All Publications


  • Analytic reproducibility in articles receiving open data badges at the journal Psychological Science: an observational study ROYAL SOCIETY OPEN SCIENCE Hardwicke, T. E., Bohn, M., MacDonald, K., Hembacher, E., Nuijten, M. B., Peloquin, B. N., DeMayo, B. E., Long, B., Yoon, E. J., Frank, M. C. 2021; 8 (1)
  • Analytic reproducibility in articles receiving open data badges at the journal Psychological Science: an observational study. Royal Society open science Hardwicke, T. E., Bohn, M. n., MacDonald, K. n., Hembacher, E. n., Nuijten, M. B., Peloquin, B. N., deMayo, B. E., Long, B. n., Yoon, E. J., Frank, M. C. 2021; 8 (1): 201494

    Abstract

    For any scientific report, repeating the original analyses upon the original data should yield the original outcomes. We evaluated analytic reproducibility in 25 Psychological Science articles awarded open data badges between 2014 and 2015. Initially, 16 (64%, 95% confidence interval [43,81]) articles contained at least one 'major numerical discrepancy' (>10% difference) prompting us to request input from original authors. Ultimately, target values were reproducible without author involvement for 9 (36% [20,59]) articles; reproducible with author involvement for 6 (24% [8,47]) articles; not fully reproducible with no substantive author response for 3 (12% [0,35]) articles; and not fully reproducible despite author involvement for 7 (28% [12,51]) articles. Overall, 37 major numerical discrepancies remained out of 789 checked values (5% [3,6]), but original conclusions did not appear affected. Non-reproducibility was primarily caused by unclear reporting of analytic procedures. These results highlight that open data alone is not sufficient to ensure analytic reproducibility.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rsos.201494

    View details for PubMedID 33614084

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7890505

  • Polite Speech Emerges From Competing Social Goals. Open mind : discoveries in cognitive science Yoon, E. J., Tessler, M. H., Goodman, N. D., Frank, M. C. 2020; 4: 71–87

    Abstract

    Language is a remarkably efficient tool for transmitting information. Yet human speakers make statements that are inefficient, imprecise, or even contrary to their own beliefs, all in the service of being polite. What rational machinery underlies polite language use? Here, we show that polite speech emerges from the competition of three communicative goals: to convey information, to be kind, and to present oneself in a good light. We formalize this goal tradeoff using a probabilistic model of utterance production, which predicts human utterance choices in socially sensitive situations with high quantitative accuracy, and we show that our full model is superior to its variants with subsets of the three goals. This utility-theoretic approach to speech acts takes a step toward explaining the richness and subtlety of social language use.

    View details for DOI 10.1162/opmi_a_00035

    View details for PubMedID 33225196

  • The role of salience in young children's processing of ad hoc implicatures. Journal of experimental child psychology Yoon, E. J., Frank, M. C. 2019; 186: 99–116

    Abstract

    Language comprehension often requires making implicatures. For example, inferring that "I ate some of the cookies" implicates that the speaker ate some but not all (scalar implicatures), and "I ate the chocolate chip cookies" where there are both chocolate chip cookies and raisin cookies in the context implicates that the speaker ate the chocolate chip cookies but not both the chocolate chip and raisin cookies (ad hoc implicatures). Children's ability to make scalar implicatures develops at around 5 years of age, with ad hoc implicatures emerging somewhat earlier. In the current work, using a time-sensitive tablet paradigm, we examined developmental gains in children's ad hoc implicature processing and found evidence for successful pragmatic inferences by children as young as 3 years in a supportive context and substantial developmental gains in inference computation from 2 to 5 years. We also tested whether one cause of younger children's (2-year-olds) consistent failure to make pragmatic inferences is their difficulty in inhibiting an alternative interpretation that is more salient than the target meaning (the salience hypothesis). Our findings support this hypothesis; younger children's failures with pragmatic inferences were related to effects of the salience mismatch between possible interpretations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jecp.2019.04.008

    View details for PubMedID 31220753

  • Data availability, reusability, and analytic reproducibility: evaluating the impact of a mandatory open data policy at the journal Cognition ROYAL SOCIETY OPEN SCIENCE Hardwicke, T. E., Mathur, M. B., MacDonald, K., Nilsonne, G., Banks, G. C., Kidwell, M. C., Mohr, A., Clayton, E., Yoon, E. J., Tessler, M., Lenne, R. L., Altman, S., Long, B., Frank, M. C. 2018; 5 (8)
  • Data availability, reusability, and analytic reproducibility: evaluating the impact of a mandatory open data policy at the journal Cognition. Royal Society open science Hardwicke, T. E., Mathur, M. B., MacDonald, K. n., Nilsonne, G. n., Banks, G. C., Kidwell, M. C., Hofelich Mohr, A. n., Clayton, E. n., Yoon, E. J., Henry Tessler, M. n., Lenne, R. L., Altman, S. n., Long, B. n., Frank, M. C. 2018; 5 (8): 180448

    Abstract

    Access to data is a critical feature of an efficient, progressive and ultimately self-correcting scientific ecosystem. But the extent to which in-principle benefits of data sharing are realized in practice is unclear. Crucially, it is largely unknown whether published findings can be reproduced by repeating reported analyses upon shared data ('analytic reproducibility'). To investigate this, we conducted an observational evaluation of a mandatory open data policy introduced at the journal Cognition. Interrupted time-series analyses indicated a substantial post-policy increase in data available statements (104/417, 25% pre-policy to 136/174, 78% post-policy), although not all data appeared reusable (23/104, 22% pre-policy to 85/136, 62%, post-policy). For 35 of the articles determined to have reusable data, we attempted to reproduce 1324 target values. Ultimately, 64 values could not be reproduced within a 10% margin of error. For 22 articles all target values were reproduced, but 11 of these required author assistance. For 13 articles at least one value could not be reproduced despite author assistance. Importantly, there were no clear indications that original conclusions were seriously impacted. Mandatory open data policies can increase the frequency and quality of data sharing. However, suboptimal data curation, unclear analysis specification and reporting errors can impede analytic reproducibility, undermining the utility of data sharing and the credibility of scientific findings.

    View details for PubMedID 30225032