Impact of a Social Marketing Intervention on General Practitioners' Antibiotic Prescribing Practices for Acute Respiratory Tract Complaints in Malta.
Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland)
2021; 10 (4)
Introduction: Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in primary care for acute respiratory tract complaints (aRTCs), often inappropriately. Social marketing interventions could improve prescribing in such settings. We evaluate the impact of a social marketing intervention on general practitioners' (GPs') antibiotic prescribing for aRTCs in Malta. Methods: Changes in GPs' antibiotic prescribing were monitored over two surveillance periods between 2015 and 2018. Primary outcome: change in antibiotic prescription for aRTCs. Secondary outcomes: change in antibiotic prescription: (i) for immediate use, (ii) for delayed antibiotic prescription, (iii) by diagnosis, and (iv) by antibiotic class. Data were analysed using clustered analysis and interrupted time series analysis (ITSA). Results: Of 33 participating GPs, 18 successfully completed the study. Although clustered analyses showed a significant 3% decrease in overall antibiotic prescription (p = 0.024), ITSA showed no significant change overall (p = 0.264). Antibiotic prescription decreased significantly for the common cold (p < 0.001), otitis media (p = 0.044), and sinusitis (p = 0.004), but increased for pharyngitis (p = 0.015). Conclusions: The intervention resulted in modest improvements in GPs' antibiotic prescribing. A more top-down approach will likely be required for future initiatives to be successful in this setting, focusing on diagnostic and prescribing support like rapid diagnostic testing, prescribing guidelines, and standardised delayed antibiotic prescriptions.
View details for DOI 10.3390/antibiotics10040371
View details for PubMedID 33807404
Barriers and facilitators to prudent antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections: A qualitative study with general practitioners in Malta.
2021; 16 (2): e0246782
Antibiotic resistance is a leading global public health concern and antibiotic use is a key driver. Effective interventions are needed to target key stakeholders, including general practitioners (GPs). In Malta, little is known about factors that influence GPs' antibiotic prescribing, making it challenging to implement targeted interventions. We therefore aimed to explore GPs' understanding of antibiotic use and resistance, and describe their perceived barriers and facilitators to prudent antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in Malta.Face-to-face individual semi-structured interviews were held with a quota sample of 20 GPs in 2014. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and later analysed iteratively using manifest and latent content analysis. Findings were collated in a socioecological model to depict how GPs as individuals are embedded within larger social systems and contexts, and how each component within this system impacts their prescribing behaviour.We found that GPs' antibiotic prescribing decisions are complex and impacted by numerous barriers and facilitators at the individual, interpersonal, organisational, community, and public policy level. Predominant factors found to impact GPs' antibiotic prescribing included not only intrinsic GP factors such as knowledge, awareness, experience, and misconceptions, but also several external factors. At the interpersonal level, GPs' perceived patient demand and behaviour to be a persistent issue that impacts their prescribing decisions. Similarly, some GPs found pressure from drug reps to be concerning despite being considered an important source of information. Organisational and public policy-level issues such as lack of access to relevant antibiotic prescribing guidelines and current antibiotic resistance data from the community, were also considered major barriers to appropriate antibiotic prescribing. Utilisation of diagnostic testing was found to be low and GPs' perceptions on the introduction of rapid point-of-care tests to support antibiotic prescription decisions, were mixed.This study revealed the complexity of the antibiotic prescribing decision and the numerous barriers and facilitators that impact it, visualised through a socioecological model. Addressing GPs' antibiotic prescribing practices will require targeted and coordinated implementation activities at all levels to change behaviour and address misconceptions, whilst also improving the physical and social environment.NCT03218930; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03218930.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0246782
View details for PubMedID 33571265
Accelerated launch of video visits in ambulatory neurology during COVID-19: Key lessons from the Stanford experience.
The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly moved telemedicine from discretionary to necessary. Here we describe how the Stanford Neurology Department: 1) rapidly adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in over 1000 video visits within four weeks and 2) accelerated an existing quality improvement plan of a tiered roll out of video visits for ambulatory neurology to a full-scale roll out. Key issues we encountered and addressed were related to: equipment/software, provider engagement, workflow/triage, and training. Upon reflection, the key drivers of our success were provider engagement and a supportive physician champion. The physician champion played a critical role understanding stakeholder needs, including staff and physicians' needs, and creating workflows to coordinate both stakeholder groups. Prior to COVID-19, physician interest in telemedicine was mixed. However, in response to county and state stay-at-home orders related to COVID-19, physician engagement changed completely; all providers wanted to convert a majority of visits to video visits as quickly as possible. Rapid deployment of neurology video visits across all its subspecialties is feasible. Our experience and lessons learned can facilitate broader utilization, acceptance, and normalization of video visits for neurology patients in the present as well as the much anticipated post-pandemic era.
