All Publications

  • Improving tracheostomy delivery for trauma and surgical critical care patients: timely trach initiative. BMJ open quality McShane, E. K., Sun, B. J., Maggio, P. M., Spain, D. A., Forrester, J. D. 2022; 11 (2)


    BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is recommended within 7days of intubation for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) or requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. A quality improvement project aimed to decrease time to tracheostomy to ≤7days after intubation for eligible patients requiring tracheostomy in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU).LOCAL PROBLEM: From January 2017 to June 2018, approximately 85% of tracheostomies were performed >7days after intubation. The tracheostomy was placed a median of 10 days after intubation (range: 1-57).METHODS: Quality improvement principles were applied at an American College of Surgeons-verified level I trauma centre to introduce and analyse interventions to improve tracheostomy timing. Using the electronic health record, we analysed changes in tracheostomy timing, hospital length of stay (LOS), ventilator-associated pneumonia and peristomal bleeding rates for three subgroups: patients with TBI, trauma patients and all SICU patients.INTERVENTIONS: In July 2018, an educational roll-out for SICU residents and staff was launched to inform them of potential benefits of early tracheostomy and potential complications, which they should discuss when counselling patient decision-makers. In July 2019, an early tracheostomy workflow targeting patients with head injury was published in an institutional Trauma Guide app.RESULTS: Median time from intubation to tracheostomy decreased for all patients from 14 days (range: 4-57) to 8days (range: 1-32, p≤0.001), and median hospital LOS decreased from 38 days to 24 days (p<0.001, r=0.35). Median time to tracheostomy decreased significantly for trauma patients after publication of the algorithm (10 days (range: 3-21days) to 6days (range: 1-15days), p=0.03). Among patients with TBI, family meetings were held earlier for patients who underwent early versus late tracheostomy (p=0.008).CONCLUSIONS: We recommend regular educational meetings, enhanced by digitally published guidelines and strategic communication as effective ways to improve tracheostomy timing. These interventions standardised practice and may benefit other institutions.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001589

    View details for PubMedID 35551095

  • Descriptive Study of Employee Engagement With Workplace Wellness Interventions in the UK. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine Mulaney, B., Bromley-Dulfano, R., McShane, E. K., Stepanek, M., Singer, S. J. 2021; 63 (9): 719-730


    OBJECTIVE: To explore sequential steps of employee engagement in wellness interventions and the impact of wellness interventions on employee health.METHODS: Using previously collected survey data from 23,667 UK employees, we tabulated intervention availability, awareness, participation, and associated health improvement and compared engagement by participation and risk status.RESULTS: Employees' awareness of wellness interventions at their workplaces was often low (mean 43.3%, range 11.6%-82.3%). Participation was highest in diet/nutrition initiatives (94.2%) and lowest in alcohol counseling and smoking cessation interventions (2.1%). Employees with health risks were less likely than lower-risk employees to report awareness, participation, and health improvements from wellness interventions addressing the relevant health concern.CONCLUSION: Employers and policymakers should consider variation in intervention engagement as they plan and implement wellness interventions. Engaging employee populations with higher health risks requires a more targeted approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JOM.0000000000002219

    View details for PubMedID 34491963

  • Adult residual rectourethral fistula and diverticulum presenting decades after imperforate anus repair: acase report. Journal of medical case reports McShane, E. K., Gurland, B., Sheth, V. R., Bruzoni, M., Enemchukwu, E. 2021; 15 (1): 370


    BACKGROUND: This report describes a rare surgical case of an intraabdominal mass in a middle-aged patient 40years after imperforate anus repair.CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year-old Latino male with history of repaired anorectal malformation presented with recurrent urinary tract infections and rectal prolapse with bothersome bleeding and fecal incontinence. During his preoperative evaluation, he was initially diagnosed with a prostatic utricle cyst on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging findings, which demonstrated a cystic, thick-walled mass with low signal contents that extended inferiorly to insert into the distal prostatic urethra. However, at the time of surgical resection, the thick-walled structure contained an old, firm fecaloma. The final pathology report described findings consistent with colonic tissue, suggesting a retained remnant of the original fistula and diverticulum.CONCLUSIONS: Although rare, persistent rectourethral fistula tracts and rectal diverticula after imperforate anus repair can cause symptoms decades later, requiring surgical intervention. This is an important diagnostic consideration for any adult patient with history of imperforate anus.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13256-021-02921-3

    View details for PubMedID 34261520

  • Structural mimicry drives HIV-1 Rev-mediated HERV-K expression. Journal of molecular biology O'Carroll, I. P., Fan, L., Kroupa, T., McShane, E. K., Theodore, C., Yates, E. A., Kondrup, B., Ding, J., Martin, T. S., Rein, A., Wang, Y. 2020


    Expression of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type K (HERV-K), the youngest and most active HERV, has been associated with various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. As in all retroviruses, a fraction of HERV-K transcripts is exported from the nucleus in unspliced or incompletely spliced forms to serve as templates for translation of viral proteins. In a fraction of HERV-K loci (Type 2 proviruses), nuclear export of the unspliced HERV-K mRNA appears to be mediated by a cis-acting signal on the mRNA, the RcRE, and the protein Rec-these are analogous to the RRE-Rev system in HIV-1. Interestingly, the HIV-1 Rev protein is able to mediate the nuclear export of the HERV-K RcRE, contributing to elevated HERV-K expression in HIV-infected patients. We aimed to understand the structural basis for HIV Rev-HERV-K RcRE recognition. We examined the conformation of the RcRE RNA in solution using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that the 433-nt long RcRE can assume folded or extended conformations as observed by AFM. SAXS analysis of a truncated RcRE variant revealed an "A"-shaped topological structure similar to the one previously reported for the HIV-1 RRE. The effect of the overall topology was examined using several deletion variants. SAXS and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the "A" shape is necessary for efficient Rev-RcRE complex formation in vitro and nuclear export activity in cell culture. The findings provide insight into the mechanism of HERV-K expression and a structural explanation for HIV-1 Rev-mediated expression of HERV-K in HIV-infected patients. Importance Expression of the human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) has been associated with various cancers and autoimmune diseases. Nuclear export of both HIV-1 and HERV-K mRNAs is dependent on the interaction between a small viral protein (Rev in HIV-1 and Rec in HERV-K) and a region on the mRNA (RRE in HIV-1 and RcRE in HERV-K). HIV-1 Rev is able to mediate the nuclear export of RcRE-containing HERV-K mRNAs, which contributes to elevated production of HERV-K proteins in HIV-infected patients. We report the solution conformation of the RcRE RNA-the first three-dimensional topological structure for a HERV molecule-and find that the RcRE resembles the HIV-1 nuclear export signal, RRE. The finding reveals the structural basis for the increased HERV-K expression observed in HIV-infected patients. Elevated HERV expression, mediated by HIV infection or other stressors, can have various HERV-related biological consequences. The findings provide structural insight for regulation of HERV-K expression.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jmb.2020.11.010

    View details for PubMedID 33197463