6, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and iNOS gene expression. Our results demonstrated that the effect of the chrysin-loaded nanofibre, the curcumin-loaded nanofibre and the chrysin-curcumin-loaded nanofibre in the wound-healing process is dose dependent and in accordance with the obtained results in that it might affect the inflammation phase more than the other stages of the wound-healing process.We have introduced chrysin-curcumin-loaded PCL-PEG nanofibres as a novel compound for shortening the duration of the wound-healing process.
View details for DOI 10.1080/21691401.2019.1594855
View details for Web of Science ID 000465907400002
View details for PubMedID 31027431
Development Development and characterization of a novel conductive polyaniline-g-polystyrene/Fe(3)O(4 )nanocomposite for the treatment of cancer
ARTIFICIAL CELLS NANOMEDICINE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
2019; 47 (1): 873–81
The goal of this study is to synthesize, characterize and investigate some physicochemical properties of conductive polyaniline-g-polystyrene/Fe3O4 (Fe3O4/PSt-g-PANi) nanocomposites. For this purpose, initially, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Then, the desired nanocomposite was synthesized in two steps. First, the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene was performed using an ATRP initiator attached to the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, followed by functionalization of the Fe3O4-PSt with amine groups (-NH2). Second, surface oxidative graft copolymerization of aniline was accomplished using the -NH2 moieties on the Fe3O4/PSt-NH2 as the anchoring sites. The prepared materials were characterized by various instruments, including TEM, SEM, TGA, EDX, FT-IR, XRD and conductivity measurements. The results indicated that the synthesized conductive polymer/Fe3O4 nanocomposites had higher electrical conductivity and thermal resistance than those of the corresponding homopolymers.
View details for DOI 10.1080/21691401.2019.1575839
View details for Web of Science ID 000461286000003
View details for PubMedID 30873875
- Three-Dimensional Graphene Foams: Synthesis, Properties, Biocompatibility, Biodegradability, and Applications in Tissue Engineering ACS BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 2019; 5 (1): 193–214
Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Scaffolds Based on Nano-biomimetic Collagen Hybrid Constructs for Skin Tissue Engineering
2018; 3 (8): 8605–11
Three-dimensional (3D) biodegradable and biomimetic porous scaffolds are ideal frameworks for skin tissue engineering. In this study, hybrid constructs of 3D scaffolds were successfully fabricated by the freeze-drying method from combinations of the type I collagen (Col) and synthetic poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) or polycaprolactone (PCL). Four different groups of 3D porous scaffolds including PCL, PCL-Col, PCL-PLLA, and PCL-PLLA-Col were fabricated and systematically characterized by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) were seeded in all scaffolds, and the viability, proliferation, and adhesion of the cells were investigated using dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and SEM. The results showed that scaffolds containing Col, particularly PCL-PLLA-Col scaffold, with pore sizes close to 400 nm and being sufficiently interconnected, have significantly greater potential (p < 0.01) for encouraging AT-MSCs adhesion and growth. The PCL-PLLA provided a mechanically stronger mesh support, and the type I Col microsponges encouraged excellent cell adhesion and tissue formation. The scaffold with the best properties could be an appropriate functional candidate for the preparation of artificial skin constructs.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsomega.8b01219
View details for Web of Science ID 000440617900018
View details for PubMedID 31458990
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6644454
- Role of dendrimers in advanced drug delivery and biomedical applications: A Review Experimental Oncology 2018; 40 (3): 1-6
Current developments in green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts: a review
ARTIFICIAL CELLS NANOMEDICINE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
2018; 46: S336–S343
Metal nanoparticles (MNPs) produced by green approaches have received global attention because of their physicochemical characteristics and their applications in the field of biotechnology. In recent years, the development of synthesizing NPs by plant extracts has become a major focus of researchers because of these NPs have low hazardous effect in the environment and low toxicity for the human body. Synthesized NPs from plants are not only more stable in terms of size and shape, also the yield of this method is higher than the other methods. Moreover, some of these MNPs have shown antimicrobial activity which is consistently confirmed in past few years. Plant extracts have been used as reducing agent and stabilizer of NPs in which we can reduce the toxicity in the environment as well as the human body only by not using chemical agents. Furthermore, the presence of some specific materials in plant extracts could be extremely helpful and effective for the human body; for instance, polyphenol, which may have antioxidant effects has the capability for capturing free radicals before they can react with other biomolecules and cause serious damages. In this article, we focused on of the most common plants which are regularly used to synthesize MNPs along with various methods for synthesizing MNPs from plant extracts.