View details for DOI 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010015
View details for PubMedID 32611634
Rapid Deployment of Inpatient Telemedicine In Response to COVID-19 Across Three Health Systems.
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA
To reduce pathogen exposure, conserve personal protective equipment, and facilitate health care personnel work participation in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, three affiliated institutions rapidly and independently deployed inpatient telemedicine programs during March 2020. We describe key features and early learnings of these programs in the hospital setting.Relevant clinical and operational leadership from an academic medical center, pediatric teaching hospital, and safety net county health system met to share learnings shortly after deploying inpatient telemedicine. A summative analysis of their learnings was re-circulated for approval.All three institutions faced pressure to urgently standup new telemedicine systems while still maintaining secure information exchange. Differences across patient demographics and technological capabilities led to variation in solution design, though key technical considerations were similar. Rapid deployment in each system relied on readily available consumer-grade technology, given the existing familiarity to patients and clinicians and minimal infrastructure investment. Preliminary data from the academic medical center over one month suggested positive adoption with 631 inpatient video calls lasting an average (standard deviation) of 16.5 minutes (19.6) based on inclusion criteria.The threat of an imminent surge of COVID-19 patients drove three institutions to rapidly develop inpatient telemedicine solutions. Concurrently, federal and state regulators temporarily relaxed restrictions that would have previously limited these efforts. Strategic direction from executive leadership, leveraging off-the-shelf hardware, vendor engagement, and clinical workflow integration facilitated rapid deployment.The rapid deployment of inpatient telemedicine is feasible across diverse settings as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
View details for DOI 10.1093/jamia/ocaa077
View details for PubMedID 32495830
Rapid implementation of video visits in neurology during COVID-19: a mixed methods evaluation.
Journal of medical Internet research
Telemedicine has been used for decades; yet, despite its many advantages, its uptake and rigorous evaluation of feasibility across neurology's ambulatory subspecialties has been sparse. The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic however, prompted healthcare systems worldwide to reconsider traditional healthcare delivery. To safeguard healthcare workers and patients many healthcare systems quickly transitioned to telemedicine, including across neurology subspecialties, providing a new opportunity to evaluate this modality of care.To evaluate the accelerated implementation of video visits in ambulatory neurology during the COVID-19 pandemic, we used mixed methods to assess the adoption, acceptability, appropriateness, and perceptions of potential sustainability.Video visits were launched rapidly in ambulatory neurology clinics of a large academic medical center. To assess adoption, we analyzed clinician-level scheduling data collected between March 22 and May 16, 2020. We assessed acceptability, appropriateness, and sustainability via a clinician survey (n=48) and semi-structured interviews with providers (n=30) completed between March and May 2020.Video visits were adopted rapidly; 65 (98%) clinicians integrated video visits into their workflow within the first 6 implementation weeks and 92% of all visits were conducted via video. Video visits were largely considered acceptable by clinicians, although various technological issues impacted satisfaction. Video visits were reported to be more convenient for patients, families, and/or caregivers than in-person visits; however, access to technology, the patient's technological capacity, and language difficulties were considered barriers. Many clinicians expressed optimism about future utilization of video visits in neurology. They believed that video visits promote continuity of care and can be incorporated into their practice long-term, although several insisted that they can never replace the in-person examination.Video visits are an important addition to clinical care in ambulatory neurology and are anticipated to remain a permanent supplement to in-person visits, promoting patient care continuity, and flexibility for patients and clinicians alike.
View details for DOI 10.2196/24328
View details for PubMedID 33245699
Factors associated with antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute respiratory tract complaints in Malta: a 1-year repeated cross-sectional surveillance study.
