Education & Certifications

  • Bachelor of Science, University of Toronto, Genes, Genetics and Biotechnol (2013)
  • Master of Science, Harvard University, Epidemiology (2015)

All Publications

  • Differences in patient perceptions of integrated care among black, hispanic, and white Medicare beneficiaries. Health services research Ling, E. J., Frean, M., So, J., Tietschert, M., Song, N., Covington, C., Bahadurazada, H., Khurana, S., Garcia, L., Singer, S. J. 2021


    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify potential disparities among racial/ethnic groups in patient perceptions of integrated care (PPIC) and to explore how methodological differences may influence measured disparities.DATA SOURCE: Data from Medicare beneficiaries who completed the 2015 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) and were enrolled in Part A benefits for an entire year.STUDY DESIGN: We used 4-point measures of eight dimensions of PPIC and assessed differences in dimensions among racial/ethnic groups. To estimate differences, we applied a "rank and replace" method using multiple regression models in three steps, balancing differences in health status among racial groups and adjusting for differences in socioeconomic status. We reran all analyses with additional SES controls and using standard multiple variable regression.DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Not applicable.PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found several significant differences in perceived integrated care between Black versus White (three of eight measures) and Hispanic versus White (one of eight) Medicare beneficiaries. On average, Black beneficiaries perceived more integrated support for self-care than did White beneficiaries (mean difference=0.14, SE=0.06, P=.02). Black beneficiaries perceived more integrated specialists' knowledge of past medical history than did White beneficiaries (mean difference=0.12, SE=0.06, P=.01). Black and Hispanic beneficiaries also each reported, on average, 0.18 more integrated medication and home health management than did White beneficiaries (P<.01 and P<.01). These findings were robust to sensitivity analyses and model specifications.CONCLUSIONS: There exist some aspects of care for which Black and Hispanic beneficiaries may perceive greater integrated care than non-Hispanic White beneficiaries. Further studies should test theories explaining why racial/ethnic groups perceive differences in integrated care.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/1475-6773.13637

    View details for PubMedID 33569775

  • Community engagement for health system resilience: evidence from Liberia's Ebola epidemic. Health policy and planning Barker, K. M., Ling, E. J., Fallah, M., VanDeBogert, B., Kodl, Y., Macauley, R. J., Viswanath, K., Kruk, M. E. 2020


    The importance of community engagement (CE) for health system resilience is established in theoretical and empirical literature. The practical dimensions of how to operationalize theory and implement its principles have been less explored, especially within low-resource crisis settings. It is therefore unclear how CE is drawn upon and how, if at all, it facilitates health system resilience in times of health system crises. To address this critical gap, we adapt and apply existing theoretical CE frameworks to analyse qualitative data from 92 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions collected with health system stakeholders in Liberia in the aftermath of the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak. Health system stakeholders indicated that CE was a crucial contributing factor in addressing the Ebola epidemic in Liberia. Multiple forms of CE were used during the outbreak; however, only some forms were perceived as meaningful, such as the formation of community-based surveillance teams. To achieve meaningful CE, participants recommended that communities be treated as active participants in-as opposed to passive recipients of-health response efforts and that communication platforms for CE be established ahead of a crisis. Participant responses highlight that meaningful CE led to improved communication with and increased trust in health authorities and programming. This facilitated health system response efforts, leading to a fortuitous cycle of increased trust, improved communication and continued meaningful CE-all necessary conditions for health system resilience. This study refines our understanding of CE and demonstrates the ways in which meaningful CE and trust work together in mutually reinforcing and beneficial ways. These findings provide empirical evidence on which to base policies and programmes aimed at improving health system resilience in low-resource settings to more effectively respond to health system crises.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/heapol/czz174

    View details for PubMedID 32040166

  • Building resilient health systems: a proposal for a resilience index. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) Kruk, M. E., Ling, E. J., Bitton, A. n., Cammett, M. n., Cavanaugh, K. n., Chopra, M. n., El-Jardali, F. n., Macauley, R. J., Muraguri, M. K., Konuma, S. n., Marten, R. n., Martineau, F. n., Myers, M. n., Rasanathan, K. n., Ruelas, E. n., Soucat, A. n., Sugihantono, A. n., Warnken, H. n. 2017; 357: j2323

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.j2323

    View details for PubMedID 28536191

  • Beyond the crisis: did the Ebola epidemic improve resilience of Liberia's health system? Health policy and planning Ling, E. J., Larson, E. n., Macauley, R. J., Kodl, Y. n., VanDeBogert, B. n., Baawo, S. n., Kruk, M. E. 2017; 32 (suppl_3): iii40–iii47


    Resilience was widely identified as a critical attribute for strong health systems following the 2014-15 West Africa Ebola epidemic. In Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, struggles to control the disease and suspension of the operation of many health services demonstrated that health systems must plan for resilience long before a crisis. However, the operational elements of resilience and ways that a crisis experience can shape resilience are not well described in the literature. To understand how a health system adapts to crisis and how the priorities of different health system actors influence this response we conducted interviews with global, national, and local respondents in Liberia between July and September 2015 (n = 108), several months after the country was first declared Ebola-free. We found that health system resilience functions prioritized by global and national actors improved to a greater extent than those valued by community leaders and local health actors over the course of the epidemic. Although the Ebola epidemic stimulated some positive adaptations in Liberia's health system, building a truly resilient health system will require longer-term investments and sustained attention long beyond the crisis.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/heapol/czx109

    View details for PubMedID 29149311

  • Time From Infection to Disease and Infectiousness for Ebola Virus Disease, a Systematic Review. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Velásquez, G. E., Aibana, O. n., Ling, E. J., Diakite, I. n., Mooring, E. Q., Murray, M. B. 2015; 61 (7): 1135–40


    We systematically reviewed the literature to estimate the incubation and latent periods of Ebola virus disease. We found limited epidemiological data from individuals with discrete 1-day exposures. Available data suggest that the incubation and latent periods may differ, and mathematical models may be improved by distinguishing between the two periods.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/civ531

    View details for PubMedID 26129757

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4560911