View details for DOI 10.1080/21691401.2018.1492931
View details for Web of Science ID 000460141900033
View details for PubMedID 30043657
Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of magnetic nanoparticles modified with PCL-PEG-PCL for controlled delivery of 5FU
ARTIFICIAL CELLS NANOMEDICINE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
2018; 46: S938–S945
Magnetic nanoparticles have properties that cause to apply them in cancer therapy and vehicles for the delivery of drugs such as 5FU, especially when they are modified with biocompatible copolymers. The aim of this study is to modify superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) with PCL-PEG-PCL copolymers and then utilization of these nanoparticles for encapsulation of anticancer drug 5FU. The ring-opening polymerization (ROP) was used for the synthesis of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer by ε-caprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG2000). We used the double emulsion method (water/oil/water) to prepare 5FU-encapsulated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer. Chemical structure and magnetic properties of 5FU-loaded magnetic-polymer nanoparticles were investigated systematically by employing FT-IR, XRD, VSM and SEM techniques. In vitro release profile of 5FU-loaded NPs was also determined. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency value for nanoparticles were 90%. Moreover, the release of 5FU is significantly higher at pH 5.8 compared to pH 7.4. Therefore, these nanoparticles have sustained release and can apply for cancer therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1080/21691401.2018.1439839
View details for Web of Science ID 000457049400087
View details for PubMedID 29468888
Nanostructured Fibrous Membranes with Rose Spike-Like Architecture
2017; 17 (10): 6235–40
Nanoparticles have been used for engineering composite materials to improve the intrinsic properties and/or add functionalities to pristine polymers. The majority of the studies have focused on the incorporation of spherical nanoparticles within the composite fibers. Herein, we incorporate anisotropic branched-shaped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles into fibrous scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning. The addition of the branched particles resulted in their protrusion from fibers, mimicking the architecture of a rose stem. We demonstrated that the encapsulation of different-shape particles significantly influences the physicochemical and biological activities of the resultant composite scaffolds. In particular, the branched nanoparticles induced heterogeneous crystallization of the polymeric matrix and enhance the ultimate mechanical strain and strength. Moreover, the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the branched ZnO nanoparticles enhanced adhesion properties of the composite scaffolds to the tissues. In addition, the rose stem-like constructs offered excellent antibacterial activity, while supporting the growth of eukaryote cells.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02929
View details for Web of Science ID 000413057500052
View details for PubMedID 28819978
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5683165
- Nanostructured MnCo2O4 synthesized via co-precipitation method for SOFC interconnect application INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY 2016; 41 (45): 20640–49
- Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured Ba-doped BiFeO3 porous ceramics MATERIALS SCIENCE-POLAND 2016; 34 (1): 148–56
- High performance Ni-CNTs catalyst: synthesis and characterization RSC ADVANCES 2016; 6 (52): 47072–82
Electrospinning and 3D Printing: Prospects for Market Opportunity
Electrospinning: From Basic Research to Commercialization
Royal Society of Chemistry. 2016
View details for DOI DOI https://doi.org/10.1039/9781788012942-00136
- Intermediate milling energy optimization to enhance the characteristics of barium hexaferrite magnetic nanoparticles JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS 2015; 640: 162–68
- Destructive Interactions between Pore Forming Agents and Matrix Phase during the Fabrication Process of Porous BiFeO3 Ceramics JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 2015; 31 (8): 798–805
- Synthesis of nano-structured Bi1-xBaxFeO3 ceramics with enhanced magnetic and electrical properties MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 2015; 162: 106–12
- The effects of mechanical activation energy on the solid-state synthesis process of BiFeO3 JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS 2015; 622: 548–56
Synthesis of nano-structured La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 perovskite by co-precipitation method
Journal of Ultrafine Grained and Nanostructured Materials
2015; 48: 45-52
View details for DOI 10.7508/JUFGNSM.2015.01.007
- Characterization of nano-structured multiferroic bismuth ferrite produced via solid state reaction route TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD. 2014: 683–87
- Synthesis of nano-structured bismuth ferrite by mechano-thermal route TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD. 2014: 722–26
La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 perovskite cathode for Intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: A comparative study
Iranian Journal of Hydrogen & Fuel Cells
2014; 4: 239-246
View details for DOI 10.22104/IJHFC.2015.175