2019; 9 (12): e032704
To identify factors that influence general practitioners' (GPs') oral antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract complaints (aRTCs) in Malta.Repeated, cross-sectional surveillance.Maltese general practice; both public health centres and private GP clinics.30 GPs registered on the Malta Medical Council's Specialist Register and 3 GP trainees registered data of 4831 patients of all ages suffering from any aRTC. Data were collected monthly between May 2015 and April 2016 during predetermined 1-week periods.The outcome of interest was antibiotic prescription (yes/no), defined as an oral antibiotic prescription issued for an aRTC during an in-person consultation, irrespective of the number of antibiotics given. The association between GP, practice and consultation-level factors, patient sociodemographic factors and patient health status factors, and antibiotic prescription was investigated.The antibiotic prescription rate was 45.0%. Independent factors positively associated with antibiotic prescribing included female GP sex (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.22 to 4.26), GP age with GPs ≥60 being the most likely (OR 34.7, 95% CI 14.14 to 84.98), patient age with patients ≥65 being the most likely (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.71 to 3.18), number of signs and/or symptoms with patients having ≥4 being the most likely (OR 9.6, 95% CI 5.78 to 15.99), fever (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.08 to 3.26), productive cough (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.61), otalgia (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.76), tender cervical nodes (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.57 to 3.05), regular clients (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.66), antibiotic requests (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.52 to 8.99) and smoking (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.71). Conversely, patients with non-productive cough (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.41), sore throat (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.78), rhinorrhoea (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.36) or dyspnoea (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.83) were less likely to receive an antibiotic prescription.Antibiotic prescribing for aRTCs was high and influenced by a number of factors. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in primary care can be addressed through multifaceted interventions addressing modifiable factors associated with prescription.NCT03218930.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032704
View details for PubMedID 31857311
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6937012
General practitioners' perceptions of delayed antibiotic prescription for respiratory tract infections: A phenomenographic study.
2019; 14 (11): e0225506
Antibiotic use is a major driver of antibiotic resistance. Although delayed antibiotic prescription is a recommended strategy to reduce antibiotic use, practices vary; it appears less commonly used in southern European countries where antibiotic consumption is highest. Despite these variations, few qualitative studies have explored general practitioners' perceptions of delayed antibiotic prescription. We therefore aimed to explore and describe the perceptions of delayed antibiotic prescription for respiratory tract infections among general practitioners in Malta.This qualitative phenomenographic study was conducted in Malta. A semi-structured interview guide was developed in English, pilot tested and revised accordingly. Interview topics included views on antibiotic resistance, antibiotic use and delayed antibiotic prescription for respiratory tract infections, and barriers and facilitators to antibiotic prescription. Individual, face-to-face interviews were held in 2014 with a quota sample of 20 general practitioners and transcribed verbatim. Data were subsequently analysed using a phenomenographic approach.General practitioners perceived delayed antibiotic prescription in five qualitatively different ways: (A) "The Service Provider"-maintaining a good general practitioner-patient relationship to retain patients and avoid doctor-shopping, (B) "The Uncertainty Avoider"-reaching a compromise and providing treatment just in case, (C) "The Comforter"-providing the patient comfort and reassurance, (D) "The Conscientious Practitioner"-empowering and educating patients, and limiting antibiotic use, and (E) "The Holder of Professional Power"-retaining general practitioner responsibility by employing a wait-and-see approach. Although general practitioners were largely positive towards delayed antibiotic prescription, not all supported the strategy; some preferred a wait-and-see approach with follow-up. Many delayed antibiotic prescription users selectively practiced delayed prescription with patients they trusted or who they believed had a certain level of knowledge and understanding. They also preferred a patient-led approach with a one to three day delay; post-dating delayed antibiotic prescriptions was uncommon.In this study we have shown that general practitioners hold varying perceptions about delayed antibiotic prescription and that there is variation in the way delayed antibiotic prescription is employed in Malta. Whilst delayed antibiotic prescription is utilised in Malta, not all general practitioners support the strategy, and motivations and practices differ. In high consumption settings, formal and standardised implementation of delayed antibiotic prescription could help curb antibiotic overuse. Diagnosis-specific delayed antibiotic prescription recommendations should also be incorporated into guidelines. Finally, further investigation into patients' and pharmacists' views on delayed antibiotic prescription is required.NCT03218930.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0225506
View details for PubMedID 31756197
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6874332
Antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract complaints in Malta: a 1 year repeated cross-sectional surveillance study.
The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
2019; 74 (4): 1116–24
To determine the 1 year antibiotic prescribing patterns by GPs for acute respiratory tract complaints (aRTCs) in Malta.In this repeated cross-sectional surveillance study, GPs collected data for patients seen for aRTCs during a designated 1 week period each month, between May 2015 and April 2016. GPs received three text reminders during surveillance weeks and were contacted by phone at most four times during the year. GPs also received 3 monthly individual- and aggregate-level feedback reports on their antibiotic prescribing patterns. Descriptive statistics were used to examine patient, consultation and clinical characteristics, and to describe GPs' prescribing patterns.Participating GPs (n = 33) registered 4641 patients with an aRTC, of whom 2122 (45.7%) received an antibiotic prescription. The majority (99.6%) of antibiotics prescribed were broad-spectrum and the most commonly prescribed antibiotics were macrolides (35.5%), followed by penicillins with a β-lactamase inhibitor (33.2%) and second-generation cephalosporins (14.2%). Specifically, co-amoxiclav (33.2%), clarithromycin (19.6%), azithromycin (15.1%) and cefuroxime axetil (10.9%) represented 78.8% of all antibiotics prescribed. Patients with tonsillar exudate (99.1%), purulent sputum (84%), otorrhoea (78%), tender cervical nodes (74.4%) and fever (73.1%) received most antibiotics. The diagnoses that received the highest proportion of antibiotic treatment were tonsillitis (96.3%), otitis media (92.5%) and bronchitis (87.5%). Wide variation in the choice of antibiotic class by diagnosis was observed.GP antibiotic prescribing in Malta is high. The abundant use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly macrolides, is of particular concern and indicates that antibiotics are being used inappropriately. Efforts must be made to improve GP awareness of appropriate antibiotic prescribing.
View details for DOI 10.1093/jac/dky544
View details for PubMedID 30624733
Maltese Antibiotic Stewardship Programme in the Community (MASPIC): protocol of a prospective quasiexperimental social marketing intervention.
2017; 7 (9): e017992
Antibiotic misuse is a key driver of antibiotic resistance. In 2015/2016, Maltese respondents reported the highest proportions of antibiotic consumption in Europe. Since antibiotics are prescription-only medicines in Malta, research on effective strategies targeting general practitioners' (GPs) knowledge and behaviour is needed. Multifaceted behaviour change (BC) interventions are likely to be effective. Social marketing (SM) can provide the tools to promote sustained BC; however, its utilisation in Europe is limited. This paper aims to describe the design and methods of a multifaceted SM intervention aimed at changing Maltese GPs' antibiotic prescribing behaviour for patients with acute respiratory tract infections (aRTIs).This 4-year quasiexperimental intervention study will be carried out in Malta and includes three phases: preintervention, intervention and postintervention. The preintervention phase intends to gain insight into the practices and attitudes of GPs, pharmacists and parents through interviews, focus group discussions and antibiotic prescribing surveillance. A 6-month intervention targeting GPs will be implemented following assessment of their prescribing intention and readiness for BC. The intervention will likely comprise: prescribing guidelines, patient educational materials, delayed antibiotic prescriptions and GP education. Outcomes will be evaluated in the postintervention phase through questionnaires based on the theory of planned behaviour and stages-of-change theory, as well as postintervention surveillance. The primary outcome will be the antibiotic prescribing rate for all patients with aRTIs. Secondary outcomes will include the proportion of diagnosis-specific antibiotic prescription and symptomatic relief medication prescribed, and the change in GPs stage-of-change and their intention to prescribe antibiotics.The project received ethical approval from the University of Malta's Research Ethics Committee. Should this intervention successfully decrease antibiotic prescribing, it may be scaled up locally and transferred to similar settings.NCT03218930; Pre-results.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017992
View details for PubMedID 28947463
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5623537
Incidence and factors associated with surgical site infections in a teaching hospital in Ujjain, India.
American journal of infection control
2014; 42 (1): e11–5
Surgical site infections (SSI) are among the most commonly reported health care-associated infections; however, there is a paucity of data on SSI from India. This study aimed to determine the incidence of SSI and explore its associated factors at a teaching hospital in India.Direct and indirect surveillance methods, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, were used to define SSI. Patients were followed up for 30 days postsurgery. Prescribing and resistance data were collected.The SSI rate among the 720 patients investigated was 5%. Risk factors for SSI identified were as follows: severity of disease (P = .001), presence of drains (P = .020), history of previous hospitalization (P = .003), preoperative stay (P = .005), wound classification (P < .001), and surgical duration (P < .001). Independent risk factors identified included wound classification (odds ratio = 4.525; P < .001) and surgical duration (odds ratio = 2.554; P = .015). Most patients (99%) were prescribed antibiotics. Metronidazole (24.5%), ciprofloxacin (11%), and amikacin (9%) were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics. Most commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 14), of which 34% were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 6), which showed resistance to ceftazidime (70%), ciprofloxacin (63%), and gentamicin (57%).Incidence of SSI at the hospital was lower than reported in many low- and middle-income countries, although higher than reported in most high-income countries. Targeted implementation strategies to decrease incidence of preventable SSI are needed to further improve quality and safety of health care in this hospital and similar hospitals elsewhere.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.06.013
View details for PubMedID 24268969